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Unit 7

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Title: Unit 7


1
Unit 7Chapters 18 19
  • The Gilded Age
  • CSS 11.2, 11.3

2
Federal Indian Policy
  • 360,000 Native Americans west of the Mississippi
  • threatened by the Gold Rush, Homestead Act,
    Transcontinental Railroad
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1824
  • government agency that supervised trade, aid,
    education and laws for tribes
  • high ideals succumbed to corruption and graft
  • Indian children taken to Indian schools to learn
    white culture
  • Reservation System
  • Indians lost 156 millions acres or about 50 of
    what they had
  • major assault on Indian culture, the 1.5 million
    Indians today possess only remnants of their
    culture
  • Medicine Lodge Treaty, 1867
  • Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
  • attempt to civilize Indians by offering
    individuals 160 acres of farmland
  • if they lived on it 25 years they got ownership
    of the land and U.S. citizenship
  • met with cultural indifference
  • William Buffalo Bill
  • shot 4,000 buffalo for the railroad in 18 months
  • decimated the buffalo from 15 million head just
    after the Civil War to under 2,000 by 1885
  • his Wild West featured real life cowboys and
    Indians (Sitting Bull)
  • Helen Hunt Jackson
  • chastised American society for the treatment of
    the Indians
  • A Century of Dishonor in 1881
  • Ramona in 1884

3
Native Americans in the West
  • Sitting Bull
  • spiritual leader of Hunkpapa Sioux
  • Sitting Bull went to Canada after Little Bighorn
  • ended up in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
  • Crazy Horse
  • warrior leader of Ogalala Sioux
  • told that his medicine was so powerful he could
    not be killed by whites
  • killed by Sioux when he finally came to the
    reservation
  • Battle of Wounded Knee, 1890
  • Sioux Indians under Sitting Bull in South Dakota
    were attacked by federal troops
  • 200 Indians and 20 troops were killed including
    Sitting Bull
  • Sand Creek Massacre, 1864
  • Chief Black Kettle brought his tribe of 800
    Cheyenne to a fort in CO
  • 700 drunken volunteer soldiers killed 133
    Cheyenne
  • set off a full scale war
  • Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1868
  • tried to bring an end to the Great Sioux War
    (Chief Red Cloud)
  • fought over buffalo grazing land in WY
  • Battle of Little Bighorn, 1876
  • gold in SD brought whites onto Sioux reservations
    land so the Sioux left
  • Custer led 264 troops against 2,500 Sioux braves
    led by Crazy Horse
  • Sioux won the battle but ultimately lost the war

4
Federal Indian Policy
It is cold, and we have no blankets the little
children are freezing to death. My people, some
of them, have run away to the hills, and have no
blankets, no foodI want to have time to look for
my children, and see how many of them I can find.
Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me,
my chiefs! I am tired my heart is sick and sad.
From where the sun now stands, I will fight no
more forever."
  • Chief Joseph
  • Nez Perce chief, raised as a Christian
  • led his people from Idaho in 1877 when whites
    found gold
  • led his people 1,700 miles in 3 months deep into
    Montana and almost reached Canada before he was
    stopped
  • Geronimo
  • Apache chief who defied the U.S. army for years
    in NM
  • troops followed him into Mexico and he was
    eventually put on a reservation in OK in 1884
  • Ghost Dance
  • U.S. government banned ceremonial dances (i.e.,
    sundance)
  • Ghost Dance was a ceremony to communicate with
    ancestors
  • regain knowledge of a disappearing culture

I know that my race must change. We can not hold
our own with the white men as we are. We only ask
an even chance to live as other men live. We ask
to be recognized as men. We ask that the same law
shall work alike on all men. If the Indian breaks
the law, punish him by the law. If the white man
breaks the law, punish him also. Let me be a
free man -- free to travel, free to stop, free to
work, free to trade where I choose, free to
choose my own teachers, free to follow the
religion of my fathers, free to think and talk
and act for myself -- and I will obey every law,
or submit to the penalty. Whenever the white man
treats the Indian as they treat each other, then
we will have no more wars. We shall all be alike
--brothers of one father and one mother, with one
sky above us and one country around us, and one
government for all. Then the Great Spirit Chief
who rules above will smile upon this land, and
send rain to wash out the bloody spots made by
brothers' hands from the face of the earth. For
this time the Indian race are waiting and
praying. In-mut-too-yah-lat-lat has spoken for
his people.
5
Mining and Conservation
  • Mining Towns
  • miners searched for the mother lodegold, silver,
    copper
  • hundreds of boom towns and ghost towns across the
    west
  • corporations replaced individual mining
    operations
  • 1/30 disabled and 1/80 killed
  • led to unionization of miners
  • Resumption Act, 1875
  • govt. promised to withdraw some of the 450
    million in greenbacks printed during the war
  • promised gold backing for all currency in 1879
  • Bland-Allison Act, 1878
  • support for soft money had led to Democratic
    gains in Congress in 1874
  • the Treasury to print 2-4 million in
    silver-backed currency per month
  • Timber Culture Act, 1873
  • gave homesteaders an additional 160 acres if they
    planted forty acres of trees
  • Forest Service established in 1905
  • not well managed
  • General Land Revision Act, 1891
  • gave the president authority to set aside land
    for forest reserves
  • Presidents Harrison and Cleveland set aside over
    30 million acres
  • Newlands Act, 1902
  • set up irrigation projects for the western states
  • a revolving fund allowed for continuous future
    projects

6
Go West
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848
  • guaranteed Hispanics US citizenship
  • mostly lived in AZ and NM
  • a new wave of immigrants came in the late 1800s
    because of Porfirio Diaz and revitalized Mexican
    culture
  • Hispanic-American Alliance
  • formed to protect property and political rights
    in NM
  • fraud and coercion from white immigrants took
    land and rights away
  • Long Drive
  • cattle drives led 4,000,000 cattle 1500 miles
    from TX to KS and NE from 1860-1880s
  • Abilene, Dodge City, and Ogalala
  • refrigerator cars allowed the shipment of meat to
    Chicago without spoiling
  • 1/3 of cowboys Hispanic, black, or Indian
  • Deseret
  • Brigham Young controlled both church and state in
    Utah Territory
  • 87,000 Mormons lived in UT in 1870
  • nearly 500 Mormon settlements in the West
  • Redlands, San Bernardino, Las Vegas
  • US v. Reynolds, 1879
  • government acknowledge right to believe in
    polygamy but not right to it
  • Edmunds-Tucker Act, 1887
  • government threatened to take assets over 50,000
    and oversaw elections
  • Polygamy ended in 1890s
  • Utah became a state in 1896

7
Homesteading
  • Homestead Act, 1862
  • 5-15 claims were unmarried women
  • almost 50 did not improve the land
  • five times more people bought land from the
    railroads than homesteaded
  • states and land companies bought the best land
  • railroads dominated the west economically and
    politically
  • Dry-Farming
  • shallow, more frequent cultivation developed for
    the special dry climate of the Midwest
  • led to the Dust Bowl of the 1930s
  • later led to major irrigation projects
  • National Land Company, 1869
  • organized 16 colonies for European immigrants
  • over 2 million Europeans moved to the Great
    Plains
  • retained culture in separate communities
  • Agribusiness
  • the plow, reaper, and harvester increased farming
    acreage
  • output increased 10 times
  • large-scale farming arose especially in CA
  • small-scale farmers tried coops to pool their
    resources
  • refrigeration expanded markets beyond local buyers

8
New Technology
  • 500,000 patents issued between 1865 and 1900
  • GDP rose from 2 billion in 1865 to 13 billion
    in 1900 (highest in the world)
  • Skyscrapers
  • Bessemer process made new stronger steel
  • allowed for cities to grow up rather than out
    (Woolworth Building)
  • tenements
  • slums where the poor were crammed in the inner
    cities
  • Bridges
  • bridges and trolleys helped create suburbs for
    wealthy and middle class (Brooklyn Bridge, 1900)
  • inner cities left to poor immigrants
  • Thomas Edison
  • Edison replaced the more dangerous gas lamp in
    1879
  • allowed longer working hours
  • graveyard shift ensured constant production
    around the clock
  • Edison also invented the wax cylinder and the
    movie projector
  • Alexander Graham Bell
  • in 1875, the telephone led to faster
    communication
  • new avenue of employment for women as operators
  • Orville and Wilbur Wright, 1903
  • commercial aviation

9
Railroads
  • Land Grants
  • federal and state governments gave railroads over
    200 million acres (an area larger than Texas)
  • from 1865 to 1900 the US went from 35,000 to
    192,556 miles of railroad (more than all Europe)
  • Good Stuff
  • strengthened domestic economy!!
  • filled in the middle of the country
  • created time zones
  • Bad Stuff
  • gave away our nations land
  • destroyed western Indians
  • controlled politics
  • ultimately led to govt. regulation of business
  • many bad business
  • stock watering, rebates, and pooling
  • Union Pacific Railroad
  • charged 73 million for 50 million of
    construction
  • Omaha, NE to Ogden, UT (1865-1869)
  • Central Pacific Railroad
  • Big Four embezzled tens of millions through two
    construction companies
  • included Stanford and Huntington
  • tough going over Sierra Nevadas (inches a day)
  • employed many Chinese for most dangerous jobs
  • Great Northern Railroad
  • built by James J. Hill w/o federal grants
  • educated farmers and ranchers so theyd make more
    money

10
Captains of Industry...
  • captains of industry if they were visionaries who
    created a new America
  • John D. Rockefeller
  • est. Standard Oil in 1870
  • controlled 95 of the petroleum supply
  • replaced whale oil lamps but was replaced by
    Edisons bulb
  • internal combustion engine saved petroleum
  • Horizontal Consolidation
  • Rockefeller controlled enough of the industry to
    control the price
  • Trust
  • many companies in same industry controlled by the
    board of directors of the dominant company
  • cut down on competition
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • immigrant from Scotland in 1848
  • made 1.20/week as a spindle boy
  • saved his money and kept getting promoted
  • sold Carnegie Steel to JP Morgan for 400 million
    in 1900
  • spent his fortune before he died on public
    improvements (libraries, museums, etc.)
  • Vertical Integration
  • Carnegie owned every step in the process from
    mining the ore to shipping the finished steel in
    order to cut costs
  • Gospel of Wealth, 1889
  • Carnegie argued that charity should be carefully
    controlled in order to promote the greatest good

11
or Robber Barons?
I can hire one-half of the working class to kill
the other half.
The public be damned!
  • robber barons if they were greedy misers who
    overcharged consumers and gouged poor immigrant
    workers
  • Jay Gould
  • railroad speculator who would do anything to make
    money
  • Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt
  • millionaire steam boater who became a railroad
    man at 60
  • bought up eastern railroads and made them more
    efficient by standardizing gauge (width of track)
    and using better steel tracks
  • J. Pierpont Morgan
  • financier who turned U.S. Steel into the first 1
    billion company in US history
  • loaned the U.S. govt. 65 million in gold to bail
    us out of the depression of 1893
  • Social Darwinism
  • the rich are more adapted to modern society
  • argued that the rich should not help the poor
    directly because poverty result of laziness
  • Prof. William Graham Sumner
  • helping the poor causes survival of the
    unfittest therefore, the rich should not help
    the poor
  • combined Darwins survival of the fittest
    theory with laissez-faire capitalism
  • interlocking directories
  • the same men are on the board of directors for
    several different competitors

12
Reactions to the Industrial Revolution
  • Henry Grady
  • editor of Atlanta Constitution
  • called for a New South to out industrialize the
    Yankees
  • argued that the South would remain behind the
    North w/o industry
  • James Buchanan Duke mechanized cigarette
    manufacture
  • conspicuous consumption
  • Thorstein Veblen in The Theory of the Leisure
    Class, talked of highly visible displays of
    wealth by the rich
  • criticized capitalism and socialism
  • 500 families controlled most of the nations
    wealth
  • Horatio Alger
  • popular author who wrote dozens of rags to riches
    stories
  • Interstate Commerce Act, 1887
  • banned rebates, pools, inconsistent rates,
    created ICC
  • created Interstate Commerce Commission
  • required rates be posted, first attempt to
    regulate big business but not very effective
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 1890
  • trusts seen as anti-competitive and therefore
    anti-American
  • forbade combinations in restraint of trade
  • ended up being used against labor unions

13
Rise of Organized Labor
  • Knights of Labor, 1869
  • est. by Terrence V. Powderly as a secret society
    to protect itself from reprisal
  • only excluded liquor dealers, gamblers, lawyers,
    bankers, and stockbrokers
  • s grew to 300,000 after successful strike
    against Goulds Wabash Railroad
  • about 10 were women and 10 were African
    American
  • 300,000 struck for an 8 hour day in 1886 and
    200,000 won it
  • Haymarket Square Riot, 1886
  • anarchists threw a bomb killing several dozen
    including policemen
  • 8 anarchists were arrested (5 condemned to death)
  • Gov. John P. Altgeld pardoned the rest
  • hurt the Knights' public image
  • Commonwealth v. Hunt, 1842
  • declared unions to be legal
  • beginning of labor movement in America
  • National Labor Union, 1866
  • incl. 600,000 skilled and unskilled workers and
    farmers
  • pushed for social reform
  • won the 8-hour workday for government workers,
  • fell apart during the depression of 1870s
  • less than 3 of workers in unions
  • Eight-Hour League,
  • 8 hours for work, sleep, and leisure
  • Natural cycle

14
Rise of Organized Labor
  • Changes in Labor
  • 1866 1897 saw two depressions and three
    recessions (14 good years and 17 bad ones)
  • steady employment rare
  • typewriter and telephone increased women workers
  • 8.6 women workers in 1900 mostly domestic
    servants
  • work conditions were dangerous toxic fumes,
    high voltage, locked fire doors, sharp blades,
    fast machines and mind numbing repetition
  • American Federation of Labor, 1886
  • an association of unions that sought better wages
    and hours for skilled workers
  • led by Samuel Gompers
  • by 1900 it had 500,000 members (about 10 of all
    workers)
  • used closed-shop, the walkout and boycott to win
    negotiations
  • businesses responded w/ yellow dog contracts
  • Was Labor Successful?
  • of 23,000 strikes, workers only won half
  • 6.6 million workers were involved in these
    strikes
  • by 1900 only 3 of all workers belonged to unions
  • 450 million lost from strikes
  • Labor Day declared a holiday in 1894

15
New Immigration
Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp! cries
she With silent lips. Give me your tired, your
poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe
free, The wretched refuse of your teeming
shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to
me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door! The
New Colossus, Emma Lazarus, 1883
  • New Immigration
  • 20 million came from 1820-1900
  • shift to southern/eastern Europe
  • Jews, Poles, Russians, Italians, Greeks
  • socialists and anarchists
  • 25 went back
  • came for many reasons
  • cheap transportation
  • jobs
  • population boom
  • political discord
  • American Protective Association
  • nativism led to restrictions against insane,
    sick, criminals, prostitutes, polygamists
  • led to severe immigration restrictions in the
    early 1900s

16
Black Rights and Education
  • Changes in Education
  • universal (white) education
  • kindergartens more numerous
  • more technical and agricultural colleges
  • pushed for vocational classes in high school
  • high schools increased from 160 in 1870 to 6,000
    in 1900
  • NEA focused on college preparation Greek, Latin,
    and classical history
  • colleges increased from 563 in 1870 to 1,000 in
    1910
  • served only 3 of college-age students
  • 40 of undergraduates were women in 1890
  • Chatauqua Movement
  • improving lectures that focused on the fine arts
    and literature
  • part of a larger movement that focused on
    self-improvement
  • Booker T. Washington
  • southern black educator at Tuskegee, AL in 1881
  • emphasized education as the means for the black
    community to better its standard of living
  • advocated economic equality but not social
    equality abiding by the separate but equal
    decision of the courts
  • wrote Up from Slavery
  • George Washington Carver
  • instructor at Tuskegee in 1896
  • focused on finding new uses for agricultural
    products produced by southern black farmers
  • peanuts, soybeans, and sweet potatoes

17
Sports and Leisure
  • Vaudeville
  • used ethnic and racial stereotypes to attend
    middle-class and working-class audiences
  • 14 of all city dwellers attended at least once a
    week before the movies
  • Scott Joplin
  • introduced northerners to ragtime at the Chicago
    Worlds Fair in 1893
  • Coney Island, 1870s
  • new leisure hours meant time for rides, freak
    shows, and young love
  • Central Park, 1858
  • public area for ice skating, picnics, concerts,
    and sports
  • Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, 1845
  • set down official rules making professional clubs
    possible
  • local brewers sponsored teams which engaged in
    rowdy brawls with the fans
  • National League in 1876 banned alcohol sales to
    attract the middle class
  • Albert Spalding
  • acquired exclusive rights to the rule book and
    the official ball
  • first baseball union in the 1880s
  • Negro Leagues, 1920s
  • racial segregation first started in 1884
  • separate leagues existed until the early 1950s
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