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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach G. Tyler Miller s Living in the Environment 14th Edition Chapter 11 Key Concepts Human land use Types ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach


1
Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity The
Ecosystem Approach
G. Tyler Millers Living in the Environment 14th
Edition Chapter 11
2
Key Concepts
  • Human land use
  • Types and uses of US public lands
  • Forests and forest management
  • Implications of deforestation
  • Management of parks
  • Establishment and management of nature preserves
  • Importance of ecological restoration

3
Factors Increasing Biodiversity
  • Middle stage of succession
  • Moderate environmental disturbance
  • Small changes in environmental conditions
  • Physically diverse habitat
  • Evolution

Refer to Fig. 11-2 p. 195
4
Factors Decreasing Biodiversity
  • Extreme environmental conditions
  • Large environmental disturbance
  • Intense environmental stress
  • Severe shortages of resources
  • Nonnative species introduction
  • Geographic isolation

Refer to Fig. 11-2 p. 195
5
Human Activities and Biodiversity
Fig. 11-3 p. 195
6
Importance of Biodiversity
  • Intrinsic value
  • Instrumental value
  • Existence value
  • Aesthetic value
  • Bequest value

7
Solutions for Protecting Biodiversity
Fig. 11-5 p. 197
8
Conservation Biology
  • Multidisciplinary science
  • Emergency response
  • Identify hot spots
  • Rapid Assessment Teams
  • Based on Leopolds ethics

9
Types of US Public Lands
  • Multiple-use lands National Forests National
    Resource Lands
  • Moderately-restricted use lands National
    Wildlife Refuges
  • Restricted-use lands National Park System
    National Wilderness Preservation System

10
US Public Lands
Fig. 11-6 p. 198
11
Managing US Public Land
  • Biodiversity and ecological function
  • No subsidies or tax breaks for use
  • Public should get fair compensation
  • Users held responsible for actions

12
Types of Forests
  • Old-growth (frontier) forests
  • Second-growth forests
  • Tree farms/plantation

13
Managing and Sustaining Forests
Ecological Importance of Forests
Refer to Fig. 11-7 p. 200
  • Food webs and energy flow
  • Protect soils from erosion
  • Local and regional climate
  • Numerous habitats and niches
  • Air purification

14
Managing and Sustaining Forests
Economic Importance of Forests
Refer to Fig. 11-7 p. 200
  • Fuelwood
  • Lumber
  • Paper
  • Livestock grazing
  • Mineral extraction and recreation

15
Forest Management
  • Rotation cycle
  • Even-aged management
  • Uneven-aged management
  • Improved diversity
  • Sustainable production
  • Multiple-use

16
Management Strategies Rotation Cycles
Fig. 11-8 p. 201
17
Roads Lead to Forest Degradation
  • Increased erosion and runoff
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Pathways for exotic species
  • Accessibility to humans

Fig. 11-9 p. 201
18
Harvesting Trees
  • Selective cutting
  • High-grading
  • Shelterwood cutting
  • Seed-tree cutting
  • Clear-cutting
  • Strip cutting

Fig. 11-10e p. 202
19
Sustainable Forestry
  • Longer rotations
  • Selective or strip cutting
  • Minimize fragmentation
  • Improved road building techniques
  • Certify sustainable grown

(See Solutions, Fig. 11-13 p. 205)
20
Insect and Pathogen Threats to U.S. Forests
  • Sudden oak death
  • White pine blister rust
  • Pine shoot beetle
  • Beech bark disease
  • Hemlock woolly adelgid

See Fig. 11-14 p. 207
21
Fire
  • Surface fires
  • Crown fires

Fig. 11-15 p. 208
22
Logging in U.S. National Forests
  • Provides local jobs
  • Provides only 3 of timber
  • Increases environmental
  • damage
  • Hinders recreation income

Fig. 11-16 p. 210
23
Tropical Deforestation Consequences
  • Rapid and increasing
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Loss of resources (e.g., medicines)
  • Contributes to global warming

24
Tropical Deforestation Causes
Fig. 11-18 p. 212
25
Reducing Tropical Deforestation
  • Encourage protection of large tracts
  • Sustainable tropical agriculture
  • Debt-for-nature swaps
  • Reduce illegal cutting
  • Reducing poverty and population growth

Refer to Fig. 11-19 p. 213
26
Managing and Sustaining National Parks
  • Inadequate protection
  • Often too small to sustain biodiversity
  • Invasions by nonnative species
  • Too many human visitors
  • Traffic jams and air pollution
  • Better pay for park staff

Also refer to Fig. 11-29 p. 215
27
Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature
Reserves
  • Include moderate to large tracts of land
  • Involve government, private sector and citizens
  • Biosphere reserves
  • Adaptive ecosystem management
  • Protect most important areas (hot spots)
  • Wilderness areas

28
Ecological Restoration
  • Restoration
  • Rehabilitation
  • Remediation

See Individuals Matter p. 214
  • Replacement
  • Creating artificial ecosystems

29
Ecological Restoration Basic Principles
  • Mimic nature
  • Recreate lost niches
  • Rely on pioneer species
  • Control nonnative species
  • Reconnect small patches
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