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GILDED AGE INDUSTRIALISM

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Title: GILDED AGE INDUSTRIALISM


1
GILDED AGE INDUSTRIALISM
  • Unit VIA
  • AP United States History

2
American Industrial Expansion
  • With the completion of Manifest Destiny
    throughout continental U.S., the nation
    encompassed near-perfect elements for massive
    industrialization and economic expansion
  • Economic Resources
  • Land
  • Abundance and discovery of vast deposits of coal,
    iron ore, copper, timber, oil, gold, silver,
    agricultural
  • Labor
  • Cheap wages, immigration, population growth
  • Capital
  • Industrial capitalism and finance capitalism
  • Federal subsidies and land sales
  • Second Industrial Revolution and technological
    innovation
  • Entrepreneurial Ability
  • Captains of Industry/Robber Barons

3
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4
Captains of Industry OR Robber Barons
  • Using four business entrepreneurs as case studies
    for American innovation, industrial growth, and
    expansion of capitalism.
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • John D. Rockefeller
  • J.P. Morgan

5
Captains of Industry OR Robber BaronsCornelius
Vanderbilt and Railroads
  • Acquired his wealth in steamships and expanded
    into railroads in 1860s
  • Revamped northeast railroads through
    consolidation and standardization
  • New York Central Railroad
  • Regional railway system from New York to Chicago
  • Replaced and built lines with standard gauges
  • Implementation of steel
  • Stronger to carry heavier loads
  • Safer due to no corrosion
  • Vanderbilt University

6
Railroads Drive the Economy
  • Growth and Influence
  • 35,000 miles (1865) to 200,000 miles (1900)
  • First Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
  • Leland Stanfords Union Pacific and Central
    Pacific meet at Promontory Summit, UT
  • Market connections, boomtowns, and jobs
  • Federal Government Involvement
  • Pacific Railway Acts
  • Land grants and government bonds to railroad
    companies
  • Requirement of standardized gauges
  • By 1871, federal and state governments sold
    300,000,000 acres of land to railroads
  • Innovation and Improvement
  • Standardized gauges
  • Westinghouse air brakes
  • Steel
  • Time zones

7
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8
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9
The Business of Railroads
  • Rate Wars
  • Competition among railroad companies was fierce
    and intense
  • Stronger companies lowered rates to drive out
    weaker companies
  • Led to monopolies
  • Increased rates dramatically
  • Long haul and short haul rates
  • Price discrimination favored commercial farmers
    over small farmers
  • Stock watering/watered stock
  • Inflated stocks led to higher consumer rates
  • Pools
  • Competing lines fixed prices and divided business
    for max profits
  • Grange Lines
  • Midwest farmers dependent on rail lines for
    shipping
  • High freight rates impoverished farmers

10
Commercial Farming
  • Agriculture became commercialized on cash crops
    for national and international markets
  • Influx of Eastern capital and investment
  • From subsistence to market/stores
  • Pushed out local/small farmers
  • Competition, deflated currency, and
    overproduction lowered prices while input costs
    increased
  • Middle Men
  • Farmers lost massive share of profits to managers
    of their sales
  • Grain elevator and railroad companies charged
    expensive rents and transportation costs

11
The Farmers Organize
  • Fueled by the Granger Movement
  • Granger laws
  • Munn v. Illinois (1877)
  • States could regulate private companies if they
    served the public interest, I.e. grain elevators,
    railroads
  • Wabash, St. Louis Pacific Railway Co. v.
    Illinois (1886)
  • States could not regulate interstate commerce
  • Interstate Commerce Act (1886)
  • Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
  • Enforce fair railway rates, prohibit
    discriminatory practices by railroads
  • National Alliance and the Ocala Platform (1890)
  • Unity against corporations and monopolies
  • Favored direct election of Senators, lower
    tariffs, graduated income tax, federal banking
    system
  • Evolves into Peoples Party (Populists) and Omaha
    Platform (1892)

12
Captains of Industry OR Robber BaronsAndrew
Carnegie and Steel
  • Managed Pennsylvania Railroad and invested in
    various industries
  • Steel
  • Bessemer Process
  • Vertical Integration
  • Urbanization and Cities
  • Labor Unions and Strikes

13
Bessemer Process
  • Oxidation of iron ore to remove impurities
  • Steel is lighter, stronger, rust-resistant
  • Carnegie and Steel
  • Adopted and adapted Bessemer Process to steel
    plants
  • Increased supply of quality steel dropped steel
    prices
  • Abundance of steel significantly impacted
    American industrial growth and expansion

14
Steel Production
15
Vertical Integration
  • Carnegie acquired all aspects of steel production
  • Limited competition, maximized profits, lowered
    prices

16
Steel and Cities
  • Buildings
  • Skyscrapers
  • Steel beams
  • Infrastructure
  • Railroads
  • Bridges
  • Brooklyn Bridge
  • Urban Innovation
  • Mass Transit
  • Elevated rails
  • Subways
  • Elevators
  • Central steam-heating systems

17
Home Insurance Building Chicago 1885
Flatiron Building/Fuller Building New York 1902
18
Gilded Age Urbanization
  • Urbanization
  • Population increasingly moving to cities
  • Mechanization of agriculture
  • Economic opportunities with increased
    industrialization
  • Increased infrastructure
  • Streetcars, bridges, subways
  • Skyscrapers, elevators, radiators
  • City Layouts
  • Business centers
  • Older sections
  • Immigration and minorities
  • Suburbs
  • Middle and upper class moved outside of cities to
    escape urbanization
  • Urban reform developments

19
Urban Problems
  • Overcrowding
  • Tenement Living
  • Pollution
  • Crime
  • Sanitation/Water Treatment
  • Disease

20
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21
Urban and Social Reforms
  • Municipal services
  • Social Gospel
  • Apply Christian values toward social problems and
    issues
  • Josiah Strong, Walter Rauschenbusch, Richard T.
    Ely
  • Settlement Houses
  • Jane Addams and Hull House
  • YMCA
  • Salvation Army
  • Social Criticism
  • Jacob Riis - How the Other Half Lives (1889)
  • Henry George - Progress and Poverty (1879)

22
Working Conditions
  • Typical 12 hour days, 6 days a week
  • Conditions
  • Poor ventilation and heavy equipment
  • In 1882, average of 675 workers killed each week
  • Injured fired
  • No benefits, such as vacation days, sick leave,
    health insurance, workers compensation, pensions
  • Women
  • Earned half of what men earned in comparable or
    same jobs
  • Child Labor
  • As young as 5 years old
  • 12-14 hours for .27 (6.65)

23
Unions vs. Management
  • Industrialization, mass production, use of
    semiskilled workers devalued labor
  • Poor and dangerous working conditions,
    immigrants, and meager salaries upset workforce
  • Organized labor to appeal for better conditions,
    higher salaries, benefits
  • Union Methods political action and efficacy,
    strikes, picketing, boycotts, slowdowns
  • Industrialization, mass production, use of
    semiskilled workers increased profits
  • Poor and dangerous working conditions,
    immigrants, and meager salaries increasing
    profits and satisfied management
  • Developed image of unions and organized labor as
    un-American, socialist, anarchist
  • Management Methods lockouts, scabs, blacklists,
    yellow-dog contracts, government/private force,
    court injunctions

24
National Labor Union (NLU)
  • Founded in 1866 as the first national labor union
  • Platform
  • 8-hour workday
  • Monetary reform, cooperatives
  • Racial and gender equality
  • Impact
  • 8-hour workday for federal employees
  • Decline
  • Panic of 1873
  • Knights of Labor

25
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
  • July 14-September 4, 1877
  • Causes
  • Panic of 1873
  • Class conflict with wage cuts and unemployment
  • Events
  • Strikers forced rail stoppages
  • Federal troops engaged strikers
  • Riots and massacres
  • Impact
  • Would lead to better organization of workers and
    labor unions
  • Legislation to limit unions and preparations for
    potential conflicts

26
Knights of Labor
  • Founded in 1869
  • Terence V. Powderley
  • Claimed over a million workers by 1880s
  • Platform
  • Open to blacks, women, most immigrants,
    Catholics, unskilled and semi-skilled workers
  • Cooperatives and anti-trusts
  • 8-hour workday, child labor laws
  • Preferred arbitration over strikes
  • Decline
  • Haymarket Bombing
  • AFL

27
Haymarket Riot of 1886
  • May Day (May 1st)
  • Strike begins of harvesting workers
  • May 3rd
  • Police sent to protect strikers
  • Fight broke out and one person killed and several
    injured
  • May 4th Protest
  • Anarchists planned demonstration against police
    brutality
  • Police dispersed crowd of 2,000
  • Bombing
  • A pipe bomb exploded and killed 7 police officers
  • Police fired into crowd killing 4
  • Trial
  • 8 innocent anarchists convicted of murder in a
    show trial
  • 4 hanged, 1 committed suicide, 3 pardoned by
    governor

28
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
  • Founded in 1886 as an organization of national
    craft unions of skilled workers
  • Samuel Gompers
  • Bread and Butter Unionism
  • Higher wages
  • Shorter working hours
  • Better working conditions
  • Tactics
  • Used arbitration and strikes
  • Avoided political radicalism and extremism

29
Homestead Strike
  • June 30-July 6, 1892
  • Henry Frick
  • Manager of Carnegie Steel
  • Pursued wage cuts due to lower steel prices
  • Attempted to weaken steel workers union
  • Events
  • Frick orders a lockout and hires scabs
  • Use of Pinkertons to disperse strikers
  • State militia broke the strike and took over the
    plant
  • Impact
  • Weakened steel workers union
  • Tarnished Carnegies reputation

30
Pullman Strike (1894)
  • Pullman Palace Car Company
  • Established model town for workers
  • In response to Panic of 1893, wages cut but not
    rents and town costs
  • Eugene V. Debs
  • Led strike with American Railway Union
  • Strike
  • Workers blocked transport of Pullman cars
  • Pullman Co. linked them to mail cars
  • President Grover Cleveland deployed federal
    troops and court injunctions to enforce postal
    service
  • Opinion
  • Most Americans opposed the strike
  • Included AFL and Samuel Gompers
  • In Re Debs (1895)
  • Supreme Court ruled federal court injunctions to
    enforce interstate commerce constitutional

31
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32
Captains of Industry OR Robber BaronsJohn D.
Rockefeller and Oil
  • Horizontal Integration
  • Standard Oil
  • Trusts and monopolies
  • Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890)
  • Gilded Age Society
  • Social Darwinism
  • Gospel of Wealth

33
Standard Oil
  • Rockefeller established Standard Oil in 1870
  • Uses for Oil
  • Kerosene lamps
  • Fuel for railroads
  • Used vertical integration to control oil industry
    then horizontal integration to control oil market
  • Eventually controlled 95 of oil refining

34
Horizontal Integration
35
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36
Robber Barons and Trusts
  • Tactics of Standard Oil
  • Lowered prices to drive out competitors
  • Threatened companies to sell to Standard Oil
    (buyouts)
  • Bribed railroads to buy Standard Oil fuel
    (rebates, kickbacks)
  • Bribed Congress members
  • Standard Oil Trust
  • Stockholders shares traded for trust
    certificates
  • Board of Trustees controlled and administered
    companies as a whole
  • Shareholders earned dividends based on overall
    profits
  • Monopolies
  • Controls prices
  • Limits competition
  • Pressure on other services to provide discounts
    and rebates

37
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38
Bosses of the Senate
39
Antitrust Movement
  • Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
  • Prohibits any contract, combination, in the form
    of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint
    of trade or commerce
  • United States v. E.C. Knight Co. (1895)
  • Sugar refining monopoly tested Sherman Antitrust
    Act
  • Regulation applied to commerce and not
    manufacturing

40
Scientific ManagementTaylorism
  • Frederick W. Taylor
  • Scientific management used to match labor with
    production demand
  • Designed hierarchies
  • Subdivisions of labor
  • Time management
  • Effects
  • Managerial class
  • Efficiency
  • Increased factory production
  • Lowered labor costs

41
Gilded Age Socioeconomics
  • Socioeconomic gap extensively widened
  • By 1890s, 10 of Americans controlled 90 of the
    nations wealth
  • Standard of living for upper class and middle
    class improved dramatically
  • Poor working class suffered in urban centers
  • 2/3 of population were wage earners
  • Expansion of middle class/white-collar workers
  • Due to growth of managers/administrators/experts
    in businesses
  • Iron law of wages
  • Supply and demand determined wages, not the
    consideration of workers welfare

42
Gilded Age Women
  • 20 of American women worked as wage earners
  • Most single women 5 married
  • Low-income families required women in workplace
  • Female-based Jobs
  • Typical home-associated industries textiles,
    foods, domestic servants
  • New types of jobs secretaries, bookkeepers,
    typists, communication operators
  • Women and feminized jobs considered low status
    and low salaries
  • Gibson Girl
  • Iconic image of women as independent, stylish,
    and working
  • Led to women to seek new types of jobs

43
Womens Suffrage
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association
    (NAWSA) (1890)
  • Merger of NWSA and AWSA
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
  • Gave way to leadership of Carrie Chapman Catt
  • Western States
  • Wyoming granted full suffrage in 1869

44
Gilded Age Families
  • Stronger nuclear families
  • Birth rates and family size rates decreased
  • Children as economic liability in urban areas
  • Divorce rates increased
  • 1 in 12 by 1900

45
Immigration
  • Population
  • 16.2 million immigrants between 1850-1900
  • 8.8 million during 1901-1910
  • Pushes
  • Mechanization removing jobs, esp. in rural areas
  • Overpopulation
  • Persecution
  • Pulls
  • Political and economic freedoms and opportunities
  • Old Immigrants
  • Northern and Western Europe
  • New Immigrants
  • Southern and Eastern Europe Asia
  • Catholics, Jews

46
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47
Immigrant Issues
  • Sociopolitical Enemies
  • Nativists
  • Josiah Strong - Our Country
  • Legislation
  • Page Act of 1875
  • Forbade forced labor Asians, prostitutes,
    convicts
  • Immigration Acts of 1882, 1891
  • 0.50 tax
  • Forbid convicts, lunatics, idiots, diseased,
    disabled
  • Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
  • Chinese immigration ban for 10 years
  • Chinese prevented from becoming citizens
  • United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898)
  • All people born in U.S. are citizens
  • Political Machines
  • Employment, housing, social services for votes
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods
  • Little Italy
  • Chinatown

48
Ellis Island
Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled
masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched
refuse of your teeming shore Emma Lazarus -
The New Colossus, 1883
49
Laissez-Faire and Social Darwinism
  • Laissez-Faire Economics
  • Economy driven by the invisible hand of market
    forces (supply and demand)
  • Government should refrain from regulation or
    interference
  • Social Darwinism
  • Herbert Spencer
  • Survival of the fittest
  • Wealth a result of hard work and brilliance
  • Poor and unfortunate were lazy
  • William Graham Sumner
  • Absolute freedom to struggle, succeed, or fail
  • State intervention is futile
  • Gospel of Wealth
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Guardians of the nations wealth
  • All revenue generated beyond your own needs
    should be used for the good of the community.

50
Horatio Alger Myth
  • Rags to riches stories
  • Young American men, through hard work and virtue,
    will succeed
  • Also used a supporting wealthy philanthropic
    character
  • Seemingly propaganda of the American Dream under
    free enterprise and capitalism

51
Captains of Industry OR Robber BaronsJ.P.
Morgan and Electricity
  • Banking and Financing
  • Science and Innovation
  • Corporations
  • Consumerism
  • American Culture

52
Morganization
  • J.P. Morgan and Co.
  • Financial capital and investment
  • Directly and indirectly pursued inventions and
    innovations
  • Mergers and Consolidations
  • Railroad industry
  • Interlocking directorates
  • Corporate board of directors sitting on boards of
    multiple corporations

53
Electricity
  • Thomas Edison
  • The Wizard of Menlo Park
  • Incandescent light bulb
  • Safer than kerosene lamps
  • New York City
  • Direct current (DC)
  • Edison developed system of power stations
  • Nicola Tesla
  • Alternate current (AC)
  • Transfer of electricity faster and farther

54
Gilded Age Innovation
  • Sewing Machine (1855)
  • Isaac Singer
  • Transatlantic cable (1866)
  • Cyrus Field
  • Dynamite (1866)
  • Alfred Nobel
  • Typewriter (1867)
  • Christopher Scholes
  • Air brakes (1868)
  • George Westinghouse
  • Mail-order catalog (1872)
  • A.M. Ward
  • Blue jeans (1873)
  • Levi Strauss
  • Barbed wire (1873)
  • Joseph Glidden
  • Telephone (1876)
  • Alexander Graham Bell
  • Phonograph (1877)
  • Universal stock ticker (1885)
  • Thomas Edison
  • Transformer (1885)
  • Nikola Tesla
  • Gasoline automobile (1885)
  • Karl F. Benz
  • Skyscraper (1885)
  • William Le Baron Jenney
  • Film roll and Kodak camera (1889)
  • George Eastman
  • Motion picture camera (1891)
  • Thomas Edison
  • Radio (1895)
  • Guglielmo Marconi
  • Subway (U.S.) (1895)
  • X-ray (1895)
  • Wilhelm C. Rontgen
  • Powered flight (1903)
  • George and Wilbur Wright

55
Monumental Innovation
  • Charles Alderton
  • Experimented with various syrups and flavorings
  • Robert Lazenby
  • Developed Dr. Pepper by 1885
  • Patented and incorporated by 1891
  • St. Louis Worlds Fair and Exposition (1904)
  • Introduces Dr. Pepper to the world
  • Along with hot dogs, hamburgers, and ice cream
    cones

56
Number of Patents Issued
57
Corporations
  • American Telephone and Telegraph Co. (1885)
  • J.P. Morgan Co. financed merger of Bell and
    communication companies
  • General Electric (1892)
  • J.P. Morgan merged Edison General Electric and
    Thomas-Houston Electric Company
  • U.S. Steel (1901)
  • J.P. Morgan bought Carnegie Steel and merged with
    other steel companies
  • Becomes first billion dollar company in world

58
Corporate Mergers - 1895-1910
59
Consumerism
  • Wide variety of mass produced goods led to new
    marketing and sales
  • Brand names and logos
  • Department stores
  • R.H. Macys
  • Chain stores
  • Woolworths
  • Grocery stores
  • Mail order catalogs
  • Montgomery Ward
  • Sears, Roebuck, Co.

60
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61
Henry Ford and Model T
  • Assembly Line
  • Mass production of products through sequential
    assembly
  • Worker Treatment
  • Paid decent wages
  • Provided benefits
  • Model T (1908)
  • Low-cost product for affordable price

62
Gilded Age Religion
  • American Christians focused values toward
    consequences of industrialization and
    urbanization
  • Social Gospel
  • Increases
  • Catholics, Jews
  • New Christian Sects
  • Christian Science
  • Spiritual life over material
  • Pentecostals
  • Baptism in spirit speaking in tongues
  • Salvation Army
  • Jehovahs Witnesses
  • Millenialist

63
Temperance and Reform
  • Alcohol and vices blamed for urban problems
  • Regulating Morality
  • Comstock Law (1873)
  • Temperance Organizations
  • National Prohibition Party (1869)
  • Womens Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) (1874)
  • Frances E. Willard
  • Antisaloon League (1893)
  • Carrie Nation
  • Hatchetations
  • Reform Groups
  • Planned parenthood
  • Humane societies
  • Anti-prostitution

64
Gilded Age Academics
  • Educational Reforms
  • Compulsory Education
  • Most states required 8-14 year olds to attend
    schools
  • Kindergartens
  • Public Education
  • Dramatic increase in high schools and adult
    education
  • Comprehensive education
  • Led to 90 literacy rate
  • Colleges and Universities
  • Increased through federal legislation and
    philanthropy
  • Science
  • Darwin and Natural Selection (Evolution)
  • Technological Innovation
  • Social Sciences
  • Scientific method applied to behavioral sciences
  • Development of psychology, sociology, political
    science
  • William Jamess Principles of Psychology

65
Gilded Age Entertainment and Leisure
  • Causes
  • Urbanization, less working hours, advertisements
  • Vaudevilles
  • Popularized with family-friendly subjects and
    material
  • Saloons
  • Amusement Parks
  • Coney Island
  • Circus
  • P.T. Barnum
  • Sports
  • Spectator
  • Baseball, boxing, football, basketball
  • Amateur
  • Golf, tennis

66
Realism and Naturalism
  • Realism
  • Objective reality
  • Depict accurate and true characters and settings
  • Absent of emotional embellishment
  • Naturalism
  • Depiction of objects in natural settings
  • Time and place accuracy

Brooklyn Bridge at Night Edward Willis
Redfield 1909
67
Gilded Age Art
  • Ashcan School
  • Depiction of New York City urban life
  • George Bellows
  • James M. Whistler
  • Winslow Homer
  • Mary Cassatt

Both Members of This Club George Bellows 1909
68
Winslow Homers Breezing Up
69
George Bellows New York
70
James Whistlers Arrangement in Grey and Black
No. 1 (Whistlers Mother) (1871)
71
Mary Cassats The Childs Bath (1893)
72
Gilded Age Architecture
  • Victorian Influence
  • Henry Hobson Richardson
  • Louis Sullivan
  • Father of Skyscrapers
  • form follows function
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • organic architecture
  • Foursquare Homes

73
Richardsons Trinity Church
74
Frank Lloyd Wrights Fallingwater
75
Foursquare Home
76
Gilded Age Press and Literature
  • Press
  • Joseph Pulitzers New York World William
    Randolph Hearst
  • Sensationalism and scandals
  • Magazines
  • Editorial style based on investigative journalism
  • Forum
  • Non-Fiction
  • Toward facts, investigations, American expansion
  • Helen Hunt Jacksons A Century of Dishonor (1881)
  • Alfred Thayer Mahans The Influence of Sea Power
    on History (1890)
  • Josiah Strongs Our Country
  • Literature
  • Authors focused on character development and
    realism over plot
  • Lewis Wallace
  • Ben-Hur A Tale of Christ
  • Mark Twain
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • The Gilded Age A Tale of Today
  • Stephen Crane

77
Gilded Age Music
  • Mainstream Music
  • John Philip Sousa The March King
  • The Washington Post
  • Stars and Stripes Forever
  • Semper Fidelis
  • Screamers Circus Marches
  • Entry of the Gladiators
  • Circus Bee
  • Popular Music
  • Ragtime
  • Originated from black communities combining
    African syncopation and classical music
  • Scott Joplin
  • Maple Leaf Rag
  • The Entertainer
  • The Blues
  • Originated c. 1890 from Deep South based on
    ballads among slaves
  • Lyrics mostly soulful and melancholy
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