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Space for Knowledge flows

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'What we have learned is that you may succeed in business ... with tables, chairs, whiteboards, cupboards, electric and internet connects, workshop materials ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Space for Knowledge flows


1
Space for Knowledge flows
  • Creating environments that support knowledge work

Gillian Maree
2
  • What we have learned is that you may succeed in
    business despite your space, but you seldom
    succeed because of it
  • Donald J. Chiofaro

3
Its about
  • Understanding
  • the impact of the physical work space on
    knowledge sharing
  • that knowledge happens everywhere

4
So what is knowledge management?
5
theory
data
information
knowledge
capacity for informed action
experience
filter
This process of integration is also called
learning (after Miller and Morris, 1999)
6
Types of knowledge
  • Explicit knowledge can be written down
  • Tacit knowledge highly personal, context
    specific, difficult to codify and share

7
The knowledge environment
8
The changing workplace
The conventional office
The contemporary office
  • Reflected hierarchies
  • Cell-type offices
  • Individual work
  • Little interaction
  • Little knowledge sharing
  • Control
  • Team-based allocations
  • Open layouts
  • Team based work
  • High levels interaction
  • Sharing a focal point
  • Community

9
Knowledge space
office
city
Conventionally
Future
10
Trends in office space
  • Workers are making use of multiple workplaces and
    nomadic work patterns
  • Styles of work are becoming more flexible
  • Office space is changing to reflect the
    importance of communication and the exchange of
    ideas

11
Demands of workspace
  • attract the right people
  • interaction and communication
  • openness and convenience
  • flexibility
  • Image
  • diversity of accommodation
  • Concentration and dispersal of functions and
    people
  • Support people wherever they work
  • Sense of place

12
Work space types
13
Personal space is important
  • Knowledge workers value their personal space
    highly
  • Personal space remains a status symbol in the
    work place
  • The average workstation is occupied for 45 of
    the day

14
Personal Space (2)
  • Accessibility
  • Email and telephone use
  • Types
  • Individual office
  • Shared offices
  • Open plan
  • Bullpen

15
Team Space
  • Space for in depth technical and project related
    discussions
  • Medium sized teams used (5 15 people)
  • Typically equipped with tables, chairs,
    whiteboards, cupboards, electric and internet
    connects, workshop materials

16
Team Space (2)
  • Includes project rooms, war rooms, meeting room,
    boardroom, etc
  • Used over short to medium time periods
  • Flexible
  • Single (executive boardroom) or multifunctional
    (project room)

17
Rugby versus relay race models
Traditional Relay Race
Rugby Model
  • every department does its bit
  • meet at set times in set locations
  • team workspaces rare
  • difficult to maintain a collective memory
  • cross-functional teams
  • dedicated team rooms
  • free-flowing and serendipitous communication
  • visual thinking techniques are important

18
Social Space
  • Serendipitous Knowledge flows
  • Can be everything that is not personal or team
    space
  • Typically short exchanges
  • Anything from 2 people to entire group
  • Should form naturally and not be forced

19
Social Space (2)
  • Typically thought of as cafeteria, braai area,
    pool table
  • Coffee machine, microwave, printers, copy
    machine, mail
  • Corridors move more than just people

20
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21
Previous studies
  • 30 metre rule likelihood of interaction with a
    co-worker more than 30 meters away is likely to
    be zero
  • Workers stationed on different floors have a 1
    chance of meeting
  • Spatial arrangements and appearance sends signals
    about status and behaviour

22
Signals on status and behavior
  • Work culture and socialisation is linked to
    workspace
  • Reflected through
  • The extent to which space is personalised
  • Amount of individual versus group space
  • Décor
  • Social configuration within the space

23
Integrated spaces for knowledge flows
  • Need personal, team and social spaces

Form follows function
or
Structure follows strategy
24
Integrated workspace
25
(Ward and Holtham, 2000)
26
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27
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28
Conclusion
  • Knowledge workers take their space personally but
    require team and social spaces for knowledge
    sharing
  • Avoiding unimaginative and dull workspaces is not
    difficult
  • Providing flexibility (across scales and time)
  • Structure follows strategy

29
Example Environmentek
  • Water Resource Management Business area

30
Lowered ceiling
paint
carpets
Shared printer/copy/fax facilities
31
White wall
LAN point
Modular furniture
Pin and white boards
Visual thinking
Comfortable and stackable chairs
32
Remove wall
Interest boards
Tea corner water cooler
Bean bags
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