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Title: Chapter 3: Persecution of


1
Chapter 3 Persecution of The Way
  • HISTORY OF THE CHURCH

2
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Read aloud the section Mad Caligula (p. 98),
    and then discuss Emperor Nero.

3
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What was the nature of the first Roman
    persecutions?
  • What persecutions did Christians face under
    Domitian?
  • KEY IDEAS
  • Emperor Nero launched a brutal persecution of
    Christians, scapegoating them for the burning of
    Rome, for which he himself was rumored to have
    been responsible.
  • Emperor Domitian persecuted Christians, and Roman
    officials permitted mobs to attack them.

4
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • In the beginning, what did the Roman rulers
    consider the Christians to be?
  • They considered the Christians to be a small sect
    of schismatic Jews.
  •  
  • What actions show Neros evil character even
    before his persecution of the Christians?
  • He murdered his mother renounced and slandered
    his wife before having her beheaded and forced
    Seneca, the noble statesman, to commit suicide.
  •  
  • How is Emperor Nero depicted in his sculpture
    with Seneca (cf. p. 96)?
  • Nero is portrayed as a youth, strong physically,
    handsome, and dressed elegantly. At the same time
    he is slouching in his throne and looking down
    arrogantly at Seneca, his teacher.

5
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share on the two paragraphs
    Early on the night and The middle and lower
    (p. 96) using the following question
  • Why was Rome, and ancient cities in general,
    particularly susceptible to fire?

6
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why is it thought that Nero had set the fire that
    destroyed much of Rome?
  • Nero intended to seize private property in the
    center of Rome to build himself a new palace.
    Nero was rumored to have set the fire to clear
    the buildings.
  •  
  • Why did Nero blame the Christians of Rome for the
    fire?
  • Nero wanted to remove suspicion from himself. He
    arrested and tortured several Christians,
    extracted forced confessions from them, and then
    ordered a large number of Christians arrested.

7
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What did Nero do to Christians during the first
    persecution?
  • This first persecution, which took place in the
    City of Rome, was brutal. Christians were sewn
    into animal skins so huge that hungry dogs would
    devour them. He had hundreds of live Christians
    coated with pitch and resin and burned as human
    torches to light his way as he passed through his
    gardens and along the streets at night.

8
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table about the Jewish and Roman persecutions of
    Christians.

9
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
10
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Describe Caligulas family life.
  • Caligulas mother and brothers were butchered
    when he was a teenager. He committed incest with
    three of his sisters.
  •  
  • How could Caligula be described as sadistic?
  • Caligula sexually abused men, women, children,
    and babies. He delighted in watching torture and
    executions.
  •  
  • What was Caligulas fate?
  • Caligula was murdered by two of his guards, who
    then killed the rest of his family.

11
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What was Neros principle for dealing with
    Christians?
  • Neros principle was Christiani non sunt Let the
    Christians be exterminated.
  •  
  • How is it known that Nero persecuted Christians?
  • It was reported by the Roman historian Tacitus
    and the Church historian Eusebius.

12
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What was Neros fate?
  • The aristocracy in Rome was alienated by Neros
    murders of his mother and wife. After revolts
    against Roman rule broke out in Judea, Gaul,
    Africa, and Spain, the army turned against Nero,
    and he committed suicide.

13
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why was it a good idea for dictators like
    Domitian to make friends with the army?
  • In a dictatorship, the armed forces have the
    ultimate power over life and death. He who
    controls the army controls the nation.
  •  
  • What is the significance of the title Dominus et
    Deus with respect to Emperor Domitian?
  • Lord and God indicates Domitian considered
    himselfor wanted others to consider hima god.

14
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Why did Domitian see the spread of Christianity
    as a problem, and what steps did he take to stop
    it?
  • Christianity was spreading from the lower classes
    to the aristocracy, Domitians own class. He
    murdered his cousin, an office-holding Christian,
    and levied a special tax on Christians and Jews
    to pay for a pagan temple.

15
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What does vox populi mean?
  • The voice of the people during the time of the
    early Church often meant ignorant, mob actions,
    especially those taken against Christians.
  •  
  • What was the result of the power of the vox
    populi?
  • Mobs looted and destroyed Christian churches,
    cemeteries, and homes. Civil authorities tortured
    and killed Christians to provide an outlet for
    the peoples anger.

16
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Of what were Christians accused by the common
    people?
  • Because Christians would not sacrifice to the
    pagan gods, common people accused Christians of
    being irreligious and atheistic. All kinds of
    wild practices were attributed to Christians
    including the sacrifice of babies, drinking their
    blood, and casting evil spells. Christians also
    became scapegoats for natural calamities such as
    floods and famines.

17
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes about why Nero
    persecuted Christians.

18
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 13 (p. 125)
  • Practical Exercise 1 (p. 125)
  • Workbook Questions 121
  • Read The Five Good Emperors through
    Ad Metalla (pp. 101107)

19
1. The First Roman Persecutions (pp. 94100)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Use the completed Graphic Organizer on page 97 to
    write a paragraph comparing the first Jewish and
    Roman persecutions of Christians.

20
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Analyze the mosaic on page 100, and then discuss
    the following questions
  • What does the mosaic depict?
  • What does this mosaic reveal about the character
    of the Roman people?
  • Is the depiction in this mosaic similar to
    anything in contemporary culture?

21
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • BASIC QUESTION
  • How did the persecutions of the Christians
    develop after Domitian?
  •  
  • KEY IDEA
  • Trajans Rescript declared it a capital crime to
    profess Christianity. Hadrians Rescript advised
    that Christians should not be prosecuted solely
    for professing Christ, which was reversed under
    Marcus Aurelius. St. Justin Martyr defended
    Christianity to the Roman senate and emperor.

22
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why were the Five Good Emperors called good?
  • The five emperors following Domitian were good
    because they were skillful leaders of the empire.
    They were relatively stable persons who secured
    the empires borders.
  •  
  • Were the Five Good Emperors good for Christians?
  • The first four were more moderate toward
    Christians than Domitian had been, but they still
    persecuted them. Extension Hadrian eradicated
    the Jews in the Holy Land.

23
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Why was Trajan a successful emperor from the
    Roman point of view?
  • Trajan treated abandoned children and the poor
    humanely, achieved military glory for himself and
    Rome, undertook many public works projects,
    extended the territory of the empire, and ruled
    nearly twenty years.

24
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table about the content of Trajans Rescript.

25
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
26
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What was the origin of Trajans Rescript
    (AD 112)?
  • Pliny the Younger, one of Trajans governors,
    asked his advice concerning the persecution and
    punishment of Christians. Trajans Rescript is
    his reply.
  •  
  • What did Plinys letter reveal about the spread
    of Christianity?
  • By his time Christians existed across all strata
    of society and lived in rural areas as well as
    urban centers.
  •  
  • What choices did denounced Christians have?
  • They could have renounced the Faith or have been
    sentenced to death.

27
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why was St. Ignatius of Antioch an important
    writer?
  • His direct contact with the Apostles Sts. Peter
    and John give his writings special authority.
  •  
  • Who persecuted St. Ignatius of Antioch, and why?
  • He was arrested under Emperor Trajan for being
    the Bishop of Antioch.

28
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Why did St. Ignatius of Antioch ask Christians
    not to intervene with the pagan officials when he
    was on his way to Rome?
  • St. Ignatius was afraid the Christians of Rome
    might persuade the pagan officials to spare his
    life. He wanted to be Gods wheat, ground by the
    teeth of wild beasts, so he could be Christs
    pure bread.

29
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Review the concept of bread and circuses (cf. p.
    15). Perform a Focused Reading of the sidebar
    The Coliseum (p. 103) using the following two
    questions
  • Is it moral to attend entertainments like the
    ones described?
  • Are there legal forms of entertainment today that
    followers of Christ ought to avoid?

30
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How does Hadrians reign reveal the Pax Romana
    did not manifest peace for everyone?
  • The Jews were decimated in the Holy Land and were
    banned from entering Jerusalem.
  •  
  • How did the plight of Christians improve somewhat
    after Hadrians Rescript?
  • Hadrian ruled that mobs should not be able to
    take the law in their own hands to murder
    Christians and that Christians should only be
    prosecuted for actual violations of the common
    law instead of solely for being Christian.

31
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Why did Hadrians ban on circumcision and his
    plan to turn Jerusalem into a Roman colony
    infuriate the Jews?
  • Circumcision is essential to the identity of
    Jews, the sign of the covenant between God and
    Abraham. Jerusalem had been the Jews most
    important city for a millennium they had hoped
    to rebuild the Temple there so they could again
    offer ritual sacrifice. Extension Hadrian could
    not have attacked the Jews more personally than
    this.

32
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Under whose peaceful reign was St. Polycarp
    martyred?
  • He was martyred under Emperor Antoninus Pius.
  •  
  • What was the nature of St. Polycarps writings?
  • He defended orthodox Catholic beliefs against
    several early heresies.
  •  
  • What merciful offer did the governor of Smyrna
    make to St. Polycarp?
  • If St. Polycarp would have cursed Christ
    publicly, his life would have been spared.

33
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Search the Internet for the entire Martyrium
    Polycarpi (The Martyrdom of Polycarp), and then
    read it.

34
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Of what philosophy was Emperor Marcus Aurelius an
    adherent?
  • He was a Stoic, which encourages a person to live
    free of passion and be unmoved by joy or grief,
    submitting fully to fate.
  •  
  • What practice did Marcus Aurelius reinstate that
    made things worse for Christians?
  • He reinstituted anonymous denunciations of
    Christians.
  •  
  • Why did provincial governors tolerate mob attacks
    on Christians?
  • For Roman governors serving in unruly provinces,
    allowing mob attacks on Christians was a way they
    could let people defuse their anger on something
    other than the empire itself.

35
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What did St. Justin Martyr have in common with
    Emperor Marcus Aurelius?
  • Both loved philosophy, although St. Justin came
    to believe that the teachings of Christ were far
    superior to philosophy alone.
  •  
  • To whom did St. Justin Martyr address his two
    defenses of the Faith?
  • He addressed them audaciously to the Roman
    emperor and the senate.
  •  
  • What did the judicial sentence Ad Metalla mean?
  • This dreaded punishment sent a prisoner to the
    metal mines, where the prisoner endured brutal
    conditions and certain death.

36
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table on evidence for three beliefs held by early
    Christians (cf. p. 123).

37
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
38
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 48 (p. 125)
  • Workbook Questions 2243
  • Read Later Persecutions and the Edict of Milan
    through Pope St. Sixtus II and Deacon St.
    Lawrence (pp. 108114)

39
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes summarizing the
    persecutions experienced by Christians in the
    period of time after Emperor Domitian through
    Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

40
2. The Five Good Emperors (pp. 101107)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes on what was most
    surprising about this period in the history of
    the Church.

41
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Imagine you are the bishop of an Italian diocese
    AD 202 and have received word Emperor Severus has
    outlawed circumcision and Baptism. Write a brief
    letter to the Christians under your care,
    advising them how to respond to this decree.

42
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • BASIC QUESTION
  • Why did the Roman government attack Christianity
    with such vehemence?
  • KEY IDEA
  • With the aim of reinvigorating the Roman Empire
    by reviving the ancient pagan religion, Emperor
    Decius unleashed the first empire-wide
    persecution of Christians AD 250, creating new
    martyrs as well as lapsi. Decius was afraid of
    the Christians fidelity to Christ and his
    Church.

43
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What was the relationship between Sts. Perpetua
    and Felicity?
  • St. Perpetua was a wealthy noblewoman, and St.
    Felicity was one of her slaves.
  •  
  • How did Sts. Perpetua and Felicity show their
    faith?
  • They had to endure entreaties from their families
    to abandon the Faith, taunts from their jailers,
    the heartbreak of raising their children in jail,
    scourging, attacks by wild animals, and finally
    the sword. The worst was seeing their children
    slain.

44
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What decree of Emperor Septimus Severus
    threatened both Christians and Jews?
  • His decree (AD 202) forbade both Baptism and
    circumcision.

45
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Even though St. Irenæus was from Asia Minor,
    where did he serve as bishop?
  • He served in Lyons in Gaul (modern-day France).
    Extension This indicates the catholic
    (universal) nature of the Church.
  •  
  • What key elements of the nature of the Church did
    St. Irenæus emphasize to defend the Faith against
    Gnostic heretics?
  • He emphasized the episcopacy, Scripture, and
    Tradition.
  •  
  • What method did St. Irenæus use to combat heresy?
  • He described systematically the origin and
    history of each heresy, contrasting its false
    claims against the true Faith.

46
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Work with a partner to identify what St. Irenæus
    claimed that the early Church held with respect
    to (1) Apostolic Succession, (2) the authority of
    the Church hierarchy, and (3) Scripture and
    Tradition.

47
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did Decius attack Christians to a new degree?
  • Before his reign attacks on Christians were
    local, either limited to the city of Rome or
    directed toward specific provinces. The Edict of
    Decius (AD 250) was empire-wide.
  •  
  • Why did Decius order a return to the ancient
    religious practices?
  • He intended to reinvigorate the empires strength
    by unity.

48
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • How numerous were Christians by AD 250, and why
    did Decius see them as a threat?
  • About one-third of the empire was Christian.
    Decius assumed, because Christians ultimate
    allegiance is to Christ and not the state, that
    they might prove an obstacle to unify the empire.
    Extension It may seem strange to a modern
    student a ruler would be willing to kill as many
    as one-third of his subjects, but similar events
    occurred in the twentieth century. Pol Pot of
    Cambodia, Mao of China, Lenin and Stalin of the
    Soviet Union, and many others killed large
    percentages of their populations for political
    ends.

49
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Who were the sacrificanti, the thurificati and
    the libellatici?
  • These were Christians who had apostatized under
    Deciuss persecution. The sacrificanti were those
    who made a sacrifice. The thurificati were those
    who burned incense. The libellatici did not
    sacrifice but purchased certificates of sacrifice.

50
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What strategy did Decius employ to identify
    Christians?
  • Anyone who refused to offer a sacrifice would be
    sent into exile or put to death and lose all of
    his or her property.
  •  
  • What double loss did the Church suffer because of
    Deciuss persecution?
  • The Church lost both those faithful who became
    martyrs and those who apostatized.

51
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is the difference between a heretic and an
    apostate?
  • A heretic denies one or more articles of the
    Faith after his or her Baptism. An apostate
    denies the Faith altogether after his or her
    Baptism.
  •  
  • Who are the lapsi?
  • These are Christians whose faith had lapsed, that
    is, formally renounced the Faith by offering
    sacrifices to pagan gods.
  •  
  • Into what error did Novatian fall regarding
    apostasy?
  • He taught that the lapsi could never be
    readmitted into the Church, which caused the
    Novatianist schism. Extension Essentially,
    Novatian denied Gods power to forgive certain
    sins.

52
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Where was the first Catholic university founded?
  • What might be called the first Catholic
    university was the Catechetical School in
    Alexandria, Egypt, in which instruction in
    Catholic doctrine was combined with an
    investigation into the sciences and philosophy.

53
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How was Origen distinguished?
  • Origen was a prolific writer and scholar who
    headed the Catechetical School. He was faithful
    despite two years of imprisonment and torture. He
    initiated the use of the homily.
  •  
  • How do Origens writings illustrate that
    individual theologians are not infallible?
  • Despite being one the greatest theologians of the
    early Church, he held erroneous positions on the
    relationship between God the Father and God the
    Son and on the final salvation of the damned.

54
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Think/Pair/Share using the following questions
    (cf. p. 114)
  • According to St. Lawrence the deacon, what is the
    Churchs greatest treasure?
  • Why might he have thought this?

55
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table about Valerians Rescripts.

56
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
57
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes framing an answer to
    the Basic Question of this lesson
  • Why did the Roman government attack Christianity
    with such vehemence?

58
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 913 (p. 125)
  • Practical Exercise 2 (p. 125)
  • Workbook Questions 4468
  • Read Persecutions under Diocletian through
    Conclusion (pp. 114122)

59
3. Later Persecutions Before Diocletian (pp.
108114)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete Practical
    Exercise 3 (p. 125) about the Christian values
    most important to the early Christian martyrs.

60
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Review the map Diocletians Tetrarchy (pp.
    116117), focusing on geographic divisions.

61
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • How were persecutions under Diocletian the worst
    that Christians had suffered under Roman
    emperors?
  • Why was the Edict of Milan (AD 313) issued, and
    what change did it make in the lives of
    Christians?
  • KEY IDEAS
  • Persecutions under Diocletian were the worst that
    Christians had endured because they were the most
    widespread and inclusive Christians throughout
    the empire had either to renounce the Faith or to
    face death.
  • Constantine attributed his victory at the Milvian
    Bridge to the intervention of the Christian God.
    To stay in his good graces, he issued the Edict
    of Milan, which gave the Christians freedom to
    worship.

62
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did Diocletian become emperor?
  • Diocletian was named emperor by the army after
    Numerian had been murdered.
  •  
  • Why did the Church historian Eusebius praise
    Diocletian initially?
  • Diocletian left Christians alone initially, but
    this was only because he was distracted by
    fighting the Persians and Germanic tribes.

63
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Why did Diocletian form the tetrarchy?
  • He thought that the empire was too large for one
    man to govern. He divided the empire into four
    regions, ruled one himself, retained full
    leadership over all, and appointed three
    co-emperors to administer the other regions this
    secured twenty years of peaceful prosperity.

64
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did Diocletian decide to eradicate
    Christianity?
  • Though he admired some of its adherents, he
    decided to eradicate Christianity at the urging
    of two of his co-emperors, who argued it would be
    good for the empire.
  •  
  • Why was Diocletians persecution the worst the
    early Christians had suffered?
  • It was the most widespread and targeted all
    Christians, including in the eastern half of the
    empire, which had not been targeted often.
  •  
  • What was the effect of Diocletians edicts?
  • Thousands of faithful Christians were martyred.

65
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Complete the following table about the effects of
    Diocletians edicts on Christians in the Roman
    Empire.

66
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
67
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table according to the map Diocletians
    Tetrarchy (pp. 116117).

68
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
69
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • When was St. Agnes martyred?
  • She was martyred about AD 304, when she was
    twelve or thirteen years old.
  •  
  • Why was St. Agnes denounced as a Christian?
  • Because she was very beautiful, a number of young
    Roman men wanted to marry her. However, she had
    consecrated herself a virgin, which enraged them.

70
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What was the fate of St. Agnes?
  • She refused to renounce the Faith, even after
    torture by fire. The judge sentenced her to
    prostitution, but when a young man approached her
    thusly, he was blinded. Hearing of this, the
    judge had her beheaded.

71
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Search the Internet to research the life of St.
    Maria Goretti. Write a paragraph comparing Sts.
    Agnes and Maria Goretti.

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4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • To what did Emperor Galerius attribute his
    leprosy?
  • He believed it was a divine punishment from the
    Christian God for persecuting Christians.
  •  
  • How did Galerius improve the situation of
    Christians?
  • His Edict (AD 311), which was adopted all over
    the empire, gave Christians free exercise of
    their religion as long as they obeyed the civil
    law and promised to pray for the emperor and
    empire.
  •  
  • Do you think the early Christians objected to
    Galeriuss demands?
  • No they had been praying for the emperor and the
    empire from the beginning.

73
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What vision did Constantine have just before the
    Battle of Saxa Rubra?
  • He saw in the sky a cross with the inscription In
    hoc signo vinces (In this sign you will
    conquer).
  •  
  • What action did Constantine take based on his
    vision?
  • He had his soldiers etch a cross on each shield.
  •  
  • What was Constantines attitude toward
    Christianity after his victory?
  • He declared the Christian God had favored him,
    so, to stay in his good graces, he restored the
    property of the Church and aided the construction
    of church buildings.

74
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What was the effect of the Edict of Milan?
  • It restored all property taken from the Church by
    the empire and granted Christians the right to
    worship in freedom. It legitimized the Church for
    the first time since Neros decree had outlawed
    her AD 64.

75
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What might have been the political motives for
    issuing the Edict of Milan?
  • Constantine might have seen Christianity as a way
    to unify his empire.
  •  
  • What did Constantine do at the end of his life?
  • He was baptized (though by an Arian bishop) on
    his deathbed.

76
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read silently the selection from The Edict of
    Milan (p. 123), and then discuss the following
    questions
  • What rights were granted by the Edict of Milan?
  • Why might the only religion named be
    Christianity?
  • What is the significance of a reference to the
    Supreme Deity in this edict, issued by an
    officially polytheistic state?

77
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What role did St. Helen play to turn the Roman
    Empire toward Christianity?
  • St. Helen, the mother of Emperor Constantine,
    converted to Christianity in her sixties. When
    she was in her eighties, she traveled to the Holy
    Land and believed she had found Mount Calvary,
    the Holy Sepulcher (tomb of Christ), and the true
    Cross.

78
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did St. Helen determine which of the three
    crosses she had found was the true one?
  • She had a sick woman touch each. When the woman
    touched the true Cross, she was healed.
  •  
  • What is the Titulus Crucis?
  • Literally title, or inscription, of the
    Cross, it is an ancient piece of walnut believed
    to be part of the sentence nailed to the Cross of
    Christ.

79
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read an article explaining and defending the
    Catholic veneration of relics.

80
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 1418 (p. 125)
  • Practical Exercises 34 (p. 125)
  • Workbook Questions 6988

81
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to the
    following question
  • How did the relationship between the Church and
    the Roman Empire change between AD 300 and 313?

82
4. The Triumph of the Church (pp. 114122)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Write a paragraph on the episcopacy and Tradition
    in the early Church.

83
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