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The Magna Carta

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Title: The Magna Carta


1
The Magna Carta the most well-known and most
important document to come out of the Middle Ages
  • gtAn agreement between England's major
    landholders (barons) and King John, signed at
    Runnymede in 1215.
  • gtEstablished idea that the King of England was
    not above the law a principle that became the
    cornerstone of representative democracy.
  • gt Not a statement of political philosophy, it
    was a list of complaints and rights that the
    feudal vassals extracted from their liege lord,
    King John.
  • Of the 63 clauses, only three are relevant
    today
  • Trial by Jury of Peers
  • No taxation without representation
  • Punishments must fit the crime

2
The Late Middle Ages1300-1450
  • Crisis and Dissolution

3
An Age of Adversity
  • Economic problems
  • Famine Plague
  • Peasant Rebellions
  • Decline of the Papacy
  • Hundred Years War (1337-1453)

4
Economic problems
  • Early 1300's - The Little Ice Age
  • Declining agricultural production
  • Food shortages, malnutrition and famines
  • Silver shortage - Spiraling inflation
  • Diminished revenues from peasants
  • Knights turned to plunder and warfare

5
The Black Death
  • 1347-1352
  • Sicily
  • Fleas on black rats
  • 20,000,000 dead
  • Divine punishment for human sin

6
Negative impact of the Plague included
  • Panic- family, friends villages abandoned
  • Food production plummeted
  • Jewish communities massacred
  • Church authority questioned
  • Economic and social tensions emerged into
    rebellions
  • New artistic forms focused on decay and death

7
Positive long-term impact of the Plague
  • Higher wages for manual labor
  • People questioned the authority of church leaders
  • Re-emergence of rational science
  • Re-discovery of the ancient past
  • New, questioning spirit- paved the way for the
    Renaissance

8
The Jacquerie, France, 1358
9
The Ciompi Italy, 1378
10
Wat Tylers Peasant Revolt, aka The Great
Rising, England, 1381
11
The Hundred Years War, 1337-1453
12
William of Normandy, aka
William the Conqueror, 1066
13
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14
Edward III r. 1327-1377 In 1337, he claimed the
throne of France.
  • Henry V r 1413-1422took advantage of a civil war
    in France and invaded in 1415

15
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16
Crecy, 1346Poitiers, 1356 The Long Bow vs
mounted knights and the crossbow
17
Agincourt, 1415
18
Joan of Arc (1412-1431)
  • Jeanne DArc, 1429
  • The Maid of Orleans

19
  • Captured by the Duke of Burgundy in 1430 and
    turned over to English

20
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21
Impact of the Hundred Years War
  • English held only the port city of Calais
  • England experienced a civil war War of the Roses
  • French monarchy grew in power prestige
  • Kings won the right to collect taxes
  • New weapons and strategy for warfare
  • Code of Chivalry abandoned
  • Feudalism began to decline

22
Height of the Papacy
  • Innocent III (1198-1215)
  • gt The Donation of Constantine to justify papal
    power
  • gt Regained physical control over many Italian
    states
  • gt Responsible for the 4th Crusade
  • gt Forced King John to give England to the Pope
    and receive it back as a fief
  • gt Sponsored Francis of Assissi in creating the
    Franciscan order and the Spaniard Dominic and
    his Dominican order.
  • gt Convened the 4th Lateran Council

23
Decline of the Papacy
24
Pope Boniface VIII and French king Philip IV
25
Clericos Laicos, 1296
  • Churches and priests that paid taxes to the
    French king instead of the Pope would face
    excommunication.

26
if the earthly power errs, it shall be judged
by the spiritual power. but the pope can be
judged only by God, not by man. Therefore we
declare, state, define and pronounce that it is
altogether necessary to salvation for every human
creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff.
  • Unam Sanctam, 1302

27
  • September, 1303 The Terrible Day at Anagni.

28
In 1309, Clement V -Avignon
29
The Babylonian Captivity, 1309-1377
  • Along with Clement V, the next 6 popes (68 years)
    were French.
  • Many saw the pope as a puppet of the French king
  • Widespread criticism among devout Catholics of
    the good life led by the clergy at Avignon
    further reduced the prestige of the church and
    the pope in particular.

30
The Babylonian Captivity, 1309-1377
  • Petrarch, in 1353 wrote
  • I am now living in Avignon where reign the
    successors of the poor fishermen of Galilee.
  • I am astoundedto see these men loaded with gold
    and clad in purple, boasting of the spoils of
    princes and nations to see luxurious palaces and
    heights crowned with fortifications, instead of a
    boat turned downwards for their shelter.


31
John Wycliffe (1320-1384)
  • Stressed a personal relationship with God
  • Sacraments are not necessary for salvation
  • Denied that priests turned bread/wine to
    body/blood of Christ (transubstantiation)
  • Denounced wealth and advocated material poverty
  • Followers called Lollards

32
The end to Medieval Scholasticism...
  • St. Thomas Aquinas, 1225-1274
  • Summa Theologica the attempt to reconcile the
    works of Aristotle, with its emphasis on reason
    and logic, with Christianity.

33
  • Duns Scotus (1265-1308)
  • Human reason cannot prove that God is
    omnipotent, that He rewards the righteous and
    punishes the wicked, or that the soul is
    immortal. These doctrines are the province of
    revelation and faith, not reason.

34
  • William of Ockham (1285-1349)
  • The tenets of faith are beyond the reach of
    reason there is no rational foundation for
    Christianity.
  • His approach, separating natural knowledge from
    religious dogma, made it easier to explore the
    natural world without fitting it into a religious
    framework.

35
In 1377, Pope Gregory IX re-established the
papacy in Rome
36
The Great Schism, 1378-1417
  • 1378Pope Urban VI (Pope in Rome) and Pope
    Clement VII (Pope in Avignon)

37
The Great Schism, 1378-1417
  • 1409, Council of Pisa elected Alexander V
    a third pope!

38
Council of Constance, 1414-1417 elected Martin V
as new Pope.
39
Legacy of the Middle Ages
  • Notions of honor, duty, loyalty, and love
  • European cities / The middle class
  • The state system
  • English common law -concept of liberty
  • Equality and the sacred worth of the individual
  • Representative government
  • Universities
  • Corporations, Bookkeeping Banking
  • Preserved Greco-Roman scholarship
  • Growth of secularism

40
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