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William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc

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William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc Lesson 11-7 Horrible Histories The Measly Middle Ages WS - Weaponry of the Middle Ages * William the Conqueror During ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc


1
William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc
  • Lesson 11-7

Horrible Histories The Measly Middle Ages WS -
Weaponry of the Middle Ages
1
2
  • TN SPI
  • 6.6.3 Describe ways in which individuals can
    change groups (William of Normandy, King John)
  • 6.6.2 Recognize the impact of individuals on
    world history (William the Conqueror, Joan of
    Arc)
  • 6.4.3 Identify the development of written laws
    (Magna Carta)

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William the Conqueror
King John
Joan of Arc
4
Birth of Nation-States
  • Feudalism was based on a patchwork of kingdoms
    ruled by kings and lords.
  • Over time, kings became more powerful and large
    areas of Europe united under one ruler leading
    to the end of feudalism.
  • During the 1100s these small kingdoms gave birth
    to nation-states a strong central government
    with a single ruler the monarch or king.
  • Kingdoms grew larger with the royal marriage of
    two rulers, and Christianity continued to
    influence daily life.

4
5
William the Conqueror
  • During the AD 900s, the Vikings conquered part of
    western France. The region became known as
    Normandy.
  • By AD 1000s, a Viking descendant named William
    ruled the land.
  • William, king of Normandy, was also a cousin of
    King Edward of England.

6
King Edward of England
  • When Edward died, William believed he should be
    king of England.
  • In 1066, William along with his army of knights
    crossed the English Channel and landed in
    England.
  • It was there where he fought the Battle of
    Hastings.
  • William became known as William the Conqueror.

7
Accomplishments of William
  • Ruler of Normandy (France)
  • Invaded England in 1066 and declared himself king
    of England. Battle of Hastings
  • Set up a system of Feudalism in England giving
    large land grants to the knights who helped him
    in battle
  • Took the first census in Europe since Roman times
    called the Domesday Book.
  • A count of people, manors, and animals

8
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William the Conqueror
  • King William spent much of his time crushing
    revolts against him.
  • He proved himself a strong ruler who dominated
    his nobles.
  • William died at the age of 50 when his horse fell
    and crushed him.
  • The kings who followed him Henry I and Henry II
    further increased the power of the king.
  • King John, the son of Henry II, would soon face
    the anger of English nobles.

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10
England
English Channel
France
10
11
King John Angers the Nobles
  • John, the son of Henry II, became king of England
    in 1199.
  • He quickly increased his wealth and power.
  • He heavily taxed the citizens.
  • He jailed his enemies unjustly without a trial.
  • He seized Church property.
  • He tried to block the popes choice for bishop of
    England.

11
12
The Magna Carta
  • On June 15, 1215, two-thousand angry nobles
    gathered and presented King John with a list of
    demands.
  • Called the Magna Carta, John was forced to sign
    the document limiting the power of the king.
  • The Magna Carta created the Great Council of
    lords and clergy who were consulted before the
    king could make decisions.
  • The Great Council eventually became the
    Parliament, a law making legislature and unified
    England into a nation.

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Accomplishments of King John
  • King John signed (forced) the Magna Carta.
  • This document
  • Limited the power of the king/monarch
  • Established that people have rights and the power
    of the government should be limited
  • Created a Great Council or Parliament
  • The king could no longer collect taxes unless
    Parliament agreed
  • Habeas corpus could not imprison indefinitely
    without a trial

14
Hundred Years War
  • Despite the growth of nation-states, Western
    Europe was not at peace.
  • The Hundred Years War was fought between England
    and France from 1337 to 1453.

14
15
Causes of the War
  • Several events caused the war
  • Royal marriages allowed English kings to govern
    and control French lands.
  • England and France both wanted control of the
    English Channel.
  • Each nation wanted to control trade in the region
    and the wealth that it brought.

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Joan of Arc
  • became one of Frances greatest heroes.
  • was the daughter of a peasant farmer.
  • was very religious and believed she saw heavenly
    visions.
  • dressed as a man, cut her hair short and
    convinced Charles, heir to the French throne,
    that God called her to lead the French forces at
    the Battle of Orleans.
  • was given armor, attendants, horses, and a
    special banner to carry into battle.

17
The War Drags On
  • As the war went on, fought by one king and then
    another, England won most of the battles.
  • The tide turned in 1429 when a peasant girl
    called Joan of Arc took charge of the French
    forces at the Battle of Orleans.
  • Under Joans command, the French defeated the
    English and led her forces to victory in other
    battles.

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The War Drags On
  • In 1430 Joan of taken prisoner and accused of
    witchcraft and wearing mens clothes.
  • She was convicted and burned at the stake.
  • Joan became a martyr, and her death inspired the
    French to win many victories.
  • By 1453, the English had been driven from most of
    France.
  • France was on its way to becoming a strong,
    united nation.

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Accomplishments of Joan
  • Had a vision to save the nation of France
  • Led the French against an invasion by England
    (Hundred Years War)
  • Defeated the English army at the Battle of
    Orleans
  • Was tried by the English for witchcraft and was
    executed burned at the stake

20
Results of the War
  • Kings became more powerful and noble influence
    declined
  • Modern boundaries of England and France were set
    and unified both into separate nations
  • Feudalism ended
  • England began to look to distant lands for trade
    and conquest (increase wealth, colonies, spread
    Christian beliefs)

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New Weapons
  • Two new weapons were used on the battlefield
    during the Hundred Years War
  • Longbow - This weapon was generally between four
    to six feet in length and could hurl arrows with
    uncanny accuracy and speed.
  • Crossbow - The Medieval crossbow was reintroduced
    to England by William the Conqueror and the
    Normans in 1066. The crossbow range was 350 400
    yards but could only be shot at a rate of 2 bolts
    per minute.
  • Cannon - Castles could not withstand the
    firepower of cannons and armored knights became
    less valuable in battle. (gunpowder from China
    reached Europe in the 1300s)

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