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Chapter 7: Biodiversity and Conservation

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Title: Chapter 7: Biodiversity and Conservation


1
Chapter 7 Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Mr. Manskopf
  • Notes also are at http//www.manskopf.com

2
Chapter 10 Biodiversity Big Ideas
  • There is a huge diversity of life on Earth that
    is critical to all species. .
  • There are some factors about species that make
    them prone to extinction.
  • Human activities are causing large numbers of
    species to go extinct.

3
Section 1 Our Planet of Life What is
biodiversity?
  • How many species live on Earth?
  • Describe the types of biodiversity.
  • Explain why biodiversity is important.
  • Terms biodiversity, genes, keystone species,
    ecotourism

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5
  • About 1.7 million species are known
  • Estimates vary from greater than 10 million
  • Why so many unknown?

6
Biodiversity
Which species rule the world?
7
Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity the number of different species in
    a given area
  • Tropical rain forests
  • What factors lead to biodiversity?

8
Types of Biodiversity
  • Species Biodiversity number of different species
    in an area
  • Ecosystem Diversity how many types of habitats in
    an area
  • Genetic Diversity the number of genes in all
    members of a population

9
Types of Biodiversity
Genetic diversity Differences in DNA among
individuals
Species diversity Variety of species in a given
area
Ecosystem diversity Variety of habitats,
ecosystems, communities
10
Ecosystem diversity often leads to species
diversity and often genetic diversity
11
Did You Know? In general, biodiversity increases
toward the equator.
12
Who cares about Biodiversity?A Variety of Answers
13
What is a gene?
  • Gene a piece of DNA code for a specific trait
    inherited
  • Tall, short, brown eyes, etc.

Genetic Diversity among corn
14
Benefits of Diversity
  • Genetic Diversity Key To Survival
  • small isolated populations unlikely to survive
  • Genetic mutations from inbreeding can occur
  • More diversity more likely to survive

15
Why is genetic diversity important?
Cavendish banana
The fungus Fusarium oxysporum wiped out the
previous species of bananas (the Gros Michel) in
the 1950s. Now its back, having evolved to be
able to take on the previously resistant
back-up species of banana the Cavendish
that replaced the superior Gros Michel banana
after it was wiped out.
16
Benefits of Diversity Ecosystem Services
  • Intact environments provide ecosystem services,
    such as water purification and pest control.
  • High biodiversity increases stability of
    communities and ecosystems, enabling them to
    perform services.
  • Stable ecosystems are resistant and resilient.

17
Benefits of Diversity
  • Keystone Species species that is critical to
    ecosystem survival
  • Sea otter
  • Grey Wolf
  • Beaver

18
Keystone Species
Food Web Depends Upon Krill
19
Benefits of Diversity
  • Medical, Industrial, Agricultural uses
  • Food, cloths, shelter, chemicals and medicine
    often comes from variety of organisms

See table 1 pages 261
20
Medical
  • Medicine Organisms contain compounds that are
    useful for treating disease.

The yew tree, an original source of Taxol, a
cancer-fighting drug
Did You Know? Of the 150 most prescribed drugs
in the United States, 118 originated in nature.
21
Benefits of Biodiversity
  • Ethics, Aesthetics and Recreation
  • Moral, religious purposes for all species
  • Personal enjoyment

Dolphin Tour Off NJ Beaches
22
Benefits of Biodiversity
  • Ecotourism tourisms that supports conservation
  • Wildlife, birding, wilderness hiking
  • People make by having people view wildlife

23
Section 1 Review
  • How many species live on Earth?
  • Describe the types of biodiversity.
  • Explain why biodiversity is important.
  • Terms biodiversity, genes, keystone species,
    ecotourism

24
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25
Section 2 Biodiversity at Risk
  • What does it mean when a species is threatened or
    endangered?
  • What makes some species more prone to extinction?
  • What are the largest threats to biodiversity?
  • What areas are likely to have high biodiversity?
  • Terms endangered species, threatened species,
    exotic species, endemic species, poaching

26
Biodiversity has increased over time, but mass
extinctions are also natural events (5 major
events) How do we get this data?
27
Extinctions
  • Species gone forever
  • NORMAL
  • Mass Extinction short period of time when large
    number of species go extinct (65 MYA)
  • Currently in mass extinctioncaused by humans
  • Rapid climate change

28
  • There have been five mass extinctions in Earths
    history.
  • Each time, more than 1/5 of all families and 1/2
    of all species have gone extinct.

29
Biodiversity at Risk
The current extinction rate is 100 to 1000 times
greater than the natural background rate. In
2009, 1321 species in the U.S. were classified as
endangered or threatened. Endangered At serious
risk of extinction Threatened Likely to become
endangered soon through all or part of its range
30
Extinctions
  • Certain traits make some species more vulnerable
  • Small populations
  • Specialized
  • Need large range
  • Migration
  • Valuable to humans

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32
Species squeezed into smaller and smaller
fragmented habitat
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34
Current Extinctions
  • Endangered Species is likely to go extinct if
    actions not taken
  • Threatened population declining and likely to
    become endangered

35
Current Extinctions
  • TNC estimates 1/3rd of 21,000 identified U.S.
    animal and plant species are vulnerable.
  • 30,000 of the worlds species and 1,200 in U.S.
    are officially endangered.

36
Types of endangered species worldwide
37
How do humans cause extinctions?
  • HIPPO
  • Habitat destruction
  • Invasive species
  • Population (humans) growth
  • Pollution
  • Overharvesting

38
Habitat Loss/Fragmentation
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41
Habitat Fragmentation
Habitat fragmentation Patches of suitable
habitat surrounded by unsuitable habitat In
general, larger habitat fragments can support
greater biodiversity than smaller fragments
42
Humans Causing Extinctions
  • Habitat Destruction causes 75-80
  • Large creatures need lot of land
  • Invasive Species exotic species not native to
    area can destroy an ecosystem

43
Invasive Species
Invasive species can out-compete and displace
native species.
44
Invasive Species
CA Agricultural Checkpoints
45
Humans Causing Extinction
  • Over-harvesting excessive hunting (bison in U.S.,
    fish)
  • Poaching illegal hunting
  • Common in poor countries for food, medicines,
    income
  • Pollution air, water, land

46
Causes of Extinction Climate Change
  • Increasingly becoming a factor in biodiversity
    loss
  • Unlike the other factors, climate change will
    have a potentially global effect on biodiversity.

47
Areas of Critical Biodiversity
  • Hotspots areas threatened that contain high
    biodiversity
  • Roughly 25 worldwide
  • Madagascar
  • Parts of California

48
Hotspots
Large numbers of endemic species species native
to that area
49
US Hotspots
50
Areas of Critical Biodiversity
  • Tropical Rain Forests
  • Coral Reefs
  • Coastal Ecosystems
  • Islands
  • Why these areas????

51
  • Just 2.3 of the planets land surface is home to
    50 of the worlds plant species and 42 of its
    vertebrate animal species.

52
Section 2 Review
  • What does it mean when a species is threatened or
    endangered?
  • What makes some species more prone to extinction?
  • What are the largest threats to biodiversity?
  • What areas are likely to have high biodiversity?
  • Terms endangered species, threatened species,
    exotic species, endemic species, poaching

53
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54
Section 3 Future of Biodiversity
  • List and describe efforts to save individual
    species.
  • Explain the advantages of protecting entire
    ecosystems rather than individual species.
  • Describe the main parts of the Endangered Species
    Act.
  • Terms Endangered Species Act, habitat
    conservation plans, CITES

55
Saving Individual Species
  • Captive Breeding Programs breeding species in
    captivity with hopes of reintroducing into native
    habitats
  • Germ Plasm saving genetic material for possible
    future use
  • (seeds, eggs, DNA)
  • Zoos and Aquariums

56
Saving Individual Species
  • Does little to preserve species
  • Captive individuals may not survive in wild
  • Small populations have difficult time with
    inbreeding, diseases
  • Last resorts

57
Preserving Habitat and Ecosystems
  • Most effective way to save a species is protect
    its habitat.
  • Some species require large areas
  • What about when they leave protected areas?
    (Wolves in Yellowstone

58
Legal Protections
  • Many countries have laws to protect wildlife
  • Some weak some strong
  • U.S. law Endangered Species Act (ESA)

59
ESA
  • Endangered Species Act
  • Passed 1973
  • Protect plant and animals in danger of extinction
  • List created of those threatened and endangered
  • Currently 1,300 listed

60
ESA
  • Forbids governments and citizens from harming
    listed species and habitats
  • Forbids trade in products made from listed
    species

61
ESA
  • Protects listed species from harm
  • No development that harms listed species
  • What does that all mean?
  • Can a Shopping Mall be built where listed species
    lives?

Spotted Owl
62
ESA
  • Species recovery plan must be made
  • Habitat Conservation Plans plans to protect
    species habitat
  • Why do you think ESA may be controversial?
  • Who would not like this law?

63
ESA
  • ESA
  • 1973-2004 92 to 1,300 species listed
  • 37 Species removed (14 recovery, 8 extinctions,
    rest discovered more)
  • 60 plants, 40 animals
  • TNC says 1/3rd of all U.S. species30,000 not
    1,260

NJ ESA List http//www.state.nj.us/dep/fgw/tandesp
p.htm
64
Wildlife Corridors
  • Connect habitat fragments enabling once-isolated
    populations to interbreed
  • Interbreeding increases genetic diversity.

65
Yellowstone to Yukon
66
Internationally
  • CITES (Convention on International Trade of
    Endangered Species) illegal to trade endangered
    species

Ivory Tusks
67
Internationally
  • Much more difficult among may poorer countries
  • International treaties hard to ratify, verify
  • Oceans of particular concern
  • http//animal.discovery.com/tv/whale-wars/

68
Section 3 Review
  • List and describe efforts to save individual
    species.
  • Explain the advantages of protecting entire
    ecosystems rather than individual species.
  • Describe the main parts of the Endangered Species
    Act.
  • Terms Endangered Species Act, habitat
    conservation plans, CITES

69
Chapter 10 Biodiversity Review
  • There is a huge diversity of life on Earth that
    is critical to all species. .
  • There are some factors about species that make
    them prone to extinction.
  • Human activities are causing large numbers of
    species to go extinct.

70
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