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The Early Middle Ages

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The Early Middle Ages William I. The Norman Conquest England under the Norman and Plantagenet Kings 14th century Battle of Hastings Domesday Book Economic Prosperity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Early Middle Ages


1
The Early Middle Ages
William I.
  • The Norman Conquest
  • England under the Norman and Plantagenet Kings
  • 14th century

Battle of Hastings
Domesday Book
Economic Prosperity and Baronial Revolt
Reforms and English Parliament
The Lancastrian and Yorkist Kings
The War of Roses
2
The Norman Conquest
  • About 1064, the powerful English noble, Harold,
    earl of Wessex, was shipwrecked on the Norman
    coast and taken prisoner by William. He secured
    his release by swearing to support Williams
    claim to the English throne. When King Edward
    died, however, the royal council elected Harold
    king.
  • William secured the sanction of Pope Alexander II
    for a Norman invasion of England. The duke and
    his army landed at Pevensey on September 28,
    1066. On October 14, the Normans defeated the
    English forces at the celebrated Battle of
    Hastings, in which Harold was slain. William then
    proceeded to London, crushing the resistance he
    encountered on the way. On Christmas Day he was
    crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey.
  • The English did not accept foreign rule without a
    struggle. William met the opposition, which was
    particularly violent in the north and west, with
    strong measures he was responsible for the
    devastation of great areas of the country,
    particularly in Yorkshire, where Danish forces
    had arrived to aid the Saxon rebels. By 1070 the
    Norman conquest of England was complete.
  • William invaded Scotland in 1072 and forced the
    Scottish king Malcolm III MacDuncan to pay him
    homage. During the succeeding years the Conqueror
    put down series of uprisings in Normandy led by
    his eldest son Robert, who later became Robert
    II, duke of Normandy.

3
  • Normans, Viking invaders from Scandinavia who
    began to settle in Normandy in northern France
    before the middle of the 9th century AD. The
    Normans then went on to conquer England, southern
    Italy, and Sicily.
  • .
  • During the Middle Ages, the Belgian heavy draft
    horse was known as the Flanders Great Horse and
    the Great War Horse. William the Conqueror, who
    invaded England in 1066, led his army mounted on
    a Belgian heavy draft horse. William and his
    horse each wore about 440 kg of armour.
  • .

4
  • Born in Falaise, France, William was the
    illegitimate son of Robert I, duke of Normandy,
    and Arletta, a tanners daughter, and is
    therefore sometimes called William the Bastard.
    Upon the death of his father, the Norman nobles,
    honouring their promise to Robert, accepted
    William as his successor.
  • Rebellion against the young duke broke out almost
    immediately, however, and his position did not
    become secure until 1047 when, with the aid of
    Henry I, king of France, he won a decisive
    victory over a rebel force near Caen.
  • During a visit in 1051 to his childless cousin,
    Edward the Confessor, king of England, William is
    said to have obtained Edwards agreement that he
    should succeed to the English throne. In 1053,
    defying a papal ban, William married Matilda of
    Flanders, daughter of Baldwin V, count of
    Flanders and a descendant of King Alfred the
    Great, thereby strengthening his claim to the
    crown of England.
  • Henry I, fearing the strong bond between Normandy
    (Normandie) and Flanders resulting from the
    marriage, attempted in 1054 and again in 1058 to
    crush the powerful duke, but on both occasions
    William defeated the French kings forces.

William I The Conqueror (1027-1087), first Norman
king of England (1066-1087).
5
  • The year 1066 was a turning point in English
    history. William I, the Conqueror, and his sons
    gave England vigorous new leadership. Norman
    feudalism became the basis for redistributing the
    land among the conquerors, giving England a new
    French aristocracy and a new social and political
    structure. England turned away from Scandinavia
    toward France, an orientation that was to last
    for 400 years.
  • William was a hard ruler, punishing England,
    especially the north, when it disputed his
    authority. His power and efficiency can be seen
    in the Domesday Survey, a census for tax
    purposes, and in the Salisbury Oath of
    allegiance, which he demanded of all tenants. He
    appointed Lanfranc, an Italian clergyman, as
    archbishop of Canterbury. He also promoted church
    reform, especially by the creation of separate
    church courts, but retained royal control.
  • When William died in 1087, he gave England to his
    second son, William II (Rufus), and Normandy to
    his eldest son, Robert. Henry, his third son, in
    due time got bothEngland in 1100, when William
    II died in a hunting accident, and Normandy in
    1106 by conquest. Henry I used his feudal court
    and household to organize the government. The
    exchequer (the royal treasury) was established at
    this time.
  • Henry wanted his daughter, Matilda, to succeed
    him, but in 1135 his nephew, Stephen of Blois,
    seized the throne. The years from 1135 to 1154
    were marked by civil war and strife. The royal
    government Henry had built fell apart, and the
    feudal barons asserted their independence. The
    church, playing one side against the other,
    extended its authority.

6
  • Battle of Hastings, was fought on October 14,
    1066, between a national army led by Harold II,
    Saxon king of England, and an invasion force led
    by William, Duke of Normandy, afterward William I
    (the Conqueror). Harolds brother, Tostig, earl
    of Northumbria, supported Williams claim, and at
    the Battle of Stamford Bridge on September 25 in
    Yorkshire, was slain by Harold. The English army
    of about 7000 soldiers then marched from
    Yorkshire and occupied a height (later called
    Senlac Hill) on the Hastings-London highway about
    10.5 km northwest of Hastings. The royal force
    was composed exclusively of infantry, armed with
    spears, swords, and battle-axes. Meanwhile,
    Williams seaborne forces, which included
    infantry armed with crossbows and contingents of
    heavily armed cavalry, landed on the English
    coast near Hastings on September 28, 1066.
  • The initial Norman attack, launched in the
    morning of October 14, failed.The English axmen
    turned back a Norman cavalry charge and several
    units of the English army broke ranks, contrary
    to Harold's orders, and followed the retreating
    Normans. Other Norman troops quickly surrounded
    and annihilated these units. Taking advantage of
    the lack of discipline among the English
    soldiers, William ordered a retreat. Severely
    weakened by these reverses and demoralized by the
    mortal wounding of Harold by an arrow, the
    English were forced to abandon their strategic
    position on the crest of Senlac Hill. Only small
    remnants of the defending army survived the
    subsequent onslaughts of the Norman cavalry.
    William's victory at Hastings paved the way for
    Norman subjugation of all England.

7
  • Domesday Book, sometimes called just Domesday,
    written record of a statistical survey of England
    ordered by William the Conqueror. The survey,
    made in 1086, was an attempt to register the
    landed wealth of the country in a systematic
    fashion, to determine the revenues due to the
    king. The previous system of taxation was of
    ancient origin and had become obsolete. By
    listing all feudal estates, both lay and
    ecclesiastical, the Domesday Book enabled William
    to strengthen his authority by exacting oaths of
    allegiance from all tenants on the land, as well
    as from the nobles and churchmen on whose land
    the tenants lived. The survey was executed by
    groups of officers called legati, who visited
    each county and conducted a public inquiry. The
    set of questions that these officers asked of the
    town and county representatives constituted the
    Inquisitio Eliensis the answers supplied the
    information from which the Domesday Book was
    compiled. Domesday is a corruption of Doomsday
    (the day of the final judgment) the work was so
    named because its judgments in terms of levies
    and assessments were irrevocable.

8
England Under the Norman and Plantagenet Kings.
  • 1.Henry II
  • Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou,
    succeeded, as Henry II, in 1154. Henry II and his
    sons, Richard and John, expanded royal authority.
    Henry ended the anarchy of Stephen's reign,
    banishing mercenaries and destroying private
    castles. He strengthened the government created
    by Henry I. Most important, he developed the
    common law, administered by royal courts and
    applicable to all of England.
  • Henry attempted to reduce the jurisdiction of
    church courts, especially over clergy accused of
    crimes, but was opposed by Saint Thomas à Becket,
    his former chancellor, whom he had made
    archbishop of Canterbury. His anger at Becket's
    inflexibility led ultimately to Becket's
    martyrdom in 1170.
  • Henry's empire included more than half of France
    and lordship over Ireland and Scotland. His skill
    at governing, however, did not include the
    ability to placate his sons, who rebelled against
    him several times, backed by the kings of France
    and by their mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine.

9
born 1133, Le Mans, Main,
died July 6, 1189, near Tours By name Henry
Of Anjou, Henry Plantagenet, Henry Fitzempress,
or Henry Curtmantle (Short Mantle) duke of
Normandy (from 1150), count of Anjou (from 1151),
duke of Aquitaine (from 1152), and king of
England (from 1154), who greatly expanded his
Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal
administration in England. His quarrels with
Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with
members of his family (his wife, Eleanor of
Aquitaine, and such sons as Richard the
Lion-Heart (1157-1199) and John Lackland)
ultimately brought about his defeat.
10
This map shows the extent of the English and
French possessions of king Henry II. Significant
amounts of modern France were under the control
of (or at least claimed by) Henry. France itself
was very limited in size. Disputes over land led
to frequent warfare, something Pope Gregory VIII
hoped to stop by calling the Third Crusade.
These disputes also kept Richard the Lionheart
and Philip Augustus of France from uniting
completely when they went on the Crusade.
11
  • 2.Richard and John
  • Richard I, the Lion-Hearted, was in England only
    briefly. He was busy fighting in the Crusades and
    later for the land lost in France during his
    absence, especially while he was a captive in
    Germany. Even during Richard's absence, however,
    the government built by Henry II continued to
    function, collecting taxes to support his wars
    and to pay his ransom.
  • John lost Normandy in 1204, and in 1213, after a
    long fight with Pope Innocent III over the naming
    of Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury,
    John capitulated and acknowledged England to be a
    papal fief. All this caused a quarrel with his
    barons over his general leadership and their
    refusal to follow him into war in Normandy. The
    barons, led by Langton, forced John in 1215 to
    accept the Magna Carta, or Great Charter, by
    which he admitted his errors and promised to
    respect English law and feudal custom. He died
    the next year, still at war with the barons.
    Although the loss of Normandy seemed a disgrace
    at the time, it left England free to develop its
    unique institutions without outside interference.

12
Think no more of it, John you are only a child
who has had evil counsellors. Richard
I (1157 - 1199) Said at his reconciliation, at
Lisieux in May 1194, with his brother John, who
had attempted to overthrow him while he was held
prisoner in Germany (1193-1194).
13
the Magna Carta
14
  • 3.Economic Prosperity and Baronial Revolt
  • When John died in 1216, the barons accepted his
    nine-year-old son as King Henry III. They assumed
    control of the government and confirmed the Magna
    Carta in 1225, as did Henry when he came of age
    two years later. Thus began the tradition of
    royal confirmation of the Magna Carta and the
    idea that it was the fundamental statement of
    English law and of limited government.
  • England prospered in the 12th and 13th centuries.
    Land under cultivation increased sheep raising
    and the sale of wool became extremely important.
    London and other towns became vital centres of
    trade and wealth, and by royal charters they
    acquired the right to local self-government. The
    universities of Oxford and Cambridge were
    established. The population probably doubled from
    about 1.5 million to more than 3 million.

15
Oxford University
Henry III
Cambridge University
16
  • The monasteries, especially those of the
    Cistercians, led the rural expansion and became
    wealthy in the process. More than a dozen
    cathedrals were built, as well as scores of
    abbeys and parish churches, all attesting to the
    wealth of England and of its church. In the 1220s
    the friars, Franciscans and Dominicans, arrived
    in England, improving the quality of preaching
    and becoming the leading scholars in the
    universities.
  • Henry III was not an able king, however. He
    quarrelled with the barons, who thought that
    they, rather than his favourites, should have the
    major offices. In 1258 the Provisions of Oxford
    attempted to give control of the government to a
    committee of barons. Civil war broke out in 1264,
    and the baronial leader Simon de Montfort came
    briefly to power. Montfort, however, was killed
    in the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and power
    returned to Henry and his able son, Edward.

17
  • 4.Reforms and the English Parliament
  • Edward I restored royal control and made several
    reforms He limited the barons' right to hold
    their own courts of law he gave English common
    law and most important, he used and developed
    Parliament, which was essentially the king's
    feudal council with a new name and an enlarged
    membership.
  • The Model Parliament of 1295, following
    Montfort's pattern of 1265, consisted of great
    barons, bishops, abbots, and representatives of
    counties and towns. In 1297, to get money for his
    wars, Edward accepted the Confirmation of
    Charters, agreeing that taxes must be agreed by
    the Parliament. In the following century,
    Parliament divided into two houses, Lords and
    Commons, and made good its claim to control
    taxation and to participate in the making of
    statutes.

18
Sir WilliamWallace Its all for nothing if you
dont have freedom.
Edward I, called Longshanks, king of England
(1272-1307), of the house of Plantagenet
THE WELSH / ENGLISH LONGBOW
19
  • Edward conquered northwest Wales, ending the rule
    of its native princes. He built stone castles,
    adopted the Welsh longbow as an English weapon,
    and named his oldest son the Prince of Wales.
  • He intervened in Scottish affairs, even claiming
    the Scottish throne. Having fought the Scots
    often but with little effect, Edward died in 1307
    without having subdued the northern kingdom.
  • On Edwards grave was writtenEdward, the Hammer
    of the Scots He intended to hammer them into the
    ground, but in fact he had hammered them into a
    nation.

20
  • His son, Edward II, gave up the campaign. In
    1314, at the Battle of Bannockburn, King Robert
    Bruce made good Scotland's claim to independence.
    One cost of the war was the long-lasting
    hostility of Scotland, backed by its alliance
    with France.
  • Edward II was a weak king, partly influenced by
    favourites and partly dominated by the ordinances
    of 1311 that gave the barons the ruling power.
    Although he freed himself of baronial rule in
    1322, he was forced to abdicate in 1327.

21
Robert I, the Bruce (1274-1329) is surely the
greatest of all the great Scottish heroes
Edward II (1284 - 1327)
22
The 14th century
  • His son, Edward III, got on well with the barons
    by keeping them busy in France, where England
    continued to hold extensive territory.
  • In 1337 he initiated the Hundred Years' War to
    prove his claim to the French throne.
  • The English had some initial success at Crécy
    (1346) and Poitiers (1356), where they used the
    English longbow with deadly effect against the
    French. By 1396, however, England had lost all
    its previous gains. The expense of the war
    repeatedly forced Edward to go to Parliament for
    taxes, enabling it to bargain for concessions and
    to establish its rights and privileges.

23
Battle of Crécy between the English and French in
the Hundred Years' War. From a 15th-century
illuminated manuscript of Jean Froissart's
Chronicles
24
  • Edward was born on 13 November 1312, possibly at
    Windsor, the son of Edward II and Isabella of
    France. Edward himself became king in 1327 after
    his father was deposed by his mother and her
    lover, Roger Mortimer. A year later Edward
    married Philippa of Hainault - they were to have
    13 children. Isabella and Roger ruled in Edward's
    name until 1330, when he executed Mortimer and
    banished his mother.
  • Edward's primary focus was now war with France.
    Ongoing territorial disputes were intensified in
    1340 when Edward assumed the title of king of
    France, starting a war that would last
    intermittently for over a century. In July 1346,
    Edward landed in Normandy, accompanied by his son
    Edward, the Black Prince. His decisive victory at
    Crécy in August scattered the French army. Edward
    then captured Calais, establishing it as a base
    for future campaigns. In 1348, he created the
    Order of the Garter.

25
  • War restarted in 1355. The following year, the
    Black Prince won a significant victory at
    Poitiers, capturing the French king, John II. The
    resulting Treaty of Bretigny in 1360 marked the
    end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War
    and the high point of English influence in
    France. Edward renounced his claim to the French
    crown in return for the whole of Aquitaine.
  • In 1369, the French declared war again. Edward
    left the fighting to his sons. They enjoyed
    little success and the English lost much of the
    territory they had gained in 1360.
  • After the death of his queen, Philippa, in 1369,
    Edward fell under the influence of Alice Perrers,
    his mistress, who was regarded as corrupt and
    grasping. Against a backdrop of military failure
    in France and outbreaks of the plague, the 'Good
    Parliament' of 1376 was summoned. Perrers and
    other members of the court were severely
    criticised and heavy taxation attacked. New
    councillors were imposed on the king. The death
    of the Black Prince, Edward's heir, interrupted
    the crisis and the king's younger son, John of
    Gaunt, who had ruled the country during Edward's
    frequent absence in France, later reversed the
    Good Parliament's reforming efforts.
  • Edward died on 21 June 1377, leaving his young
    grandson Richard as king

26
Hundred Years' War 1337-1453
27
Although Edward never became king - he died
before his father, Edward III - he is remembered
as a great medieval military hero, with notable
victories against the French in the Hundred Years
War.
Edward the Black Prince (1330 - 1376)
  • During his lifetime he was known as Edward of
    Woodstock the title of Black Prince developed
    after his death and may refer to black armour
    that he wore.

28
  • The Black Death struck England in 1349, reducing
    the population by as much as a third.

29
The Peasants' Revolt
  • The Peasants' Revolt in 1381 reflected the
    continuing unrest
  • Tyler's Rebellion
  • There were outbreaks of violence among the
    peasantry throughout England. In London, Tyler,
    Ball and Straw targeted the two people most
    responsible for the poll tax Archbishop Sudbury,
    the chancellor and Sir Robert Hailes, the
    treasurer. These two they found hiding in the
    Tower of London and that is where they were
    beheaded. But the rebels, still in the grip of
    the myth of the "divine right" of kings, believed
    Richard a natural ally of the poor.
  • It was a time of economic and social
    changemanorial service was being commuted to
    cash payments, and serfdom was on the way to its
    end in the following century.

30
  • The move of the popes from Rome to Avignon in
    France (1309-1376) and the Great Schism
    (1378-1417), in which rival popes opposed one
    another, caused a loss of English respect for the
    papacy. John Wycliffe, an Oxford professor,
    criticized corruption in the church and had ideas
    similar to those of the later Protestant
    reformers. In 1382 he was removed by an
    ecclesiastical court to the country parish at
    Lutterworth, and his ideas were declared
    heretical. His followers, the Lollards, were
    persecuted but not stamped out
  • Richard II, the grandson of Edward III, began his
    reign when he was ten years old, with rival
    factions fighting for control of his government.
    As an adult he governed moderately until 1397,
    when he became involved in a struggle with the
    leading nobles. In 1399 his cousin, Henry
    Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, forced him to
    abdicate and became king in his place as Henry
    IV.

31
Richard II
January 6, 1367 February 14, 1400) was King of
England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399
Richard II watches Wat Tyler's death and
addresses the peasants in the background
32
The Lancastrian and Yorkist Kings
  • Since 1216 the royal succession had always gone
    to the king's eldest son. By this rule, Henry IV,
    the son of John of Gaunt, Edward III's fourth
    son, had no claim to the throne. The rightful
    heir was Edmund, earl of March, who was descended
    from Edward's third son. Because of the
    irregularity, Henry and his Lancastrian
    successors were not secure in their claim to the
    throne. This weakness was manifest in his
    concessions to Parliament and to the church as
    well as in his wars with powerful and rebellious
    families in Wales and the north.
  • Henry V, who succeeded his father, had one
    ambition to duplicate Edward III's military
    exploits in France. He won a brilliant victory at
    Agincourt in 1415 and had his success confirmed
    in the Treaty of Troyes (1420). He married the
    daughter of the mad French king, Charles VI,
    assumed control of the French government,
    although not the entire country, and could expect
    a son of this marriage to inherit both kingdoms.

33
Henry IV (of England) (1367-1413)
During his reign Henry IV persecuted the
religious sect known as the Lollards.
Henry V of England (16 September 1387 31 August
1422)
He was the most influential ruler in western
Europe at the time of his death in Vincennes,
France, August 31, 1422

34
  • In 1422 both Henry and Charles VI died, bringing
    the nine-month-old Henry VI to the throne of both
    countries. For a time, Henry's able uncles, John
    of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, and Humphrey of
    Gloucester held things together, the former in
    France, the latter in England.
  • In 1429, however, Joan of Arc appeared, inspiring
    French resistance to English rule. Although Joan
    was captured and burned as a heretic in 1431, the
    English position in France became increasingly
    unstable.

35
Henry VI (of England) (1421-1471)
He had suffered attacks of insanity all his life
and was often completely incapacitated. Henry,
who founded Eton College and King's College,
University of Cambridge, was venerated by many as
a saint because of his piety
Joan of Arc, (c. 1412 May 30, 1431) was a 15th
century national heroine of France. She was tried
and executed for heresy when she was only 19
years old. The judgment was broken by the Pope
and she was declared innocent and a martyr 24
years later. She was beatified in 1909 and
canonized as a saint in 1920.
36
The Wars of the Roses
  • Henry VI was not capable of ruling during his
    reign, control of the kingdom passed from one
    noble faction to another. The war in France only
    emphasized Henry's inability at home. The loss of
    Normandy in 1450 and the corruption of the
    government, the loss of everything in France,
    except Calais, in 1453, was a prelude to the
    dynastic conflict called the Wars of the Roses
    (1455-1485).
  • The wars were fought between two branches of the
    royal family, the Lancastrians, who in the person
    of Henry VI possessed the throne but lacked the
    ability to rule, and the Yorkists, led by
    Richard, Duke of York, who had a valid claim to
    the throne and greater ability. The issue was
    complicated in 1453, when the king's wife,
    Margaret of Anjou, gave birth to a son,
    destroying Richard's status as heir apparent.

37
Lancashire rose
Yorkshire rose
38
  • The turning point in the wars came in 1460. That
    year Richard was killed in battle, and his cause
    was taken up by his son, Edward. Assisted by
    Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, he defeated the
    Lancastrians in 1461, took Henry captive, and so
    overawed Parliament that it acclaimed him king as
    Edward IV.
  • Henry, however, escaped, and Edward's subsequent
    marriage (1464) to Elizabeth Woodville and his
    alliance with Burgundy alienated Warwick, who
    then joined forces with Margaret of Anjou to
    depose Edward and restore Henry to the throne
    (1470).
  • Edward returned the following year, supported by
    his brother-in-law, Charles the Bold of Burgundy,
    and decisively defeated the Lancastrians.
    Thereafter, he was secure on the throne and
    restored some degree of sound government. When
    Edward died in 1483, the throne went to his
    12-year-old son, Edward V, but it was usurped
    three months later by the boy's uncle, Richard,
    Duke of Gloucester, who became king as Richard
    III. Two years later, Henry Tudor, asserting a
    weak Lancastrian claim, defeated Richard at
    Bosworth and became Henry VII.

39
Richard III (1452-1485), king of England
(1483-1485)
Although Richard, the last king of the house of
York, did usurp the throne, little doubt exists
that his unscrupulousness has been overemphasized
by his enemies and by Tudor historians seeking to
strengthen the Lancastrian position. His
immorality is strongly exaggerated in
Shakespeare's play Richard III.
King Richard's Field
Richard made a last attempt to win victory by
directly attacking Henry with is personal guard,
and almost succeeded, having cut down Henry's
standard bearer. Richard's gamble failed, and he
was struck down. The battle ended because his
followers had no other definite leader. Richard
was the last king of England to die on the
battlefield. His death effectively ended the Wars
of the Roses, and Henry VII started a new
dynasty, the Tudors.
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