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Chapter Three

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Chapter Three Network Protocols Chapter Objectives Identify the characteristics of TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBIOS, and AppleTalk Understand the position of network ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Three


1
Chapter Three
  • Network
  • Protocols

2
Chapter Objectives
  • Identify the characteristics of TCP/IP, IPX/SPX,
    NetBIOS, and AppleTalk
  • Understand the position of network protocols in
    the OSI Model
  • Identify the core protocols of each protocol
    suite and its functions
  • Understand each protocols addressing scheme
  • Install protocols on Windows 95 and Windows NT
    clients

3
Introduction to Protocols
  • Protocols
  • Rules a network uses to transfer data
  • Protocols that can span more than one LAN segment
    are routable
  • Multiprotocol Network
  • Network using more than one protocol

4
TCP/IP
OSI Model
TCP/IP
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
    (TCP/IP)
  • Suite of small, specialized protocols called
    subprotocols

FIGURE 3-1 TCP/IP compared to the OSI Model
5
TCP/IP Versus OSI
6
TCP/IP Compared to the OSI Model
  • Application layer roughly corresponds to
    Application and Presentation layers
  • Transport layer roughly corresponds to Session
    and Transport layers
  • Internet layer is equivalent to the Network layer
  • Network Interface layer roughly corresponds to
    Data Link and Physical layers

7
TCP/IP Core Protocols
  • Subprotocols of the TCP/IP suite
  • In addition to its subprotocols, the TCP/IP suite
    features routing protocols
  • Assist routers in efficiently managing
    information flow

8
Internet Protocol (IP)
  • Provides information about how and where data
    should be delivered
  • Subprotocol enabling TCP/IP to internetwork
  • Traverse more than one LAN segment and more than
    one type of network through a router
  • Subnets
  • The individual networks joined together by
    routers in an internetwork

9
Internet Protocol (IP)
  • IP Datagram
  • IP portion of a TCP/IP frame that acts as an
    envelope for data
  • Contains information necessary for routers to
    transfer data between subnets

FIGURE 3-2 Components of an IP datagram
10
Internet Protocol (IP)
  • IP does not guarantee delivery of data
  • Connectionless
  • Allows the protocol to service a request without
    requesting a verified session and without
    guaranteeing delivery of data

11
Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
  • Provides reliable data delivery services
  • Connection oriented
  • Requires the establishment of a connection
    between communicating nodes before the protocol
    will transmit data
  • TCP segment
  • Holds the TCP data fields
  • Becomes encapsulated by the IP datagram

12
Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
  • Port
  • Address on host where an application makes itself
    available to incoming data

FIGURE 3-3 A TCP segment
13
Additional Core Protocols of the TCP/IP Suite
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • A connectionless transport service
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Notifies the sender that something has gone wrong
    in the transmission process and that packets were
    not delivered

14
Additional Core Protocols of the TCP/IP Suite
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Obtains the MAC address of a host or node
  • Creates a local database mapping the MAC address
    to the hosts IP address

15
TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols
  • Telnet is used to log on to remote hosts using
    TCP/IP Protocol
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used to send and
    receive files via TCP/IP
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is
    responsible for moving messages from one e-mail
    server to another, using the Internet and other
    TCP/IP-based networks
  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) manages
    devices on a TCP/IP network

16
Addressing in TCP/IP
  • IP Address
  • Logical address used in TCP/IP networking
  • Unique 32-bit number
  • Divided into four groups of octets (8-bit bytes)
  • Separated by periods

17
Addressing in TCP/IP
TABLE 3-1 Commonly used TCP/IP classes
  • Though 8 bits have 256 possible combinations,
    only the numbers 1 through 254 are used to
    identify networks and hosts
  • Numbers 0 and 255 are reserved for broadcasts
  • Transmissions to all stations on a network

18
Addressing in TCP/IP
  • Loopback address
  • IP address reserved for communicating from a node
    to itself
  • Value of the loopback address is always 127.0.0.1
  • InterNIC
  • Authority for Internet IP addressing and domain
    name registration
  • Also known as Network Solutions

19
Addressing in TCP/IP
  • Firewall
  • Specialized device
  • Selectively filters or blocks traffic between
    networks
  • May be strictly hardware-based or may involve a
    combination of hardware and software
  • Host
  • Computer connected to a network using the TCP/IP
    protocol

20
Addressing in TCP/IP
  • In IP address 131.127.3.22, to convert the first
    octet (131) to a binary number
  • On Windows 95, click Start, point to Programs,
    point to Accessories, then click Calculator
  • Click View, then click Scientific (make sure Dec
    option button is selected)
  • Type 131, then click Bin option button
  • The binary number 131, 10000011, appears in the
    display window

21
Addressing in TCP/IP
  • Static IP address
  • IP address manually assigned to a device
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol protocol
  • Application layer protocol
  • Manages the distribution of IP addresses on a
    network

22
Viewing IP Information
  • On a Windows 95 workstation connected to a
    network
  • Click Start, then click Run
  • Type winipcfg
  • Click OK
  • Click More Info
  • Click OK to close window

FIGURE 3-4 Example of an IP configuration window
23
Viewing IP Information
  • On a Windows NT workstation
  • Click Start, point to Programs, then click MS-DOS
    Prompt
  • Type ipconfig/all

FIGURE 3-5 IP address information on a Windows NT
workstation
24
Addresses and Names
  • In addition to using IP addresses, TCP/IP
    networks use names for networks and hosts
  • Each host requires a host name
  • Each network requires a network name, also called
    a domain name
  • Symbolic name that identifies and Internet domain

25
IPX/SPX
  • Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet
    Exchange (IPX/SPX)
  • Protocol originally developed by Xerox
  • Modified and adopted by Novell in the 1980s for
    the NetWare network operating system

FIGURE 3-6 IPX/SPX compared to the OSI Model
26
IPX/SPX Core Protocols
  • Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)
  • Provides routing and internetworking services
  • Similar to IP in TCP/IP suite

FIGURE 3-7 Components of an IPX datagram
27
IPX/SPX Core Protocols
  • Sequence Packet Exchange (SPX)
  • Works in tandem with IPX to ensure data are
    received
  • Whole
  • In sequence
  • Error free

28
SPX
FIGURE 3-8 SPX packet encapsulated by an IPX
datagram
29
IPX/SPX Core Protocols
  • Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)
  • Runs directly over IPX
  • Used by NetWare servers and routers to advertise
    to entire network which services they can provide
  • NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)
  • Handles requests for services between clients and
    servers

30
Addressing in SPX/IPX
  • IPX address
  • An address assigned to a device on an IPX/SPX
    network
  • Contains two parts
  • Network address (external network number)
  • Node address

31
Viewing the IPX Address
  • With Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows NT
    workstations while connected to Netware server
    running version 4.0 or higher
  • Click Start, point to Programs, then click MS-DOS
    Prompt
  • Change directories to a drive letter mapped to
    the network
  • Type nlist XXXXX /a (with XXXXX being NetWare
    user logon ID)

32
Viewing the IPX Address
  • With Windows 95 or Windows NT workstations while
    connected to NetWare server running a version
    lower than 4.0
  • Click Start, point to Programs, then click MS-DOS
    Prompt
  • Type userlist userXXXXX/a (with XXXXX being
    NetWare logon ID)

33
NetBIOS and NetBEUI
  • Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS)
  • Originally designed by IBM to provide Transport
    and Session layer services
  • Adopted by Microsoft as its foundation protocol
  • Microsoft added Application layer component
    called NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI)

34
NetBEUI
  • Fast and efficient protocol
  • Consumes few network resources
  • Provides excellent error correction
  • Requires little configuration

35
NetBIOS and NetBEUI Compared to the OSI Model
FIGURE 3-9 NetBIOS/NetBEUI compared to the OSI
Model
36
NetBIOS Addressing
  • Viewing a workstations NetBIOS name
  • Right-click the Network Neighborhood icon, then
    click Properties
  • Click the Identification tab

FIGURE 3-10 Identification tab in Network
properties
37
AppleTalk
  • Protocol suite used to interconnect Macintosh
    computers
  • Originally designed to support peer-to-peer
    networking among Macintoshes
  • Can now be routed between network segments and
    integrated with NetWare- and Microsoft-based
    networks

38
AppleTalk
  • AppleTalk zone
  • Logical groups of computers defined on an
    AppleTalk network
  • Enables users to share file and print services

FIGURE 3-11 AppleTalk protocol compared to OSI
Model
39
AppleTalk Subprotocols
  • AppleShare
  • AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP)
  • AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP)
  • AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP)

40
AppleTalk Subprotocols
  • Name Binding Protocol (NBP)
  • Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP)
  • Zone Information Protocol (ZIP)
  • Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)

41
Addressing in AppleTalk
  • AppleTalk node ID
  • Unique 8-bit or 16-bit number identifying a
    computer on an AppleTalk network
  • AppleTalk network number
  • Unique 16-bit number identifying the network to
    which an AppleTalk node is connected

42
Installing Protocols
  • After installing protocols, they must be binded
  • Binding
  • Process of assigning one network component to
    work with another

43
Installing Protocols on a Windows NT Workstation
  • Insert Windows NT installation CD-ROM
  • Log on to the workstation as an Administrator
  • Right-click the Network Neighborhood icon, then
    click Properties
  • Click Protocols tab
  • Click Add
  • In list of network protocols, click NWLink
    IPX/SPX Compatible Transport, then click OK
  • Type the appropriate path to the installation
    files, then click Continue

44
Installing Protocols on a Windows NT Workstation
  • Click OK
  • Click Yes to restart your workstation
  • Verify protocol was installed by again logging to
    workstation as an Administrator
  • Right-click the Network Neighborhood icon, then
    click Properties
  • Click the Protocols tab
  • Verify NWLink (IPX/SPX) Protocol appears in list
    of installed protocols
  • Click Cancel to close dialog box

45
Installing Protocols on a Windows 95 Workstation
  • Right-click Network Neighborhood icon, then click
    Properties
  • Verify Configuration tab is selected
  • Click Add
  • Double-click Protocol
  • In the list of manufacturers, click Microsoft
  • In list of protocols, click TCP/IP

46
Installing Protocols on a Windows 95 Workstation
  • Click OK
  • If TCP/IP is not already installed on
    workstation, follow prompt and click Yes to
    restart your computer
  • Verify protocol was installed by right-clicking
    Network Neighborhood icon, then click Properties
  • Verify Configuration tab is selected
  • Click Cancel to close window

47
Chapter Summary
  • Protocols define the standards for communication
    between nodes on a network
  • Protocols vary in speed, transmission efficiency,
    utilization of resources, ease of setup,
    compatibility, and ability to travel between one
    LAN segment or another
  • TCP/IP is fast becoming most popular network
    protocol
  • TCP/IP suite of protocols can be divided into
    four layers roughly corresponding to the seven
    layers of the OSI Model

48
Chapter Summary
  • Operating in Transport or Network layers of OSI
    Model, TCP/IP core protocols provide
    communications between hosts on a network
  • Internet Protocol (IP) provides information about
    how and where data should be delivered
  • Transport Control Protocol (TCP) provides
    reliable data delivery services
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless
    transport service
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) notifies
    the sender that something has gone wrong in the
    transmission process and that packets were not
    delivered

49
Chapter Summary
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) obtains the MAC
    address of a host or node then Creates a local
    database mapping the MAC address to the hosts IP
    address
  • Each IP address is a unique 32-bit number,
    divided into four groups of octets separated by
    periods
  • Range of addresses beginning with 127 is reserved
    for loopback information
  • Every host on a network must have a unique number
  • Internetworking Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet
    Exchange (IPE/SPE) is a protocol originally
    developed by Xerox then modified and adopted by
    Novell in the 1980s for its NetWare NOS

50
Chapter Summary
  • Core protocols of IPX/SPX provide services at
    Transport and Network layers of OSI Model
  • Internet Packet Exchange provides routing and
    internetwork services similar to IP in TCP/IP
    suite
  • Sequence Packet Exchange (SPX) works in tandem
    with IPX to ensure data are received whole, in
    sequence, and error free
  • Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) is used by
    NetWare servers and routers to advertise to
    entire network which services they can provide
  • NetWare Control Protocol (NCP) handles requests
    for services between clients and servers

51
Chapter Summary
  • Addresses on an IPX/SPX network are called IPX
    addresses
  • Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) was
    originally developed by IBM to provide Transport
    and Session layer services
  • Microsoft adopted NetBIOS as its foundation
    protocol, then added an Application layer
    component called NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface
    (NetBEUI)
  • To transmit data between network nodes, NetBIOS
    needs to know how to reach each workstation
  • AppleTalk is the the protocol suite used to
    interconnect Macintosh computers

52
Chapter Summary
  • An AppleTalk network is separated into logical
    groups of computers called AppleTalk zones
  • Though Apple has improved AppleTalks ability to
    use different network models and span network
    segments, it remains unsuited to large LANs or
    WANs
  • In addition to zone names, AppleTalk uses node
    Ids and network numbers to identify computers on
    a network
  • Though some protocolssuch as NetBIOSrequire no
    configuration after installation, otherssuch as
    TCP/IPdo require configuration
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