THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON PUBLIC HEALTH RESEARCH AND PRACTICE a conversation with Gonzalo Bacigalupe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Technology developments are moving us towards the predominance of cloud ... McLean, R., Richards, B. H., & Wardman, J. I. (2007) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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RESEARCH AND PRACTICEa conversation with Gonzalo
  • Technology developments are moving us towards the
    predominance of cloud computing, collaborative
    exchange, and social networking over the use of
    technology as just storage, multitasking, and
    faster ways of carrying on business as usual.
    These developments stimulate new ways of
    collecting data, developing messages, and sharing
    information. Notions of expertise, control,
    hierarchy, acquisition of knowledge, locality,
    identity, privacy, etc. are all in flux as social
    media is adopted by populations worldwide. We
    explore some of these technologies and how they
    may reshape public health practice.
Personal Health Technology Future?
What is public health?

The effect of Web 2.0 on medical practice and
  • Web 2.0 is a term describing new collaborative
    Internet applications. The primary difference
    from the original World Wide Web is greater user
    participation in developing and managing content,
    which changes the nature and value of the
  • Key elements of Web 2.0 include Really Simple
    Syndication (RSS) to rapidly disseminate
    awareness of new information blogs to describe
    new trends wikis to share knowledge and
    podcasts to make information available "on the
  • Increasing role in providing health information
    "any time, any place".

McLean, R., Richards, B. H., Wardman, J. I.
(2007). The effect of Web 2.0 on the future of
medical practice and education Darwikinian
evolution or folksonomic revolution? Medical
Journal of Australia, 187(3), 174-177.
Web 2.0 Social software in health and health care
  • Web 2.0 sociable technologies and social
    software enablers in health and health care, for
    organizations, clinicians, patients and
  • They include social networking services,
    collaborative filtering, social bookmarking,
    folksonomies, social search engines, file sharing
    and tagging, mashups, instant messaging, and
    online multi-player games.
  • The more popular Web 2.0 applications in
    education, namely wikis, blogs and podcasts, are
    but the tip of the social software iceberg.
  • Web 2.0 technologies represent a quite
    revolutionary way of managing and
    repurposing/remixing online information and
    knowledge repositories, including clinical and
    research information, in comparison with the
    traditional Web 1.0 model. () tools presented in
    this review look very promising and potentially
    fit for purpose in many health care applications
    and scenarios, careful thinking, testing and
    evaluation research are still needed in order to
    establish 'best practice models' for leveraging
    these emerging technologies to boost our teaching
    and learning productivity, foster stronger
    'communities of practice', and support continuing
    medical education/professional development and
    patient education.

Kamel Boulos, M. N., Wheeler, S. (2007). The
emerging Web 2.0 social software an enabling
suite of sociable technologies in health and
health care education. Health Info Libr J, 24(1),
E-learning way of e-learning
  • A wide range of social software has become
    readily available to young people. There is
    increasing interest in possibilities of using
    social software for undergraduate medical
  • To identify the nature and extent of the use of
    social software by first year medical students.
    Structured self-administered questionnaire
  • Over 90 percent used instant messaging and social
    networking sites were highly used (70 percent).
    No significant difference between males and
    females. Blogs were read by about a fifth of
    students and a small number (8) wrote their own
    blogs. A fifth of males stated that they were
    users of media sharing and contributed to wikis.
    Social bookmarking was rarely used by either sex.
  • Medical educators need to recognize the potential
    of social software in undergraduate medical
    education but it is essential that students
    maintain the informality and privacy of these
    sites. The challenge for all medical educators is
    how to integrate social software into current
    curricula and institutional Virtual Learning

Sandars, J., Homer, M., Pell, G., Croker, T.
(2008). Web 2.0 and social software the medical
student way of e-learning. Medical Teacher, 1-5.
Scaling the Skills Learning
Public Health Research
Federal Government Social Media
Federal health agencies relied heavily on social
media to inform the public about the recent
outbreak of salmonella tainted peanut butter,
possibly reducing the number of death and
injuries caused by the illness, according to
federal health officials. "The response has been
really amazing," said Janice Nall, director of
the division of eHealth marketing at CDC, on the
public's reaction to her agency's social media
campaign. "We look at social media as additional
channels to reach people where they are.
GAUTHAM NAGESH 02/09/2009 http//
Social marketing / Social Media
  • Users control communication in second generation
    of Internet-based applications, holding promise
    to significantly enhance promotional efforts
    within social marketing campaigns
  • directly engaging consumers in the creative
    process by both producing and distributing
    information through collaborative writing,
    content sharing, social networking, social
    bookmarking, and syndication.
  • enhancing the power of viral marketing by
    increasing the speed at which consumers share
    experiences and opinions with progressively
    larger audiences.
  • Because of the novelty and potential
    effectiveness of Web 2.0, social marketers may be
    enticed to prematurely incorporate related
    applications into promotional plans.
  • But as strategic issues such as priority audience
    preferences, selection of appropriate
    applications, tracking and evaluation, and
    related costs are carefully considered, Web 2.0
    will expand to allow health promotion
    practitioners more direct access to consumers
    with less dependency on traditional communication

Thackeray, R., Neiger, B. L., Hanson, C. L.,
McKenzie, J. F. (2008). Enhancing promotional
strategies within social marketing programs use
of Web 2.0 social media. Health Promot Pract,
9(4), 338-343.
Social Marketing
Knowledge intermediation source credibility
not enough
  • As a result of the social process of
    disintermediation enabled by digital media,
    traditional intermediaries are replaced by
    apomediaries tools and peers standing by to
    guide consumers to trustworthy information, or
    adding credibility to information.
  • For apomediation to be an attractive and
    successful model for consumers, the recipient has
    to reach a certain degree of maturity and
    autonomy. Different degrees of autonomy may
    explain differences in information seeking and
    credibility appraisal behaviors.
  • In this environment, tools, influential peers and
    opinion leaders are the primary conveyors of
    trust and credibility. Apomediary credibility may
    become equally or more important than source
    credibility or even message credibility.
  • Network analysis could be useful to study the
    dynamics of apomediary credibility in a networked
    digital world. There are practical implications
    of the apomediation model for developers of
    consumer health websites which aspire to come
    across as "credible Consumers need and want to
    be able to be co-creators of content, not merely
    be an audience who is broadcasted to. Web2.0
    technology enables such sites. Engaging and
    credible Web sites are about building community
    and communities are built upon personal and
    social needs.

Eysenbach, G. (2007). From intermediation to
disintermediation and apomediation new models
for consumers to access and assess the
credibility of health information in the age of
Web2.0. Studies in Health Technology and
Informatics, 129(Pt 1), 162-166.
Social networking can shape services
We report on a thread discussing the
controversial decision to use hormone replacement
therapy (HRT) following prophylactic oophorectomy
(PO). Two main groups of women posted (1) Women
who were BRCA, had completed PO, and were
debating or adjusting their HRT options in terms
of optimizing both quality and quantity of life.
(2) Women who were BRCA, were contemplating PO,
but wanted to better understand the potential
physical and psychological consequences of
surgical menopause before deciding. Frustrated by
physicians' lack of knowledge and contradictory
media articles about the long-term consequences
of HRT in BRCA women, they sought resources,
emotional support and specific experiential
knowledge from each other and generated a unique
sense of community and a high level of trust.
Kenen, R. H., Shapiro, P. J., Friedman, S.,
Coyne, J. C. (2007). Peer-support in coping with
medical uncertainty discussion of oophorectomy
and hormone replacement therapy on a web-based
message board. Psycho-Oncology, 16(8), 763-771.
Web-based self-help intervention RCTs
  • Four weeks Web-based course Among all
    participants, the intervention was effective in
    reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety as
    well as in enhancing quality of life. A higher
    percentage of patients in the intervention group
    experienced a significant improvement in
    symptoms. The course was less effective for
    work-related stress, but participants in the
    intervention group recovered more often from
    burnout than those in the control group.
    Statistical and clinical significant effects on
    symptoms of depression and anxiety. These effects
    were even more pronounced among participants with
    more severe baseline problems and for
    participants who fully completed the course.
    Effects on work-related stress and quality of
    life were less clear.
  • Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for many
    chronic and fatal illnesses. Stopping smoking
    directly reduces those risks. The primary outcome
    measure was prolonged abstinence from smoking.
    Secondary outcomes were point-prevalence
    abstinence, number of cigarettes smoked, and
    incidence of quit attempts reported at follow-up
    assessments. Effective web-based programs can
    potentially help large numbers of smokers to
    quit, thus having a major public health impact.

Kramer, J. J., Willemsen, M. C., Conijn, B., van
Emst, A. J., Brunsting, S., Riper, H. (2009).
Effectiveness of a web-based self-help smoking
cessation intervention protocol of a randomised
controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 9, 32. van
Straten, A., Cuijpers, P., Smits, N. (2008).
Effectiveness of a web-based self-help
intervention for symptoms of depression, anxiety,
and stress randomized controlled trial. J Med
Internet Res, 10(1), e7.
Empowering health consumers
Consumer health informatics has emerged as a
strategy to inform and empower patients for self
management of their health. The emergence of and
explosion in use of user-generated online media
(e.g., blogs) has created new opportunities to
inform and educate people about healthy living.
Under a prevention research project, we are
developing a website that utilizes social content
collaboration mediums in conjunction with
open-source technologies to create a
community-driven resource that provides users
with tailored health information.
Khan, S. A., McFarlane, D. J., Li, J., Ancker, J.
S., Hutchinson, C., Cohall, A., et al. (2007).
Healthy Harlem empowering health consumers
through social networking, tailoring and web 2.0
technologies. AMIA Annu Symp Proc, 1007.
Access to clinicians

Health Policy Bottom Up Approach
Google Uses Searches may be able to detect
regional outbreaks of the flu a week to 10 days
before they are reported by the CDC
Mashup Technology not just for play
Disaster Management
  • If we are to make good on the UNISDRs call for a
    shift towards people-centered early warning, then
    flood early warning/response systems ought to
    empower local communities to get out of harms
    way and minimize loss of livelihood. This shift
    in discourse and operational mandate is an
    important one in my opinion. Centralized,
    state-centered, top-down, external responses to
    crises are apparently increasingly ineffective.


Flood Warning, Mobile Phones and Dynamic Mapping
in India (September 7, 2008)
  • Today, one in four Indians has a mobile phone.
    From the villager sitting atop his
    half-drowned hut calling for help in flood-hit
    Bihar, to the kabadiwallah who eagerly hands you
    his number, its mobile networking like never
  • the mobile phones greatest impact will be
    on those people with professions that are time,
    location and information sensitive. fishermen
    wanting a weather update or the location of the
    best catch hospitals contacting patients without
    a permanent address SMSes on the Sensex.
  • It is true that network coverage and mobile
    penetration are still limited to certain areas.
    But, interestingly, as a study by the Center for
    Knowledge Societies (CKS) showed in Maharashtra,
    Up and Karnataka, many new mobile users belong to
    poorer areas with scarce infrastructure, high
    levels of illiteracy and low PC and internet


Mobile Phones for Change
Website Collaborative Mashups
Humanitarian Crises Kenya Example
A changing work environment