Organizational Behavior Chapter 2: The Individual- - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Organizational Behavior Chapter 2: The Individual- PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 671b3a-NjQ2Y


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Organizational Behavior Chapter 2: The Individual-


Organizational Behavior Chapter 2: The Individual-The Foundation of Individual Behavior OB application of Perception (cont d) Performance Evaluations Appraisals are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:139
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 38
Provided by: Megh72
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Organizational Behavior Chapter 2: The Individual-

Organizational Behavior Chapter 2The
  • The Foundation of Individual Behavior

Chapter Learning Objectives
  • After studying this chapter you should be able
  • Explain the NINE different variables affecting
    Individual Behaviour
  • Describe the THREE different Biographical
  • Factors which comprise an Individual's Ability
  • Discuss the THREE theories which explain the
    process of Learning
  • Explain TWO types of Values

Chapter Learning Objectives contd.
  • After studying this chapter you should be able
  • Explain the THREE components of Attitudes
  • Discuss the major Personality attributes
  • Explain the application of Emotions in
    Organizational Behaviour
  • Explain the meaning of Perception and
    Individual-decision making

The Foundation of Individual Behavior
  • The behavior of individual is affected by
    different variables explained below
  • Biographical Characteristics
  • Ability
  • Learning
  • Values
  • Attitudes
  • Personality
  • Emotions
  • Perception
  • Perception and Individual Decision Making

Biographical characteristics
  • Biographical Characteristics This include data
    that can be obtained, simply from information
    available in an employee's personnel file such
    as an employee's

Biographical Characteristics
Biographical characteristics
  • Age
  • Job performance and age Positive factors
    attributed are experience, judgement. Negative
    factors are lack of flexibility and resistance to
    new technology.
  • Age-turnover Older workers are less likely to
  • Age- absenteeism Older workers have lower rates
    of avoidable absences than younger employees

Biographical characteristics
  • Agecontd
  • Age- productivity Research conclusions no
    impact on productivity
  • Age-job satisfaction Positive association
    between age and satisfaction at least up to age 60

Biographical characteristics
  • Gender Women are actively participating in the
    workforce ,so there is no longer a misconception
    of their abilities as compared with men.
  • Tenure Expressed as work experience.
  • Positive relationship between seniority and job
  • Tenure and job satisfaction also positively

  • Ability -An individuals capacity to perform the
    various tasks in a job. It is made up of 2
  • Intellectual abilities are those needed to
    perform mental activities for thinking,
    reasoning, and problem solving.
  • Physical abilities Needed in the jobs which
    demands stamina, manual dexterity, leg strength

  • The Ability-Job Fit Employee performance is
    enhanced when there is a high ability-job fit,
    i.e. the specific intellectual or physical
    abilities required for adequate job performance
  • Example-
  • Airline pilots need strong spatial-visualisation

Learning Any relatively permanent change in
behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  • Learning
  • Involves change
  • Is relatively permanent
  • Is acquired through experience

  • Three theories have been offered to explain the
    process by which we acquire patterns of behavior.
    These are
  • Classical conditioning,
  • Operant conditioning, and
  • Social learning.

Theories of Learning
Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in
which an individual responds to some stimulus
that would not ordinarily produce such a response.
  • Key Concepts
  • Unconditioned stimulus
  • Unconditioned response
  • Conditioned stimulus
  • Conditioned response

Classical conditioning key concepts
  • The meat was an unconditioned stimulus it
    invariably caused the dog to react in a specific
  • The reaction that took place whenever the
    unconditioned stimulus occurred was called the
    unconditioned response (or the noticeable
    increase in salivation, in this case).
  • The bell was an artificial stimulus, or what we
    call the conditioned stimulus. Although it was
    originally neutral, after the bell was paired
    with the meat (an unconditioned stimulus), it
    eventually produced a response when presented
  • The last key concept is the conditioned response.
    This describes the behavior of the dog it
    salivated in reaction to the bell alone.

Theories of Learning (contd.)
  • Operant conditioning This theory argues that
    behaviour is a function of its consequences.
  • People learn to behave to get something they want
    or to avoid something they dont want
  • Skinner argued that creating pleasing
    consequences to follow specific norms of
    behaviour would increase the frequency of that
    behaviour. Behaviour that is not rewarded, or is
    punished, is less likely to be repeated.

Theories of Learning (contd)
Social-Learning Theory People can learn through
observation and direct experience.
  • Key Concepts
  • Attentional processes
  • Retention processes
  • Motor reproduction processes
  • Reinforcement processes

  • Social Learning contd Four processes have been
    found to determine the influence that a model
    will have on an individual.
  • Attentional processes. We tend to be most
    influenced by models that are attractive,
    repeatedly available, important to us, or similar
    to us in our estimation.
  • Retention processes. A model's influence will
    depend on how well the individual remembers the
    model's action after the model is no longer
    readily available.
  • Motor reproduction processes. After a person has
    seen a new behavior by observing the model, the
    watching must be converted to doing.
  • Reinforcement processes. Individuals will be
    motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if
    positive incentives or rewards are provided.
    Behaviors that are positively reinforced will be
    given more attention, learned better, and
    performed more often.

OB Applications of Learning
  • Well Pay versus Sick leave
  • Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not
  • Developing Training Programs
  • improve training effectiveness.

  • Values They contain a judgmental element in
    that they carry an individual's ideas as to what
    is right, good, or desirable. There are two sets
    of values,
  • Terminal values, refers to desirable end-states.
    These are the goals that a person would like to
    achieve during his or her lifetime. e.g. (A
    comfortable life)
  • Instrumental values, refers to preferable modes
    of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal
    values e.g. (Ambitious, Broad-minded, Capable)

Cognitive componentThe opinion or belief segment
of an attitude.
Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments
concerning objects, people, or events.
Affective ComponentThe emotional or feeling
segment of an attitude.
Behavioral ComponentAn intention to behave in a
certain way toward someone or something.
OB applications of Attitudes
  • Attitudes OB focuses on work related
    attitudes. Most of the research in OB has been
    concerned with three attitudesTypes of
  • Job Satisfaction collection of feelings that an
    individual holds toward his or her job.
  • Job Involvement degree to which a person
    identifies psychologically with his or her job
  • Organizational/occupational Commitment employee
    identifies with a particular organization and its
    goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the

OB applications of Attitudes (contd.)
  • Effect of Job satisfaction on employee
  • Satisfaction and Productivity
  • Worker productivity is higher in organizations
    with more satisfied workers.
  • Satisfaction and Absenteeism
  • Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable

What is Personality?
Personality The sum total of ways in which an
individual reacts and interacts with others.
Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that
describe an individuals behavior.
  • Personality
  • Determinants
  • Heredity
  • Environment
  • Situation

The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions
ExtroversionSociable, gregarious, and assertive
AgreeablenessGood-natured, cooperative, and
ConscientiousnessResponsible, dependable,
persistent, and organized.
Emotional StabilityCalm, self-confident, secure
(positive) versus nervous, depressed, and
insecure (negative).
Openness to ExperienceImaginativeness, artistic,
sensitivity, and intellectualism.
Personality Attributes influencing OB
  • Locus of control
  • Self-esteem,
  • Self-monitoring,
  • Propensity for risk taking,
  • Proactive personalities

Personality Attributes influencing OB(contd)
  • Locus of control A person's perception of the
    source of his or her fate.
  • There are two classifications in this
  • Internals People who believe that they are
    masters of their own fate.
  • Externals People who believe that what happens
    to them is due to luck or chance.

Personality Attributes influencing OB (contd.)
  • Self-Esteem People differ in the degree to which
    they like or dislike themselves. This trait is
    called self-esteem.
  • Self-monitoring A trait that measures an
    individuals ability to adjust his or her
    behaviour to external, situational factors.

Personality Attributes influencing OB(contd)
  • Propensity for risk taking People differ in
    their willingness to take chances
  • Proactive personalities Proactive identify
    opportunities, show initiative, take action, and
    persevere until meaningful change occurs.

  • Emotions are intense feelings that are directed
    at someone or something.
  • Application of emotions in OB are as under
  • Ability and Selection
  • Decision Making
  • Motivation
  • Leadership
  • Interpersonal Conflict
  • Customer Service
  • Deviant Workplace Behaviors

OB Applications of Understanding Emotions
  • Ability and Selection
  • Emotions affect employee effectiveness.
  • Decision Making
  • Emotions are an important part of the
    decision-making process in organizations.
  • Motivation
  • Emotional commitment to work and high motivation
    are strongly linked.

OB Applications of Understanding Emotions (contd)
  • Interpersonal Conflict
  • Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions
    are strongly intertwined.
  • Customer Services
  • Emotions affect service quality delivered to
    customers which, in turn, affects customer
  • Deviant Workplace Behaviors
  • Negative emotions lead to employee deviance
    (actions that violate norms and threaten the

  • Perception a process by which individuals
    organize and interpret their sensory impressions
    in order to give meaning to their environment.
  • Frequently used shortcuts in Judging others
  • Halo effect Drawing a general impression about
    an individual on the basis of a single
  • Projection Attributing ones own characteristics
    to other people
  • Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of
    ones perception of the group to which that
    person belongs.

OB application of Perception
  • Employment Interview
  • Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy
    of interviewers judgments of applicants.
  • Performance Expectations
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect) The
    lower or higher performance of employees reflects
    preconceived leader expectations about employee

OB application of Perception (contd)
  • Performance Evaluations
  • Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental)
    perceptions of appraisers of another employees
    job performance.
  • Employee Effort
  • Assessment of individual effort is a subjective
    judgment subject to perceptual distortion and

Decision Making
  • Decision making occurs as a reaction to a
  • Problem A discrepancy between some current
    state of affairs and some desired state
  • Decisions The choices made from among two or
    more alternatives

The Link Between Perceptions and Individual
Decision Making
ProblemA perceived discrepancy between the
current state of affairs and a desired state.
Perception of the decision maker
DecisionsChoices made from among alternatives
developed from data perceived as relevant.
Perception and Individual Decision Making
  • What can managers do to improve their decision
  • First, analyse the situation Organisations
    differ in terms of the importance they place on
    risk, use of groups and the like.
  • Second, be aware of biases try to minimise their
    impact example- anchoring bias
  • Third, combine rational analysis with intuition
  • Fourth, decision styles can be different for
    different jobs
  • Finally, enhance creativitynew solutions to
    problem solving