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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: Managing and Protecting Ecosystems

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Title: Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: Managing and Protecting Ecosystems


1
Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity Managing
and Protecting Ecosystems
  • Chapter 10

2
Core Case Study Reintroducing Gray Wolves to
Yellowstone
  • 18501900 decline of wolves due to human
    activity
  • (shooting, trapping and poisoning to make safe
    for grazing livestock)
  • U.S. Endangered Species Act 1973
  • 1987- proposal to reintroduce gray wolf to
    Yellowstone to help control the increase in herds
    of grazers, coyotes
  • 19951996 relocation of gray wolves to
    Yellowstone Park from Canada
  • 2008 Gray wolf no longer protected

3
Ch. 10 Key Concepts
  • Human impact on earths biodiversity
  • Types and uses of US public lands
  • Forests and forest management
  • Implications of deforestation
  • Management of parks
  • Establishment and management of nature preserves
  • Importance of ecological restoration

4
Human Impacts on Terrestrial Biodiversity
Factors that tend to increase or decrease
biodiversity
5
Natural Capital Degradation
Human Population Size and resource use
Human Activities Agriculture, industry,
economic production and consumption, recreation
Direct Effects
Degradation and destruction of natural
ecosystems Alteration of natural chemical cycles
and energy flows
Changes in number and distribution of
species Pollution of air, water, and soil
Major connections between human activities and
earths biodiversity.
Indirect Effects
Climate change
Loss of biodiversity
6
60
EUROPE
NORTH AMERICA
ASIA
30N
Tropic of Cancer
Atlantic Ocean
AFRICA
Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
150
90
60E
0
30W
90
120
150
0
SOUTH AMERICA
Indian Ocean
Tropic of Capricorn
AUSTRALIA
30S
Antarctic Circle
60
ANTARCTICA
Critical and endangered
Threatened
Stable or intact
Projected Status of Biodiversity 19982018
7
Why should we care??? Importance of Biodiversity
  • Intrinsic value (Existence value)- because they
    exist, regardless of their use to us!
  • Instrumental value- because of their usefulness
    to us
  • Aesthetic value- appreciation of the beauty
  • Bequest value- appreciation of protection for
    future generations

8
The Species Approach
The Ecosystem Approach
Goal
Goal
Protect populations of species in their
natural habitats
Protect species from premature extinction
Protecting Biodiversity
Strategies
Strategy
  • Identify endangered species
  • Protect their critical habitats

Preserve sufficient areas of habitats in
different biomes and aquatic systems
Tactics
Tactics
  • Protect habitat areas through private purchase or
    government action
  • Eliminate or reduce populations of alien species
    from protected areas
  • Manage protected areas to sustain native species
  • Restore degraded ecosystems
  • Legally protect endangered species
  • Manage habitat
  • Propagate endangered species in captivity
  • Reintroduce species into suitable habitats

9
Conservation Biology
  • Multidisciplinary science orig. in 1970s
  • Emergency response to slow down the rate of human
    degradation on earths biodiversity.
  • Identify hot spots- most endangered and species
    rich ecosystems worldwide.
  • Rapid Assessment Teams
  • Based on Leopolds ethics idea that something
    is right when it tends to maintain the earths
    life-support system for us and wrong when it does
    not.
  • Bioinformatics applied area of science that
    involves managing, analyzing and communicating
    biological information. (Uses technology such as
    computer databases of DNA, high resol. Images of
    all known species, etc)

10
Public Lands in the US
  • 35 of the land in the US is managed by the
    federal govt. and available for public use (73
    in Alaska!)

11
Public Lands in the US
  • Multiple-use lands National Forests National
    Resource Lands (managed by BLM) - used for
    logging, mining, oil and gas extraction,
    livestock grazing hunting, fishing, recreation,
    farming conservation watersheds, soil and
    wildlife resources
  • Moderately-restricted use lands National
    Wildlife Refuges (managed by USFWS)- protect
    habitats and breeding grounds for waterfowl and
    large game for hunters some protect endangered
    species allow hunting, trapping fishing, oil
    gas development, mining, grazing, military
    activities, farming, logging
  • Restricted-use lands National Park System
    (managed by Natl. Parks service)- includes natl.
    recreation areas, monuments, memorials,
    historical sites, trails, rivers, shorelines
    only camping, hiking, sport fishing and boating
    National Wilderness Preservation System -most
    restricted public lands mostly open for hiking
    and sport fishing, camping

12
Types of US Public Lands
13
Managing US Public Land An ongoing controversy
  • Protecting biodiversity and ecological function-
    argument over if this should be the primary goal
    of public lands
  • No subsidies or tax breaks for use of resources
    from public lands- user-pays approach
  • Public should get fair compensation for any
    resources extracted from public lands
  • Users held responsible for actions and any envtl.
    damage caused

14
Managing and Sustaining Forests
  • TYPES OF FORESTS (based on age structure)
  • Old-growth (frontier or primary) forests- uncut
    or not disturbed in several hundred years lots
    of biodiversity (36 of worlds forests)
  • Second-growth forests- secondary succession after
    being cleared from human activities or natural
    disasters (60 of worlds forests)
  • Tree farms/plantation- uniformly aged trees that
    are harvested by clear-cutting when commercially
    valuable replanted and cycles again (4 of
    worlds forests)
  • May supply most of the industrial wood in the
    future

15
Natural Capital An Old-Growth Forest and an
Old-Growth Tropical Forest
16
Managing and Sustaining Forests
  • Ecological Importance
  • Support food webs, energy flow, and nutrient
    cycling
  • Protect soils from erosion
  • Absorb / release water
  • Influence local and regional climate
  • Numerous habitats and niches
  • Air purification and store atmospheric carbon
  • Economic Importance
  • Fuel wood
  • Lumber
  • Paper
  • Livestock grazing
  • Mineral extraction
  • Recreation
  • Employment

17
Estimated Annual Global Economic Values of
Ecological Services Provided by Forests
18
Forest Management
  • Even-aged management- trees maintained and grown
    to always stand around the same age and size
    (industrial forestry) tree plantation with a
    desirable species that can be harvested within
    6-10 years
  • Uneven-aged management- trees of various
    ages/sizes protects diversity long-term
    sustainable production of timber allows multiple
    use for timber, recreation, watershed and
    wildlife protection

19
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20
How trees are managed and harvested
Fig. 11-8 p. 201
21
Fig. 10-3b, p. 216
22
How are trees harvested?
  • Major tree harvesting methods
  • Selective cutting- remove intermediate-mature
    aged trees singly or in small groups
  • High-grading - remove only largest and best
    trees of desirable species many tropical forests
  • Shelterwood cutting removes all mature trees in
    2-3 cuttings over a period of time
  • Seed-tree cutting- cut all trees but leave behind
    a few evenly distributed seed producing trees to
    regenerate
  • Clear-cutting- removes all trees in an area in a
    single cut
  • Strip cutting- clear cutting in smaller strips of
    land more sustainable than clear-cutting

23
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24
  • Shelterwood cutting
  • Seed-Tree cutting picture in textbook

25
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26
Clear-Cut Logging in Washington State, U.S.
27
Haiti Dominican Republic Border
DR
Haiti
Haiti
DR
28
Roads Lead to Forest Degradation
  • Increased erosion and runoff
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Pathways for exotic species
  • Accessibility to humans

29
Deforestation is a Major Threat to Forest
Ecosystems
  • Increased erosion
  • Decrease soil fertility
  • Sediment runoff into waterways
  • Accelerates flooding
  • Regional climate change from extensive clearing
  • Releases CO2 into atmosphere from burning and
    tree decay
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Invasion by
  • Nonnative pests
  • Disease
  • Wildlife species

30
Solution Sustainable Forestry
31
Forest Resources and Management in the US
  • Fire, Insects, and Climate Change Can Threaten
    Forest Ecosystems
  • Introduction of foreign diseases and insects
  • Accidental
  • Deliberate
  • Global warming
  • Rising temperatures
  • Trees more susceptible to diseases and pests
  • Drier forests more fires
  • More greenhouse gases

32
Insect and Pathogen Threats to U.S. Forests
  • Sudden oak death
  • White pine blister rust
  • Pine shoot beetle
  • Beech bark disease
  • Hemlock woolly adelgid

See Fig. 11-14 p. 207
33
Fire, Insects, and Climate Change Can Threaten
Forest Ecosystems
  • Surface fires
  • Usually burn leaf litter and undergrowth
  • May provide food in the form of vegetation that
    sprouts after fire
  • Crown fires
  • Extremely hot burns whole trees
  • Kill wildlife
  • Increase soil erosion

34
Surface and Crown fires
35
Solutions How can we reduce damage due to fires?
  • Smokey the Bear educational campaign
  • Prescribed fires intentionally set to prevent
    underbrush growth
  • Allow fires on public lands to burn
  • Protect structures in fire-prone areas
  • Thin forests in fire-prone areas introduction
    of goats
  • Healthy Forests Initiative (2003- U.S.)
  • Pros - timber companies can cut down trees for 10
    yrs in natl. forests in return for clearing
    fire-prone trees and underbrush
  • Cons- removes a lot of fire-resistant large
    trees leaves behind highly flammable smaller
    trees loss of habitats

36
Logging in U.S. National Forests
  • Advantages
  • Provides local jobs
  • Helps meet countrys timber needs
  • Cut areas grow back
  • Keeps lumbar and paper prices down
  • Promotes economic growth in nearby communities
  • Disadvantages
  • Provides only 3 of timber
  • Increases environmental damage
  • Hinders recreation income that can provide more
    local jobs and income than logging jobs.

37
We Can Reduce the Demand for Harvested Trees
  • Improve the efficiency of wood use
  • Use recycled paper products
  • Make tree-free paper
  • Use agricultural residues left overs from
    wheat, rice, sugar
  • Kenaf- a woody annual plant that grows quickly
    insect proof nitrogen fixer
  • Hemp

Kenaf
38
What Are the Major Threats to Forest Ecosystems?
  • Concept 1 Forest ecosystems provide ecological
    services far greater in value than the value of
    raw materials obtained from forests.
  • Concept 2 Unsustainable cutting and burning of
    forests, along with diseases and insects, are the
    chief threats to forest ecosystems.
  • Concept 3 Tropical deforestation is a
    potentially catastrophic problem because of the
    vital ecological services at risk, the high rate
    of tropical deforestation, and its growing
    contribution to global warming.

39
CH. 10 notes continued
  • Sections 6-10

40
Julia Butterfly Hill
  • Known as an environmental heroine for bringing
    attention to clear-cutting of ancient redwood
    trees in California.
  • Lived in the canopy of a redwood tree, on a small
    platform for over 2 years as an act of protest
    and to protect the destruction of the trees.
  • Julia lost her battle in saving the entire
    forest, however, did manage to save the tree she
    lived in, Luna, and a 60-meter buffer zone
    around it.

41
How Serious Is Tropical Deforestation and How Can
It Be Reduced?
  • Concept We can reduce tropical deforestation by
    protecting large forest areas, teaching settlers
    about sustainable agriculture and forestry, using
    government subsidies that encourage sustainable
    forest use, reducing poverty, and slowing
    population growth.

42
Deforestation
  • Tropical forests- Especially in Central and
    South Americas, Indonesia, and Africa Brazil
    contains 40 of the worlds remaining tropical
    rain forest
  • Boreal Forests- Especially in Alaska, Canada,
    Scandinavia, and Russia
  • Role of deforestation in species extinction-
    most endangered species, plant for medicinal
    purposes.

43
Natural Capital Degradation Extreme Tropical
Deforestation in Thailand
44
Satellite Images of Amazon Deforestation between
1975 and 2001
Deforestation of Rondonia, Brazil from 1975-2001
45
Species Diversity
46
NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION
Major Causes of the Destruction and Degradation
of Tropical Forests
Basic Causes
Secondary Causes
Not valuing ecological services
Roads
Cattle ranching
Fires
Logging
Crop and timber exports
Settler farming
Tree plantations
Government policies
Cash crops
Poverty
Population growth
Cattle ranching
Tree plantations
Logging
Cash crops
Settler farming
Fires
Roads
Fig. 10-15, p. 225
47
Natural Capital Degradation Large Areas of
Brazils Amazon Basin Are Burned
48
Natural Capital Degradation Harmful
Environmental Effects of Deforestation
49
How to Protect Tropical Forests
  • Teach settlers to practice small-scale
    sustainable agriculture
  • Harvest renewable resources from the forests
  • Debt-for-nature swaps- protect forest reserves in
    return for foreign aid or debt relief
  • Conservation concessions/easements money for
    conservation efforts
  • Gentler logging methods- cutting vines prior to
    cutting large trees

50
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51
Individuals Matter Wangari Maathai and Kenyas
Green Belt Movement
  • Established backyard small tree nursery
  • Organized poor women
  • Women paid for each surviving seedling planted
  • Breaks cycle of poverty
  • Reduces environmental degradation
  • People walk less distance to get fuelwood
  • Sparked projects in 30 African countries

52
How Should We Manage and Sustain National Parks?
  • Concept Sustaining biodiversity will require
    protecting much more of the earths remaining
    undisturbed land area, starting with the most
    endangered biodiversity hot spots.

53
National Parks
  • gt1,100 national parks in 120 countries
  • Only 1 of parks in developing countries are
    protected (lack of funding/education)
  • Local people invade parks to survive

54
Problems Protecting National Parks
  • Illegal logging
  • Illegal mining
  • Wildlife poaching
  • Most parks too small to protect large animals
  • Invasion of nonnative species

55
Stresses on U.S. Public Parks
  • Biggest problem is popularity
  • Noise
  • Congestion
  • Pollution
  • Damage or destruction to vegetation and wildlife
  • Damage from nonnative species
  • Threatened islands of biodiversity
  • Repairs needed to trails and buildings

56
Natural Capital Degradation Off-road Vehicles
Fig. 8-18, p. 165
57
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58
Solutions for Protection
  • Requires action bottom-up political pressure
  • Nature Conservancy worlds largest private
    system of reserves
  • Buffer zones around protected areas
  • Locals to manage reserves and buffer zones

59
Designing and Connecting Nature Reserves
  • Large versus small reserves
  • The buffer zone concept
  • United Nations 529 biosphere reserves in 105
    countries
  • Habitat corridors between isolated reserves
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Example Alligator Alley

60
Model Biosphere Reserve
61
Case Study Costa Rica
  • Superpower of biodiversity
  • 19631983 cleared much of the forest
  • 19862006 forests grew from 26 to 51
  • Goal to reduce net carbon dioxide emissions to
    zero by 2021
  • Now has conserved 25 of its land, 8 megareserves
  • Government eliminated deforestation subsidies ()
  • Paid landowners to maintain and restore tree
    coverage
  • Goal to make sustainable forestry profitable
  • 2/3 of the billion dollar tourism income comes
    from eco-tourism! (Interesting that Costa Rica
    was involved in shark finning industry??!)

62
Costa Ricas Megareserve Network
Fig. 8-21, p. 167
63
Case Study Controversy over Wilderness
Protection in the U.S.
  • Wilderness legally set aside land to protect
    consisting of areas of undeveloped land affected
    primarily by the force of nature, where man is a
    visitor and does not remain. Minimum size
    gt4,000 km2
  • Preserves natural capital
  • Centers for evolution
  • 1964 Wilderness Act
  • Legally defined wilderness and est. restrictions
  • Protects 106 million acres of federal land
  • Roadless Rule (2001)- 1/3 of national forests are
    off limits to roads, logging, development of any
    kind protects 400,000 sq. miles
  • Pressure from oil, gas, mining, and logging

64
Protecting Global Biodiversity Hotspots
  • 17 megadiversity countries in tropics and
    subtropics
  • Two-thirds of biodiversity
  • Developing countries economically poor and
    biodiversity rich
  • Protect biodiversity hotspots

65
34 Global Hotspots
Fig. 8-22, p. 169
66
Biodiversity Hotspots in the U.S.
Fig. 8-23, p. 169
67
Ecological Restoration - process of repairing
damage done to an ecosystem by humans
  • How we can help speed up the process
  • Restoration- return the ecosystem to its most
    natural state possible
  • Rehabilitation- turn a degraded ecosystem back to
    a functional or useful form, without trying to
    get it back to its natural state (replanting
    trees that have been clear-cut to avoid erosion)
  • Remediation- cleaning up chemical contaminants
    from a site
  • Replacement- replacing a degraded ecosystem with
    a new one (Tree farm to replace a degraded
    forest)
  • Creating artificial ecosystems (man-made
    wetlands)

68
Science-based Principles for Restoration
  • Identify cause of degradation
  • Stop abuse by reducing factors
  • Reintroduce species if necessary
  • Protect area from further degradation

69
Case Study Ecological Restoration of Tropical
Dry Forest in Costa Rica
  • One of worlds largest ecological restoration
    projects
  • Restore a degraded tropical dry forest in
    Guanacaste NP and reconnect it to adjacent rain
    forests
  • Involve 40,000 people in the surrounding area
    biocultural restoration
  • Ecotourism

70
Will Restoration Encourage Further Degradation?
  • About 5 of the earths land is preserved from
    the effects of human activities
  • Preventing ecosystem damage is cheaper than
    restoration
  • Some worry environmental restoration suggests any
    harm can be undone
  • Scientists disagree
  • Restoration badly needed
  • Altered restored site better than no restoration

71
Protecting Ecosystem Services Is Also an Urgent
Priority
  • U.N. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005
  • Identify key ecosystem services
  • Human activities degrade or overuse 62 of the
    earths natural services
  • Identify highly stressed life raft ecosystems
    (well being of humans are affected as ecosystem
    fails) ie. Sub-Saharan Africa

72
What Can You Do?
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