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Organization Development and Change

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Title: Introduction to Human Resource Development (HRD) Author: Dr Wells Doty Last modified by: user Created Date: 1/7/2002 1:43:24 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Organization Development and Change


1
Organization Development and Change
  • Chapter 12

2
Learning Objectives
  • After learning this chapter, you should be able
    to
  • Define the organization development (OD).
  • Understand the basic theories and concepts of
    OD.
  • Describe the planned-change model.
  • Explain the roles of the change agent, manager,
    and people within the system in developing an
    intervention strategy.
  • Understand the basic steps involved in designing
    an implementation strategy.
  • Describe several types of intervention
    strategies.
  • Explain the different types of organization
    transformation intervention strategies.

3
Organization Development (OD)
  • Definition
  • A process used to enhance both the
    effectiveness of an organization and the
    well-being of its members through planned
    interventions.

4
Organization Development Theories
  • Two main categories of OD theories
  • Change process theory
  • How does change take place?
  • Implementation theory
  • How can change strategies be put into
    practice?

5
Organization Development Theories
  • Change process theory seeks to explain how
    organizations improve and change. According to
    Lewin and Schein, there are three stages
  • Unfreezing
  • Change through cognitive restructuring
  • Refreezing

6
Organization Development Theories
  • Implementation theory how specific intervention
    strategies are designed and carried out. Four
    main types
  • Human process-based theory
  • Technostructural theory
  • Sociotechnical systems theory
  • Organization transformation theory

7
Caution About Organization Development Research
  • Concerns have been expressed about much of the OD
    research that has been conducted
  • Lack of experimental designs
  • Lack of resources available
  • Limitations in field research designs used
  • Potential bias by researchers
  • Lack of motivation to conduct strong research

8
Model of Planned Change
By Permission Porres Silvers (1991)
9
Model of Planned Change 2
  • Porras Silvers Model
  • Change intervention (two categories)
  • Organization transformation
  • Organization development
  • Organizational target variables
  • Vision (beliefs, purpose, mission)
  • Work setting (organizing arrangements, social
    factors, technology, physical setting)

10
Model of Planned Change 3
  • Porras Silvers Model
  • Individual organizational member
  • Cognitive change
  • Behavior change

11
Model of Planned Change 4
  • Porras Silvers Model
  • Organizational outcomes
  • Improved organizational performance
  • Enhanced individual development
  • Question What is the value of this model?

12
Designing an Intervention Strategy
  • Specific Roles
  • Change Manager
  • Oversees the design of the strategy bears
    ultimate responsibility
  • Change Agent
  • Assists the change manager facilitates the
    activities involved
  • Internal Change Agent (often an HRD professional)
  • External Change Agent (consultant)
  • Individuals
  • Labor Unions

13
Designing an Intervention Strategy 2
  • Systems Approach
  • Diagnose the Environment
  • e.g., force field analysis
  • Develop an Action Plan
  • objectives, activities, details
  • Evaluate the Results of the Intervention

14
Types of Interventions Human Process-Based
  • Survey Feedback
  • The systematic collection of survey data
  • Fed back to groups to promote problem solving and
    change
  • Team Building
  • A process to improve a groups problem-solving
    abilities
  • Example process consultation

15
Types of Interventions Technostructural
  • Job Enlargement
  • Adding variety through similar tasks
  • Job Enrichment
  • Increasing responsibility, knowledge of results,
    and meaningfulness of work
  • Alternative Work Schedules
  • Compressed workweek
  • Flextime work schedule

16
Types of Interventions Sociotechnical Systems
  • Quality Circles
  • Involving employees in work decisions
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)
  • Continuous improvement efforts
  • Self-Managing Teams (SMTs)
  • Team members have authority to make decisions and
    regulate the teams activities

17
Types of Interventions Organizational
Transformation
  • Cultural Interventions
  • Efforts to change the values, norms, or ways of
    thinking in an organization
  • Strategic Changes
  • Fundamental changes in the purpose or mission of
    an organization
  • Becoming a Learning Organization
  • Beyond TQM, to continuous learning and
    improvement for all employees
  • High Performance Work Systems

18
Some Concluding Thoughts on Organization
Development
  1. Effectiveness There is evidence for the
    effectiveness of particular OD interventions.
    However, there is much room for improvement (in
    the research designs used, and the results
    obtained).
  2. Recent efforts have stressed change management.

19
Some Concluding Thoughts on Organization
Development 2
  • Many HRD applications can be viewed as OD
    interventions
  • Human Process-Based career development,
    coaching, orientation
  • Technostructural skills/technical training
  • Sociotechnical team and quality training
  • Organization transformation EAPs, management
    development

20
Summary
  • Organization development can be difficult!
  • Reluctance/resistance to change
  • Success is most likely with
  • An appropriate model of change
  • The appropriate methods/interventions
  • A systems approach (e.g., high performance work
    systems, HRD process model)
  • Need a dual focus on organizational performance
    and employee well-being
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