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Chapter 7 Attitudes


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Title: Chapter 7 Attitudes

Chapter 7Attitudes
By Michael R. Solomon
Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth
Opening Vignette Soccer
  • How do Jan and Terri differ in their attitudes
    toward soccer?
  • Jan and Nancy are both soccer fans. How are they
  • Which one of the three is the most likely target
    for ads promoting soccer?
  • Is Nancy likely to convert to become a soccer

The Power of Attitudes
  • Attitude
  • A lasting, general evaluation of people
    (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or
  • Anything toward which one has an attitude is
    called an object (Ao).
  • Attitudes are lasting because they tend to endure
    over time.

The Functions of Attitudes
  • Functional Theory of Attitudes
  • Attitudes exist because they serve some function
    for the person (i.e., they are determined by a
    persons motives)
  • Katzs Attitude Functions
  • Utilitarian function
  • Value-expressive function
  • Ego-defensive function
  • Knowledge function

Addressing Smoking Attitudes
  • This Norwegian ad addresses young peoples
    smoking attitudes by arousing strong negative
    feelings. The ad reads (left panel) Smokers are
    more sociable than others. (Right panel) While
    it lasts.

The ABC Model of Attitudes
  • Affect
  • The way a consumer feels about an attitude object
  • Behavior
  • Involves the persons intentions to do something
    with regard to an attitude object
  • Cognition
  • The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude
  • Hierarchy of Effects
  • A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to
    an attitude

Attitudes as ABC
cognitive information processing
behavioral learning process
hedonic consumption
Three Hierarchies of Effects
Figure 7.1
Attitude Hierarchies
  • The Standard Learning Hierarchy
  • Consumer approaches a product decision as a
    problem-solving process
  • The Low-Involvement Hierarchy
  • Consumer does not have strong initial preference
  • Consumer acts on limited knowledge
  • Consumer forms an evaluation only after product
  • The Experiential Hierarchy
  • Consumers act on the basis of their emotional

Experiential Hierarchy
  • Emotional Contagion
  • Emotions expressed by the communicator of a
    marketing message affect the attitude toward the
  • Cognitive-Affective Model
  • Argues that an affective judgment is the last
    step in a series of cognitive processes
  • Independence Hypothesis
  • Takes the position that affect and cognition
    involve two separate, independent systems

Smith and Wollensky
  • This ad for New Yorks famous Smith Wollensky
    restaurant emphasizes that marketers and others
    associated with a product or service are often
    more involved with it than are their consumers.

Product Attitudes Dont Tell the Whole Story
  • Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad)
  • A predisposition to respond in a favorable or
    unfavorable manner to a particular advertising
    stimulus during a particular exposure occasion
  • Ads Have Feelings Too
  • Three emotional dimensions
  • Pleasure, arousal, and intimidation
  • Specific types of feelings that can be generated
    by an ad
  • Upbeat feelings Amused, delighted, playful
  • Warm feelings Affectionate, contemplative,
  • Negative feelings Critical, defiant, offended

Discussion Question
  • Sexually suggestive scenes like the one depicted
    in this ad for Union Bay clothing can generate
    feelings that affect brand attitudes.
  • What specific types of feelings or responses can
    this type of advertisement elicit? How will this
    scene affect the attitude toward the ad?

Forming Attitudes
  • Not All Attitudes are Created Equal
  • Levels of Commitment to an Attitude The degree
    of commitment is related to the level of
    involvement with an attitude object
  • Compliance
  • Identification
  • Internalization
  • The Consistency Principle
  • Principle of Cognitive Consistency Consumers
    value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or
    behaviors to be consistent with other experiences

Levels of Attitudinal Commitment
  • By describing Cadillac as my company, the woman
    in this ad exhibits a high level of attitudinal
    commitment to her employer.

Forming Attitudes (cont.)
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony among Attitudes
  • Theory of Cognitive Dissonance When a person is
    confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes
    or behaviors, he or she will take action to
    reduce the dissonance by changing an attitude or
    modifying a behavior.
  • Self-Perception Theory
  • People maintain consistency by inferring that
    they must maintain a positive attitude toward a
    product they have bought or consumed
  • Foot-in-the-door technique
  • Sales strategy based on the observation that
    consumers will comply with a request if they have
    first agreed to comply with a smaller request

Attitudinal Commitment
  • This ad for a magazine illustrates that consumers
    often distort information so that it fits with
    what they already believe or think they know.

Social Judgment Theory
  • Social Judgment Theory
  • People assimilate new information about Aos
    based on what they already know or feel.
  • Attitudes of Acceptance and Rejection People
    differ in the information they find acceptable or
  • Assimilation effect Messages that fall within
    the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen as
    more consistent with ones position than they
    actually are
  • Contrast effect Messages falling within the
    latitude of rejection tend to be seen as being
    farther from ones position than they actually are

Balance Theory
  • Triad
  • An attitude structure consisting of three
  • (1) A person and his/her perceptions of
  • (2) an attitude object, and
  • (3) some other person or object
  • Unit relation
  • An element is seen as belonging to or being part
    of the other
  • Sentiment relation
  • Two elements are linked because one has expressed
    a preference for the other
  • Marketing Applications of Balance Theory
  • Celebrity endorsements

Alternative Routes to Restoring Balance in a
Figure 7.2
Discussion Question
  • Consumer researchers understand that consumers
    like to bask in the reflected glory of
    successful college athletic programs by wearing
    merchandise adorned with logos like the ones on
    the right.
  • How do the different attitude theories explain
    this consumer phenomenon?

Attitude Models
  • Attitude Models
  • Specify the different elements that might work
    together to influence peoples evaluations of
  • Multiattribute Models
  • Model that assumes a consumers Ao will depend on
    the beliefs he or she has about several
    attributes toward the object
  • Multiattribute Models Specify 3 Elements
  • Attributes
  • Beliefs
  • Importance Weights

Attitude Models
  • Choosing products
  • We often choose products because of their
    association with a certain lifestyle.
  • Goal of Lifestyle Marketing
  • To allow consumers to pursue their chosen ways to
    enjoy life and express their social identities.
  • Adopting Lifestyle Marketing
  • Implies that we must look at patterns of behavior
    to understand consumers

The Fishbein Model (Theory of Planned Behavior)
  • Measures 3 components of attitude
  • (1) Salient Beliefs
  • (2) Object-attribute linkages
  • (3) Evaluation
  • Assumptions of the Fishbein Model
  • Ability to specify all relevant choice attributes
  • Identification, weight, and summing of attributes
  • Affect referral
  • A process by which a consumers overall attitude
    is formed by an overall affective response

The Fishbein Equation
  • The Basic Formula
  • Aijk SßijkIik
  • Where
  • i attribute
  • j brand
  • k consumer
  • I the importance weight given attribute I by
    consumer k
  • ß consumer ks belief regarding the extent to
    which brand j possesses attribute I
  • A a particular consumers (ks) attitude score
    for brand j

Multi Attribute Models TPB
Fishbein Ajzen model (theory of planned
Theory of Planned Behavior
attitude to quitting smoking
intention to quit smoking
attempts to quit smoking
confidence about quitting smoking
previous attempts at quitting smoking
Co-efficients relating attitude, confidence and
previous attempts to intention and later quitting
smoking Sutton et al 1986, in East
The Basic Multiattribute Model
Strategic Applications of the Multiattribute Model
  • Capitalize on Relative Advantage
  • Strengthen Perceived Product/Attribute Linkages
  • Add a New Attribute
  • Influence Competitors Ratings

Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior
  • In many cases, knowledge of a persons attitude
    is not a very good predictor of behavior
  • Questionable link between attitude and behavior
  • Consumers love a commercial, but dont buy the
  • The Extended Fishbein Model
  • Called the Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Contains several important additions to the
    original, which improve its ability to predict

The Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Intentions Versus Behavior
  • Social Pressure
  • Subjective Norm (SN)
  • Normative Belief (NB) Belief that others believe
    an action should or should not be taken
  • Motivation to Comply (MC) Degree to which
    consumers take into account anticipated reactions
  • Attitude Toward Buying
  • Attitude toward the act of buying (Aact)
  • How someone feels about buying due to the
    perceived consequences of a purchase

Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of
Reasoned Action
  • Model is misapplied
  • Other obstacles
  • Model deals with actual behavior, not outcomes
  • Some outcomes are beyond the consumers control
  • The assumption of behavior as intentional may be
    invalid in some cases
  • Attitude measures dont correspond to the
    behavior they are supposed to predict
  • Too large a time frame between attitude measure
    and behavior measure
  • Attitude accessibility perspective
  • Behavior is a function of the persons immediate
    perceptions of the Ao

Cultural Roadblocks to the Theory of Reasoned
  • Roadblocks that diminish the universality of the
  • Model was designed to predict voluntary acts
  • The relative impact of subject norms varies
    across cultures
  • The model assumes that consumers are actively
    thinking ahead and planning behaviors
  • A consumer that forms an intention claims that he
    or she is in control of his or her actions

Trying to Consume
  • Theory of Trying to Consume
  • States that the criterion of behavior in the
    reasoned action model should be replaced with
    trying to reach a goal
  • Sample issues that might be addressed
  • Past frequency
  • Recency
  • Beliefs
  • Evaluations of consequences
  • The process
  • Expectations of success and failure
  • Subjective norms toward trying

Theory of Trying (TT)
Figure 7.3
Tracking Attitudes over Time
  • Attitude-tracking program
  • An single-attitude survey is a snapshot in time
  • A program allows researchers to analyze attitude
    trends during an extended period of time
  • Ongoing Tracking Studies
  • Attitude tracking involves administration of a
    survey at regular intervals (e.g. Gallup Poll,
    Yankelovich Monitor)
  • This activity is valuable for making strategic

Attitude Changes over Time
  • Changes to Look for over Time
  • Changes in different age groups
  • Attitudes change with age
  • Historical effects
  • Scenarios about the future
  • Consumers tracked in terms of future plans,
    confidence in economy, and so on
  • Identification of change agents
  • Social phenomena can alter peoples attitudes

Changing Attitudes
Percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who agree We
must take radical action to cut down on how we
use our cars.
Figure 7.4
Attitude Measurements
  • playing the National Lottery is
  • if I play the National Lottery I will win (belief
    - perceived likelihood)
  • winning the National Lottery is (evaluation

bad -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 good
unlikely -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 likely
bad -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 good
Attitude Measurements
  • I intend to play the National Lottery next week
    (behavioral intention)
  • my friends this I should play the National
    Lottery (normative belief)
  • I do what my friend think I should do (motivation
    to comply)

unlikely -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 likely
unlikely -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 likely
unlikely -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 likely
Attitude Measurements
  • I can play the National Lottery more easily if I
    understand the system (action)
  • I understand the system for playing the National
    Lottery (control)

unlikely -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 likely
unlikely -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 likely
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