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UNIT 10 THE GILDED AGE

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Cornelius Vanderbilt: railroad baron ... Haymarket Riot (1886): striking laborers who rioted against McCormick's in ... HAYMARKET RIOT. LABOR CONFLICT (cont. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UNIT 10 THE GILDED AGE


1
UNIT 10 THE GILDED AGE
  • GILDED AGE a time of remarkable wealth and
    terrible poverty.

2
William Marcy Tweed (Boss Tweed) led the New
York Political Machine
Mark Twain
3
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4
RAILROADS
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt railroad baron who gained
    control of New York Central.
  • George Westinghouse developed air brakes for
    stopping trains.
  • Eli Janney made couples to link cars.
  • George Pullman developed sleeping car.

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6
RAILROADS
  • Pools secret agreements to divide and establish
    railroad business.
  • Standard Gauge 4ft. 8.5 inches or width of
    track.
  • Stimulated the economy
  • Carried raw materials.
  • Spawned steel industry.
  • Gave rise to lumber and coal industry.
  • Provided work.

7
INVENTORS
  • 1860-1890 over 40,000 patents issued.
  • Samuel B. Morse telegraph (1844).
  • Cyrus Field transatlantic cable (1866).
  • George Eastman Kodak camera (1888).
  • Sears Roebuck and Co. catalogs.
  • John Thurman vacuum cleaner (1899).
  • Christopher Sholes typewriter (1868).
  • William Burroughs adding machine (1888).
  • F.W. Woolworths five and ten cent stores
    …pick up goods off the shelves.

8
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9
THOMAS ALVA EDISON
  • 1876 set up an invention workshop in Menlo Park,
    New Jersey.
  • Inventions
  • 1879 workable light bulb.
  • Storage battery.
  • Motion picture projector.
  • Phonograph.
  • Central electric power plant.
  • Automatic telegraph sender.

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11
AFRICAN AMERICAN INVENTORS
  • Lewis Howard Lattimer improved filaments for
    light bulbs.
  • Elijah McCoy oil can.
  • Jan E. Matzeliger shoe making machine.

12
AIRPLANE
  • 1903 Orville and Wilbur Wright invent the
    airplane at Kitty Hawk North Carolina.

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14
HENRY FORD
  • Engineer from Detroit.
  • Invented the model T and used the assembly line.
  • Mass production producing large quantities of
    identical goods.

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16
BIG BUSINESS
  • Corporation a company, which sells stock to the
    public.
  • Stock shares of a company.
  • Shareholders individuals who invest in stock.
  • Dividends companys profit.
  • Stock Exchange market for selling stock.
  • Trust a group of companies managed by the same
    board of directors.
  • Merger combination of companies.
  • Banks played a major role in economic development.

17
BIG BUSINESS
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act banned monopolies.
  • Factors of Production
  • Land natural resources.
  • Labor large workforce.
  • Capital machinery, equipment, tools, and
    investment.

18
ANDREW CARNEGIE
  • Vertical Consolidation acquiring companies that
    provide services you need.
  • Made Pittsburgh the steel capital of the world.
  • Used Bessemer Process.
  • Philanthropy use of money to benefit the
    community.

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20
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER
  • Organized the standard Oil Trust.
  • Monopoly total control.
  • Horizontal Integration combining competing firms
    into one corporation.

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22
UNIONS
  • Sweatshops working long hours for little pay.
  • Child labor laws 12 years old could not work
    more than 10 hours a day.
  • Collective Bargaining unions represent workers
    in bargaining with management.
  • Injunction government order.

23
TRADE UNIONS
  • Knights of Labor national labor union founded by
    Terence V. Powderly for unskilled laborers.
  • American Federation of Labor (AFL) nation labor
    union founded by Samuel Gompers for skilled
    laborers.
  • Mary Harris (Mother Jones) spent 50 years
    fighting for workers rights in coal mines.

24
LABOR CONFLICT
  • Triangle Shirt Waist Company fire in a crowded,
    unsafe sweatshop which killed 150.
  • Haymarket Riot (1886) striking laborers who
    rioted against McCormicks in Chicago due to the
    death of four workers.

25
Triangle Shirt-Waist Factory
26
HAYMARKET RIOT
27
LABOR CONFLICT (cont.)
  • Homestead Strike (1892) strike against
    Carnegies plant in Penn. After wages were cut
    resulting in the death of 10.
  • Pullman Strike (1894) strike against railroad
    and George Pullman for cutting wages led by
    Eugene Debs.

28
HOMESTEAD STRIKE
PULLMAN STRIKE
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30
IMMIGRANTS
  • New Immigrants Greeks, Russians, Hungarians,
    Italians, Jews, Turks, Poles, Chinese, and
    Japanese.
  • Most sought economic opportunity.
  • Nativists Opposed Immigration.
  • Assimilate become a part of culture.

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32
IMMIGRANTS (cont.)
  • Ellis Island immigrant processing center on the
    east coast (New York).
  • Angel Island immigrant processing center on the
    west coast (San Francisco).
  • Chinese Exclusion Act (1892) prohibited Chinese
    immigration for 10 years.

33
ELLIS ISLAND
ANGEL ISLAND
34
CONDITIONS OF IMMIGRANTS
  • Most traveled on steerage (below deck).
  • Urbanization growth of cities
  • Tenements slums which families rented.
  • Most cities were overpopulated, diseased, with
    poverty, poor sanitation, and orphans.
  • YMCA and YWCA founded for inner city youth.
  • Subways, cable cars, and bridges built to
    accommodate people.

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36
REFORMERS
  • Jane Addams founder of Hull House in 1889 for
    poor immigrants providing medical attention,
    education, meals, and other humanitarian
    services.
  • Frederick Law Olmsted developed Central Park.
  • Elisha Otis (1852) invented the elevator.
  • William LeBaron Jenney (1884) first skyscraper
    in Chicago.
  • Louis Sullivan architect skyscraper.

37
EDUCATION
  • John Dewey progressive education or shaping of
    character with hands on learning … expansion of
    public schools.
  • Morrill Act (Land Grant Act) established two
    universities in each state.
  • George Washington Carver African American
    researcher (peanut).
  • Booker T. Washington African American researcher
    who founded the Tuskegee Institute.

38
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39
CULTURE
  • Yellow Journalism sensational writing.
  • Baseball was a popular sport.
  • Jazz was the popular form of music.
  • Mark Twain realist stories.

40
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