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Knowledge Management

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Knowledge Management Taming the Intangible Compiled by : Shyan Kirat Rai skrai_at_nasc.org.np – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Knowledge Management


1
Knowledge Management
  • Taming the Intangible

Compiled by Shyan Kirat Rai skrai_at_nasc.org.np
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Agenda
  • KM Definitions
  • What is knowledge
  • KM Myths
  • SECI Model
  • KM Tools
  • KM Methods
  • Roadmap to KM in an organization

4
What is Knowledge?Source R. Ackoffs Pyramid
to Wisdom (1989, 1996)
Wisdom
Knowledge
Information
Data
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The continuum of knowledge
Abstract
Wisdom
Insights
Experience
Physical
Knowledge
Information
Data
Three entities Data, Information Knowledge
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DIKW- Continuum
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Types of Knowledge
  • Explicit Knowledge
  • Knowledge that is written down and thus, easily
    recorded, shared, tracked, and measured, as well
    as editedor improved by others.

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Knowledge Assets (KA)
Explicit
Media-based
Written down
Tacit
People knowledge
in Peoples head
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Definition of KM
  • Knowledge management is a discipline that
    promotes an integrated approach to identifying,
    retrieving, evaluating, and sharing an
    enterprises tacit and explicit knowledge assets
    to meet mission objectives. The objective is to
    connect those who know with those who need to
    know (know-why, know-what, know-who, and
    know-how) by leveraging knowledge transfers from
    one-to-many across the enterprise.

10
Definitions
Knowledge Management (KM). A conscious strategy
toleverage the knowledge assets of an
organization to help achieve the business
results.
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Definitions
  • A managed system for ensuring that
  • The right knowledge
  • Reaches the right people
  • At the right time
  • To help them make the right decisions

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  • KM Thoughts
  • KM is a JOURNEY not a DESTINATION
  • -Warick Holder

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KM Advantages
  • In todays knowledge economy knowledge is the
    biggest capital
  • Knowledge is linked to performance
  • KM helps innovation
  • Take advantage of what others already know
  • Avoid past mistakes
  • Avoid redundant work
  • Retain organizational knowledge

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  • KM Thoughts
  • In the end, learning faster than our competitors
    is the only sustainable competitive advantage
  • -Arie de Geus Shell

15
Knowledge Management Myths
  • Knowledge can be managed
  • Dont manage, facilitate
  • KM implementation is the goal
  • KM is an enabler to achieve bigger goals
  • KM means implementing a software
  • Technology is only an enabler
  • KM needs changing culture
  • Cant change culture, influence it

16
  • KM Thoughts
  • You cant manage knowledge nobody can. What
    you can do is to manage the environment in which
    knowledge can be created, discovered, captured,
    shared, distilled, validated, transferred,
    adopted, adapted and applied.
  • Chris Collison and Geoff Parcell,
  • Learning to Fly Practical Knowledge Management
    from Leading and Learning Organizations

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It is not the strongest of the species
that survive, Nor the most intelligent
But the ones most responsive to
change - Charles
Darwin
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KM Enablers

Success
19
Knowledge Management involves processes for
  • Knowledge acquisition
  • Knowledge creation
  • Knowledge storage
  • Knowledge sharing
  • Knowledge application

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Knowledge Sharing
Source http//www.slideshare.net/nickmilton/intro
duction-to-knowledge-management
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  • KM Thoughts
  • Sharing knowledge occurs when people are
    genuinely interested in helping one another
    develop new capacities for action it is about
    creating learning processes.
  • A demand for knowledge will stimulate a supply,
    but not vice versa

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Barriers to KM
  1. Unclear concept/ vision
  2. Knowledge is power mentality
  3. Lack of knowledge sharing processes
  4. No time allowed
  5. No knowledge sharing by executives
  6. Managers do not walk the talk
  7. Ineffective channels of knowledge distribution
  8. Lack of knowledge filters
  9. Lack of encouragement
  10. Bureaucracy

23
  • KM Thoughts
  • Our approach to KM is far more than stick or
    carrot. We say, "Knowledge Sharing is your job.
    Do it! As a reward you may keep your job
  • -Bob Buckman

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Some of the Knowledge Creation Tools
  • After Action Review (AAR)
  • Collegial Coaching
  • Yellow Pages
  • SWOT (Strengths - Weaknesses - Opportunities -
    Threats)
  • Good Practice
  • Knowledge Fair
  • Exit Interview
  • Story Telling  
  • Experience Capitalization
  • Mentoring
  • Visualization

25
Tools Contd..
  • Peer Assist
  • Briefing
  • Brainstorming
  • Group Facilitation (Moderation)
  • Community of Practice
  • Open Space
  • Balanced Scorecard
  • Knowledge Map
  • Knowledge Network
  • Lessons Learnt

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SECI Model
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Technology in Knowledge Management
  • Taming the Intangible

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Implementing and Maintaining KM
Maintaining KMS
KM
Why Implement KM?
Strategy for Implementing
Whos Responsible?
ITs Role in Implementing
30
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Knowledge Management Systems
  • Knowledge management systems refer to any kind of
    IT system that
  • stores and retrieves knowledge,
  • improves collaboration,
  • locates knowledge sources,
  • mines repositories for hidden knowledge,
  • captures and uses knowledge, or
  • enhances the KM process

32
KM Systems Tools
  • Groupware systems KM 2.0
  • The intranet and extranet
  • Data warehousing, data mining
  • Decision Support Systems
  • Content management systems
  • Document management systems
  • Artificial intelligence tools
  • Simulation tools
  • Semantic networks

33
KM Tools
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TRANSFORMATION IN GOVERNMENT
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Problem
  • The technical programming and design know-how
  • Organizational know-how based on the
    understanding of knowledge flows

40

When Knowledge adds up to nothing
  • Charles Lucier, Chief Knowledge Officer at
    International management and technology
    consulting firm said up to 84 of all KM programs
    fail.
  • A global bank spanning 70 countries abandoned
    their KMS before it was ever rolled out.
  • A European manufacturing company successfully
    implemented a KMS, but it was rarely used.
  • A pharmaceutical company implemented a KMS that
    could not be easily adapted to specific context
    of each work group

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Failure Factor of KM Systems
  • Inadequate support managerial and technical,
    during both implementation and use.
  • Expecting that the technology is a KM solution in
    itself.
  • Failure to understand exactly what the firm needs
    (whether technologically or otherwise).
  • Not understanding the specific function and
    limitation of each individual system.

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  • Lack of organizational acceptance, and assuming
    that if you build it, they will come lack of
    appropriate organizational culture.
  • Inadequate quality measures (e.g. lack of content
    management).
  • Lack of organizational/departmental/etc fit -
    does it make working in the organization. easier?
    Is a system appropriate in one area of the firm
    but not another? Does it actually disrupt
    existing processes?
  • Lack of understanding of knowledge dynamics and
    the inherent difficulty in transferring tacit
    knowledge with IT based systems.
  • Lack of a separate budget.

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Knowledge Management Success
  • Evidence shows that, despite the potential
    pitfalls and seemingly high failure rate,
    companies are still willing to invest in KM. Why?
    Because there are big benefits there for taking.
  • The results of several surveys met
  • 87 of European business directors believe they
    could enhance their companys competitiveness
    with improved KM and 76 believe Building
    Sharing Knowledge is important for their company.
  • Study of 500 firms conducted by KPMG illustrated
    80 of senior executives feel that KM is
    strategic to their organization and 78 feel they
    have missed business opportunities.
  • Hoffmann-Roche, the Swiss pharmaceutical firm,
    has estimated that it saves over 1 million per
    day due to its KM activities
  • BP Amoco attributed 260 million in bottom-line
    savings to a KM program

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Knowledge Management Success (Cont.)
  • Energy firm Schlumberger Ltd. reported an
    estimated 668 ROI on a 72 million investment in
    KM over a period of six years
  • Chevron Corporation estimates that it saved an
    initial 150 million, plus at least another 20
    million annually by instituting a best practices
    program
  • Teltech Communications, a firm that specializes
    in aiding companies to implement knowledge
    management programs, reports that its clients
    enjoy an average ROI of 121 for their efforts
  • In a survey carried out by Information Week , IT
    executives said they considered KM a strategic
    initiative of high importance, and KM spend is to
    climb at 62 of the IT institutions surveyed
  • Hewlett-Packards knowledge efforts aimed at
    customer service have reduced average call times
    by two-thirds and the cost per call has fallen by
    50 percent

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Keys to successful KM
  • As is the case with many new practices in
    workplace
  • Getting employees on board from day one and
    making sure they realize exactly how KM program
    is to impact on their routines and bring benefits
    for the organization as a whole is pivotal
  • Make sure KM becomes a fundamental aspect of the
    way you do business
  • Be sure your KM implementation is less about
    reporting and more about sharing knowledge
  • Knowledge is a company asset, hidden, until the
    knowledge worker releases it. The key to
    generating the best returns from your KM Program
    is to implement a well-planned methodology and
    ensure that your organization facilitates this
    release of information.
  • -Mike Bagshaw, Development Director at
    Trans4mation Training Ltd,

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  • Imagination
  • Is more important than
  • knowledge

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Thank You
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