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THE GILDED AGE Indians, Cowboys, Labor Unions, Railroads and Big Business

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Title: THE GILDED AGE Indians, Cowboys, Labor Unions, Railroads and Big Business


1
THE GILDED AGE Indians, Cowboys, Labor Unions,
Railroads and Big Business
  • 1865-1896

2
1860s-1890s
  • THE LAST FRONTIER (MINING, INDIAN WARS, COWBOYS
    AND AGRICULTURE)
  • MINING DISCOVERIES
  • 1859Pikes Peak, Coloradosilver
  • --Comstock Lode, Nevadagold and silver
  • -- Copper discoveries in Arizona and
    Montana
  • New Territories 1861Nevada 1864statehood
    Nevada, 1876statehood Colorado.
  • INDIAN WARS
  • The Great Plains was the last refuge for the
    Native American.
  • 1860250,000 Indians, living off the buffalo
    herds.
  • 1851Treaty of Ft. Laramie
  • 1851Treaty of Traverse des Sioux
  • 1862Sioux Uprising
  • 1864Sand Creek Massacre (Eastern Colorado)
  • 1867Medicine Creek Lodge Conference
  • 1868Battle of Washita River

3
INDIAN WARS CONTINUED
  • Red Clouds War 1866-1876 Montana, Dakota and
    Wyoming Territories.
  • Indian raids along the Bozeman Trail.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn, June 25, 1876
  • 1877 Nez PerceChief Joseph
  • 1881Century of Dishonor Helen Hunt Jackson
  • 1886 -- the capture of Geronimo
  • 1887Dawes Severalty Act
  • 1888-1890 Ghost DanceWovoka
  • 1890Battle of Wounded Knee
  • Results
  • THE RISE OF THE CATTLE INDUSTRY
  • Origins of the cowboy.
  • Post Civil War CowboyWild West
  • Cowboy lifestyle.
  • Open Range
  • RR markets and cattle drives. Refrigerated Box
    Car, Chicago Stockyards
  • 1886 end of open range ranchingRange Wars
  • Cattle Ranches

4
IMMIGRATION AND URBAN POLITICS 1870-1900
  • IMMIGRATION Push-Pull Theory
  • Melting Pot of the World
  • Eastern Europeans to the Northeast.
  • Chinese to the West.
  • Southern blacks to the big cities
  • Why?
  • Jobs--Industrialization of the Northeast and the
    Midwest. Railroads--West
  • Escaping political and economic hardships.
  • RESULTING IN
  • By 1885, 80 of all New Yorkers were foreign
    born.
  • 1892 Ellis Island opened to process immigrants.
  • Made Americas population very diverse. Many
    hoped these immigrants would assimilate into
    mainstream American cultureMelting Pot
  • But instead the US developed cultural pluralism.
  • PROBLEMS AND CONCERNS CAUSED BY IMMIGRATION
  • Xenophobia gripped the country.
  • Immigrants took jobs from native Americans.
  • Distrust of immigrant cultures.
  • Suspicious of ethnic ghettos. disloyalty to
    America???
  • Fear of Catholics and Jews

5
Urban Politics of the late 19th Century
  • Ethnic vote was crucial.
  • Ethnic groups tended to block vote.
  • Democrats understood that politicizing the
    immigrant was key to their success citizenship,
    jobs, food, housing, general help.
  • MACHINE POLITICS
  • Powerful political groups within parties took
    control of the large cities. Similar to
    organized crime.
  • ORGANIZATION
  • Cities were divided into Wards or Precincts.
  • Each ward or precinct was ruled by a ward
    bosshis main job was turn out the vote for
    certain candidates.
  • Main objective control City Hall ( mayor and
    his administration.)
  • Once in power it often led to bribery, graft and
    kickbacks, Influence peddling, sandbagging,
    hiring of ghost employees.
  • Famous Machines
  • NY CityTammany HallWilliam Boss Tweed
  • ChicagoGray WolvesDaley Family

6
GROWING OPPOSITION TO MACHINE POLITICS
  • Ethnicity and Political Power within NY City
  • GovernmentIrish
  • Police Depts.- Irish
  • Fire Depts. Italian
  • Sanitation. Italian and African-Americans
  • Opposition
  • Middle Class professionals-- Goo Goos and
    Mugwumps.
  • RISE OF LABOR
  • WORKING CONDITIONS
  • Factories relied on specialization of labor.
    Jobs were divided into easy, monotonous tasks
    with little sense of pride of workmanship.
  • Hours were long12-14 hr. days/ 6 days per week.
  • Wages were low.
  • Workplaces were dangerous.
  • Men, women and children worked in the factories
    together.
  • Child labor would start a seemingly endless cycle
    of poverty within families.

7
  • RISE OF ORGANIZED LABOR
  • 1830s-1860ssocial reformers, job conscious
    unions (skilled trades), no national
    organization.
  • 1866 National Labor Union formed.
  • 1869--- Knights of Labor, Uriah Stephens,
    Terrence Powderly
  • Concerns
  • 1884 Union Pacific (repair workers) Strike
  • Decline
  • HAYMARKET SQUARE RIOT MAY 3RD AND 4TH 1886
  • The Knights of labor may have failed but the laid
    the foundation for the Industrial Union.
  • AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (AFL)
  • 1886--Organization of craft unionsSamuel
    Gompers
  • Major Labor setbacks 1890s
  • Homestead Strike 1892 Iron and Steel Workers
    Union
  • ISWU was a branch of the AFL
  • 1905 in opposition to the AFL the IWW
    (Wobblies) was created by Eugene V. Debs based
    on Socialism

8
  • DISORGANIZED LABOR
  • 1870sMolly Maguires
  • RR Strike 1877

9
FARMERS ALLIANCES AND THE RISE OF THE POPULIST
MOVEMENT
  • FARMERS ALLIANCES
  • BEGINNINGS 1860-1875
  • PLIGHT OF THE FARMER
  • AGRARIAN REVOLT
  • PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY (GRANGE) 1867
  • OLIVER KELLEY
  • POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION FOR
    FARMERS
  • 1880s
  • NORTHWESTERN ALLIANCE
  • SOUTHERN ALLIANCE
  • COLORED FARMERS ALLIANCE
  • POPULIST PARTY
  • ISSUES
  • OMAHA PLATFORM
  • LEADERS
  • BIG BUSINESS AND ROBBER BARONS
  • Definition of a Corporation
  • Robber Baronsowners of great monopolies and
    trust companies
  • Tires, Steel, Telephones, Electricity, Banking,
    Oil, RRs

10
(No Transcript)
11
THE RISE OF BIG BUSINESS
  • INVENTIONS AND NATURAL RESOURCES 1870S-1900
  • 1. COMMUNICATION TELEGRAPH (MORSE), TELEPHONE
    (BELL).
  • 2. ELECTRICITY LIGHTBULB (EDISON), AC CURRENT
    GENERATOR (GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE)
  • 3. TYPEWRITER -(SHOLES),) ELEVATORS- (OTIS),
    FARM MACHINERY- (McCORMICK, DEERE, STUDEBAKER)
  • 4. MASS PRODUCTION PROCESS(FORD)
  • RESOURCES
  • COAL, IRON ORE APPALACHIAN MTNS. AND MESABI
    RANGE (MINNESOTA)
  • OIL PENNSYLVANIA AND THE SOUTHWEST
  • TIMBERSOUTH AND UPPER MIDWEST AND NORTHWEST
  • HYDROELECTRICITYNORTHWEST, PIEDMONT OF THE NE
    AND SOUTH
  • GIANTS OF EARLY US INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • ROBBER BARONSMONOPOLIES (TRUSTS)
  • --THEY USED VERTICAL INTEGRATION, INTERLOCKING
    DIRECTORATES AND PROTECTIVE TARIFFS TO GAIN OR
    PROTECT THEIR MONOPOLIES.
  • -- RAILROADSCORNELIUS VANDERBILT (NY CENTRAL),
    LELAND STANFORD (BIG 4 OF CALIFORNIA)
  • -- OIL EDWIN DRAKE, JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER
    (STANDARD OIL)
  • STEELANDREW CARNEGIE (US STEEL)GOSPEL OF
    WEALTH
  • BANKS, INSURANCE COMPANIES AND HOLDING COMPANIES
    JP MORGAN

12
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE RAILROADS
  • WHAT FUELED AMERICAS INDUSTRIAL GROWTH?
  • A. STABLE GOVERNMENT
  • B. INVESTMENT DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN
  • C. THE 14TH AMENDMENT
  • D. ABUNDANCE OF THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
  • E. THE RAILROADS
  • THE GROWTH OF THE RAILROAD
  • A. TRACK MILEAGE INCREASED. 186130,000 MILES,
    1893 181,000 MILES.
  • B. STEEL TRACK, GOVERNMENT AID (PACIFIC RAILWAYS
    ACT 1862) LAND (EASEMENTS 200 WIDE) LATER
    AMENDED FOR EACH MILE OF TRACK LAID 40 MILE
    WIDE EASEMENT.
  • C. 1893 5 TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROADS, 4 WERE
    FINANCED PARTLY BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ONLY
    THE NORTHERN PACIFIC WAS PRIVATELY FINANCED
    (JAMES J. HILL)
  • RAILROADS IMPACT ON SOCIETY
  • LED TO INDUSTRIAL GROWTH IN STEEL, COAL, OIL
  • OPENED THE WEST TO ECONOMIC GROWTH FARMING,
    RANCHING, LARGE CORPORATIONS ( GENERAL MILLS,
    PILLSBURY, RALSTON-PURINA, 3 M, SEARS AND
    ROEBUCK, MONTGOMERY WARDS)
  • NEED FOR TIME ZONES AND ACCURATE TIME-KEEPING

13
VIEW OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • SOCIAL DARWINISM
  • BASED ON THE IDEAS of EVOLUTIONCHARLES DARWIN
  • HERBERT SPENCER VIEWED THE SUCCESS OF
    LAISSEZ-FAIRE CAPITALISTS (ROBBER BARONS) AS
    EVIDENCE THAT IN ECONOMICS THE STRONGEST
    SURVIVE.
  • MANY DISAGREED AND VIEWED THE ROBBER BARONS AS
    GREEDY MEN WHO TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE POOR. MARK
    TWAIN CALLED THE ERA THE GILDED AGECORRUPTION
    AND GREED.
  • A NEW SOUTH
  • THE BOURBONS PUSHED FOR INDUSTRIALIZATION FOR THE
    SOUTH.
  • TOBACCO AND POWERWASHINGTON DUKE AND BUCK DUKE
  • TEXTILESJP STEVENS
  • STEEL BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA PITTSBURGH OF THE
    SOUTH
  • EARLY ATTEMPTS AT GOVERNMENT REGULATION
  • GIBBONS V. OGDEN, 1824.
  • 1887INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT-REGULATED RAILROADS.
  • 1890SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT
  • UNITED STATES V. EC KNIGHT, 1895

14
CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • MORE CONSUMER GOODS WERE PRODUCED.
  • STANDARD OF LIVING INCREASED BECAUSE OF THE NEW
    PRODUCTS AND AVAILABLE JOBS.
  • TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES LED TO THE RISE OF THE
    MIDDLE CLASSSUBURBS.
  • INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS THRIVED, WHICH EVENTUALLY
    LED TO CONFLICTS THAT CHANGED AMERICAS STANCE ON
    WORLD AFFAIRS.
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