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History of American Journalism

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HISTORY OF JOURNALISM ... Steam powered presses can print up to 4,000 copies an hour THE PENNY PRESS 1830s WE CAN READ!!!! ... FIRST WOMEN COMPETITION EMERGES: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of American Journalism


1
HISTORY OF JOURNALISM SORT OF.
2
News reporting goes back thousands of years,
perhaps to the first humans or even the first
animals that could communicate to one another
about such things as approaching predators. 
3
15 century German inventor Johannes Gutenberg's
development of movable type gave people a
relatively fast, inexpensive means of producing
hundreds or thousands of fliers, books, and
eventually newspapers.
4
Shortly after English settlers set up colonies
First Press Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the
late 1630s.  The American colonies did not
produce their own real newspaper until the 18th
century.  Colonists in Massachusetts were
preoccupied with survival.
5
History of American Journalism
  • Newspapers have not always been the
    sophisticated, full-color extravaganzas we know
    today. American journalism had its humble
    beginnings in the Colonial period with the
    publication of Benjamin Harris Publick
    Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick, which
    was shut down after its one and only issue on
    Sept. 26, 1690.

6
  • This newspaper was printed on three sheets of
    stationery-size paper and the fourth page was
    left blank so that readers could add their own
    news before passing it on to someone else.

7
colonial newspapers small publications
out-of-date four pages government and foreign
affairs, the weather, disasters Illustrations
were rare, headlines were nonexistent. 
8
Journalists, for the most part, simply stayed out
of trouble by printing innocuous coverage or even
giving government officials the chance to approve
material before publication.  Things changed
somewhat when James Franklin, brother of
Benjamin, established the New England Courant in
1721.
9
The Courant was the first American newspaper to
challenge the authority High literary quality
and typeset.  Franklin challenged religious and
political authorities, setting a precedent The
press was not free yet. however, Paper was shut
down two years later.
10
  • Perhaps the most famous name in early
    American journalism is that of Peter Zenger.
    Publisher of the New York Weekly Journal, Zenger
    was charged with sedition after his paper had
    criticized colonial authorities, and he was tried
    for libel against the colonial British government
    in 1735. In this picture, Zenger is arrested and
    his printing press is burned by Colonial
    authorities.

11
  • ZENGER WAS FOUND INNOCENT
  • THE BEGINNING OF THE FREE PRESS

12
THE PENNY PRESS 1830s WE CAN READ!!!!
  • Mechanical advancements provided cheaper printing
    methods and larger quantity
  • Population growth caused increase in the number
    of newspapers
  • Three times as many newspapers in the United
    States in 1833 as in England or France (larger
    proportion by 1860)
  • Steam power increases the speed by which news
    travels (Ships and trains)
  • Steam powered presses can print up to 4,000
    copies an hour

13
  • INVENTION
  • OF THE
  • TELEGRAPH

14
  • Abraham Lincoln became the first president to
    direct armies in the field directly from the
    White House.

15
  • During the darkest days of the terrible war
    Lincoln would pace back and forth in the
    telegraph office awaiting news of the fate of the
    nation that would emerge from the new telegraph
    invention.

16
  • Because the telegraph wires kept going down
    on a regular basis, sometimes the story that a
    reporter was trying to send got cut off before it
    was finished.

17
  • To alleviate this situation, reporters
    developed the inverted pyramid form of writing,
    putting the most important facts at the beginning
    of the story.

18
FIRST WOMEN
Newspapers began to evolve and grow into a major
industry. Men mostly dominated the field, but in
1868 the New York Sun hired their first female
reporter, Emily Verdery Bettey. The Sun hired
Eleanor Hoyt Brainerd as a reporter and fashion
editor in the 1880s she was one of the first
professional female editors, and perhaps the
first full-time fashion editor, of any American
newspaper.
19
  • COMPETITION EMERGES
  • TO INCREASE CIRCULATION
  • HEARST AND PULITIZER 1890

20
  • STARTED COMIC STRIPS
  • SENSATIONALIZED NEWS
  • EXAGGERATIONS

21
  • After William Randolph Hearst moved to New
    York, he and Joseph Pulitzer competed for readers
    by making their papers more and more sensational.

22
  • In 1895, Hearst purchased the New York
    Morning Journal and entered into a head-to-head
    circulation war with his former mentor, Joseph
    Pulitzer, owner of the New York World.

23
  • To increase circulation both started to
    include articles about the Cuban Insurrection. 
    Many stories in both newspaper greatly
    exaggerated their claims to make the stories more
    sensational. 

24
  • The American public purchased more newspapers
    because of the sensational writing, and this
    strongly encouraged Hearst and Pulitzers
    newspapers to write more sensationalized stories. 

25
BEGIN YELLOW JOURNALISM
26
  • Drawn by R.F. Outcault, the popular (if
    now-unfunny) strip became a prize in the struggle
    between Pulitzer and Hearst in the New York
    newspaper wars.

27
  • Outcault moved the strip to Hearst's papers
    after nine months, where it competed with a
    Pulitzer-sponsored version of itself.

28
Muckrakers are journalists who seek out and
expose the misconduct of prominent people or of
high-profile organizations. Emerged late 1800s
and early 1900s. Crusaders for social change,
injustices or abuses
29
  • One of the most popular reporters of era
    was a woman named Elizabeth Cochrane who wrote
    under the name Nellie Bly. She wrote with anger
    and compassion. She wrote to expose the many
    wrongs that developed in nineteenth century
    cities after the industrial boom. Most of her
    reporting was on women.

30
  • She got a job on the Pittsburgh Dispatch
    when she wrote a furious letter complaining about
    an editorial that claimed that women were good
    for little but housework. She covered social
    questions such as divorce, slum life, and
    conditions in Mexico for the paper.

31
  • In 1887 she moved to Joseph Pulitzer's New
    York World, for which she exposed the conditions
    in which the insane lived by pretending to be mad
    and getting herself committed to the asylum on
    Blackwell's Island. She also investigated
    sweat-shops tenements, the world of petty crime
    and Corps de Ballet by the same methods.

32
Journalism does not stop with newspapers
33
  • Upton Sinclair is
  • actually responsible
  • for the journalist term
  • Muckracker when he
  • brought about
  • important changes in
  • American society.

34
In short, "The Jungle" did as much as any
animal-rights activist of today to turn Americans
into vegetarians. But it did more than that.
Within months, the aroused -- and gagging --
public demanded sweeping reforms in the meat
industry. President Theodore Roosevelt was
sickened after reading an advance copy. He called
upon Congress to pass a law establishing the Food
and Drug Administration and, for the first time,
setting up federal inspection standards for meat.
35
Roosevelt was so taken with Sinclair that he
coined the term muckrakers to describe him and
other reformist crusaders, even though the
presidents phrase was not meant to be wholly
complimentary.
36
I aimed at the public's heart, and by accident
I hit it in the stomach. First American author
to win Nobel prize
37
Magazines are also an important part of
journalism, and Henry Luce is an important name
in the magazine industry.
38
Luce, who once held the role of a newspaper
reporter, broke away from the world of
newspaper. He is the founder of Time magazine,
Fortune, Life and Sports Illustrated! With the
exception of Life, these magazines are still in
high circulation today!
39
As the U.S. population in the latter half of the
20th century has shifted from cities to suburbs,
and with the growth in competition from other
media, many large city newspapers have had to
cease publication, merge with their competitors,
or be taken over by a chain of newspaper
publishers such as the Gannett Company or
Knight-Ridder Inc.

40
In 1982, using satellite transmission and color
presses, the Gannett chain established a new
national newspaper, USA Today, published and
circulated throughout the United States, Europe,
and Asia.

41
The Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, and
USA Today are read all over the country small
towns and rural districts usually have daily or
weekly local papers made up largely of syndicated
matter, with a page or two of local news and
editorials. These local papers are frequently
influential political organs.

42
As the U.S. population in the latter half of the
20th century has shifted from cities to suburbs,
and with the growth in competition from other
media, many large city newspapers have had to
cease publication, merge with their competitors,
or be taken over by a chain of newspaper
publishers such as the Gannett Company or
Knight-Ridder Inc.

43
Since the invention of the telegraph, which
enormously facilitated the rapid gathering of
news, the great news agencies, such as Reuters in
England, Agence France-Presse in France, and
Associated Press and United Press International
in the United States, have sold their services to
newspapers and to their associate members.

44
Improvements in photocomposition and in printing
(especially the web offset press), have enhanced
the quality of print and made possible the
publication of huge editions at great speed.
Modern newspapers are supported primarily by the
sale of advertising space. Computer technology
has also had an enormous impact on the production
of news and newspapers.

45
By the 1990s this technology had also affected
the nature of newspapers, as the first
independent on-line daily appeared on the
Internet. By the decade's end some 700 papers had
web sites, some of which carried news gathered by
their own staffs, and papers regularly scooped
themselves by publishing electronically before
the print edition appeared.

46
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