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Title: Service Facility Design and Layout Author: James Fitzsimmons Last modified by: Rajeev Sawhney Created Date: 1/31/1996 9:36:58 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter

Service Management (5e) Operations, Strategy,
Information Technology By Fitzsimmons and
  • Chapter 8
  • The Supporting Facility

Learning Objectives
  • Discuss the impact of the servicescape on the
    behavior of customers and employees.
  • Describe the critical facility design features.
  • Draw a process flow diagram.
  • Identify the bottleneck operation in a product
    layout and rebalance for increased capacity.
  • Use operations sequence analysis to minimize
    flow-distance in a process layout.
  • Recommend facility design features to remove
    anxiety of disorientation.

  • Physical facility should be designed with an
    image and feel that is congruent with the service
    concept because the design of the physical
    surroundings positively affect employee and
    customer behavior.
  • The internal response measured cognitively,
    emotionally, and physiologically is moderated by
    ones personal mood.
  • A well conceived servicescape will encourage a
    proper social interaction between and among
    customers and employees

Environmental dimensions of servicescape
  • Ambient Conditions background characteristics
    such as noise level, music, lighting,
    temperature, and scent.
  • Spatial Layout and Functionality reception
    area, circulation paths of employees and
    customers, and focal points.
  • Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts selection,
    orientation, location, and size of objects.

Facility Design Considerations
  • Nature and Objectives of Service Organization
  • Land Availability and Space Requirements
  • Flexibility
  • Security
  • Aesthetic Factors
  • The Community and Environment

Signs used in flow chart
  • Operation a rectangle encloses the operation
    name and cycle time
  • Decision a diamond encloses the operation name
    and cycle time
  • Wait a triangle represents customers waiting or
    inventory of goods
  • Flow an arrow shows movement of customers,
    goods, or information.

Process Analysis Terminology
  • Cycle Time (CT) is the average time between
    completions of successive units.
  • Bottleneck is the factor that limits production,
    usually the slowest operation.
  • Capacity is a measure of output per unit time
    when fully busy.
  • Capacity of an operation 1/CT
  • Capacity of the entire system 1/bottleneck
  • Capacity Utilization is a measure of how much
    output is actually achieved compared to the
    process capacity.

Process Analysis Terminology (cont.)
  • Throughput Time is the time to complete a process
    from time of arrival to time of exit ( sum of
    critical path average time in queues).
  • Rush Order Flow Time is the time to go through
    the system without any queue time.
  • Direct Labor Content is the actual amount of work
    time consumed.
  • Total Direct Labor Content is the sum of all the
    operations times.
  • Direct Labor Utilization is a measure of the
    percentage of time that workers are actually
    contributing value to the service.

Process Flow Diagram of Mortgage Services
Product Layout Work Allocation Problem
  • Automobile Drivers License Office
  • Review Payment
    Violations Eye Test
    Photograph Issue
  • In


Automobile Drivers License Office (Improved

Process LayoutRelative Location Problem
  • Ocean World Theme Park Daily Flows

Ocean World Theme Park (Proposed Layout)
  • (a) Initial layout
    (b) Move C close to A
  • Pair Flow
    Pair Flow distances
  • AC 30
    2 60
    CD 20 2 40
  • AF 6
    2 12
    CF 8 2 16
  • DC 20
    2 40
    DF 6 2 12
  • DF 6
    2 12
    AF 6 2 12
  • Total
    CE 8 2 16

  • Total 96
  • (c ) Exchange A and C
    (d) Exchange B and E and move F

  • Pair Flow
    Pair Flow distances
  • AE 15
    2 30
    AB 15 2 30
  • CF 8
    2 16
    AD 0 2 0
  • AF 6
    2 12
    FB 8 2 16
  • AD 0
    2 0
    FD 6 2 12
  • DF 6
    2 12
    Total 58
  • Total

Environmental Orientation Considerations
  • Need for spatial cues to orient visitors
  • Formula facilities draw on previous experience
  • Entrance atrium allows visitors to gain a quick
    orientation and observe others for behavioral
  • Orientation aids and signage such as You Are
    Here maps reduce anxiety

Topics for Discussion
  • Compare the attention to aesthetics in waiting
    rooms that you have visited. How did the
    different environments affect your mood?
  • Give an example of a servicescape that supports
    the service concept and another that detracts.
    Explain the success or failure in terms of the
    servicescape dimensions.
  • Select a service and discuss how the design and
    layout of the facility meets the five factors of
    nature and objectives of the organization.
  • For Example 8.3, the Ocean World theme park, make
    an argument for not locating popular attractions
    next to each other.
  • The CRAAFT program is an example of a heuristic
    programming approach to problem solving. Why
    might CRAFT not find the optimal solution to a
    layout problem?
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