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Models of Human Development


Models of Human Development Conceptual Approaches and Leading Theories Study of Human Development Human development may be studied from a variety of theoretical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Models of Human Development

Models of HumanDevelopment
  • Conceptual Approaches and Leading Theories

Study of Human Development
  • Human development may be studied from a variety
    of theoretical viewpoints, each of which has
    implications for the motor development and
    movement education of infants, children,
    adolescents and adults.
  • (Gallahue Ozman, 1998, p.2)

Theoretical Approaches
Theory Theorists Focus
Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Stages
Psychosocial Erick Erickson Developmental Stages
Maturational Arnold Gesell Movement Abilities
Environmental Robert Havighurst Task Accomplishment
Cognitive Development Jean Piaget Cognitive Structures Thought Processes
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Studied personality and abnormal functioning in
  • Psychosexual stages of development are related to
    the various erogenous zones of the body
  • The Ego mediates between the Id and the Superego

Ericksons Psychosocial Theory
  • Psychosocial development
  • is influenced by motor
  • development and
  • movement education
  • throughout the life span.

Gesells Maturational Theory
  • Suggested that development results from inborn
    biological processes
  • Documented sequential developmental milestones
    for infant and early childhood rudimentary
  • There is a universal sequence of infant movement
    skill acquisition

Havighursts Developmental Tasks
  • Successful development requires the mastery of a
    series of tasks arising from physical maturation
    and cultural expectations.

Piagets Cognitive Theory
  • Higher cognitive structures are formulated
    through the processes of accommodation and
  • assimilation, both which rely on self-discovery
    through movement and play activity.

Conceptual Viewpoints
Theory Theorists Focus
Phase-stage Freud Gesell Broad based changes
Developmental Task Havighurst Task Accomplishment
Developmental Milestone Piaget Thelen Strategic Indicators to gauge rate extent
Ecological Urie Bronfenbrenner Environmental Context
Dynamic Systems Ester Thelen Phase Shifts
Behavior Setting Kurt Lewin Life Space
Thelens Dynamic Systems Theory
  • Perceptual, cognitive, neuromuscular and
    musculoskeletal subsystems are important in motor
  • Kinematics and EMG data simultaneously measure
    the role of neuromuscular excitation in infant
  • Motor development is the result of a
    self-organizing interactive process.
  • Infants explore their perceptual and
    biomechanical limits in adaptive play.

Lewins Life Space
  • Life space accounts for all the influences on a
    childs behavior at a given point of time.

Bronfenbrenners Ecology Theory
  • Development occurs within a broad range of
    environmental contexts.
  • (Gallahue Ozmun, 1998, p.33)

Ericksons Psychosocial Stages
Stage Age Characteristics
Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy Meeting infant needs
Autonomy vs. Doubt and Shame Toddler Infant establishes sense Of independence
Initiative vs. Guilt Preschool Success in social and movement experiences
Industry vs. Inferiority School Age Child finds place among peers
Identity vs. Role Confusion Early Adolescence Adolescents find out who they are
Intimacy vs. Isolation Late Adolescence Formation of long-term close personal ties
Generatively vs. Self-Absorption Adulthood Supports development of future generations
Integrity vs. Despair Old Age Development of wisdom
Piagets Cognitive Phases
Phase Age Range Features
Sensorimotor 0 to 2 Years Reflexes, object permanence, accommodation
Preoperational 2 to 7 Years Language, egocentric, conservation of quantity
Concrete Operations 7 to 11 Years Perceptions accurate, understands changes, reversibility
Formal Operations gt 11 Years World of ideas, problem solving, abstract thinking
Piagets Sensorimotor Phase (Birth to 2 years)
  • Use of reflexes (Birth to 2 years)
  • Recognition of stimulus (Birth to 3 months)
  • Infant tries to create state of object permanence
    (3 to 9 months)
  • Accommodation occurs as a result of
    experimentation (8 to 12 months)
  • Invention of new actions through mental
    combinations (12 to 24 months)

Piagets Preoperational Phase (2 to 7 years)
  • First beginnings of cognition occur
  • Child must rely physical activity to mentally
    manipulate objects
  • Language replaces physical activity as primary
    facilitator of learning
  • Child is egocentric (self-centered)
  • Conservation of quantity is developed
  • Increase in symbolic thinking

Concrete Operations Phase (7 to 11 years)
  • During the concrete operational thought phase
    perceptions are more accurate. Child understands
    changes in shape, order, position and number.
    Reversibility established.

Formal Operations Phase(Older than 11years)
  • Childhood ends and adolescence begins as the
    youth enters the world of ideas, systematic
    problem solving and abstract thinking.

Models of Human Development
  • Discussion
  • Compare cognitive, affective and motor
    development characteristics of a young child
    (ages 2 to 6) to an older child (ages 6 to 10)
    participating a specific developmental movement
  • Use the theorists to support your arguments.
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