Theme Shift FROM PLANNING TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT- Part II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Theme Shift FROM PLANNING TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT- Part II

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Theme Shift PLANNING, HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIETY Author: Lou Last modified by: jml339 Created Date: 8/16/2006 12:00:00 AM Document presentation format: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theme Shift FROM PLANNING TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT- Part II


1
Theme ShiftFROM PLANNING TO HUMAN RESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT- Part II
2
DEVELOPMENT PLANNING and Economic and Social
Development
  • Problems and Issues, 1989-2009

3
End of assumption- Progress is inevitable
  • 1983- Robert McNamara resigns from World Bank-
    New and Different Demands
  • Institutions, social change and basic needs
    abandoned
  • Export Economies--Minerals, agricultural
    commodities and livestock Orthodoxy
  • Back to the Future- The key to growth is
    Structural Adjustment

4
1985 Bad Planning Discovered
  • Illness and death of Brezhnev in Soviet Union
  • The Change Russia and Structural Adjustment
  • Planning- The Ivory Tower problem
  • Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher at height of
    their power

5
A Forgotten Question
6
Bad Planning Discovered
  • From Program to Project Planning Failure in
    Africa
  • Ethiopia- Mengistu Haile Mariam declares a
    Leninist state in 1983
  • 13 million face starvation in Horn of Africa
  • "We are the World" leads to Donor Fatigue

7
The Then New Regime 1983
8
Development Planning Failure and Future of
Command Economies?
  • Transitional conflicts in Angola, Mozambique-
    Cold War Proxies
  • CIS and Central Europe become part of development
    portfolio
  • Cambodia, Nicaragua (Central America)
  • Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, Kosovo,

9
Failure of Command Economies End of Century
  • Afghanistan and Iraq in the 1990s
  • Sudan A Thirty Years War
  • Terrorism and the Failure of Development
  • Nicaragua and the Fall of the Sandanistas

10
Return of Populist Command Economy- The Once
and Future President
11
Valdrack Jaentschke
  • Development Minister in Nicaragua (GSPIA, 1991)
  • 1990s Worked as Consultant for International NGOs
    Promoting Democracy
  • 2009- Declared Government would expel NGOs
    promoting Opposition To Current Government

12
Development Planning as Socialization
  • Planning includes secondary and tertiary
    socialization, but not primary socialization

13
Primary Socialization in Lithuania
14
Development Planning as Socialization
  • PrimaryFamily before school
  • Secondary--Primary and Secondary Education
  • Tertiary--Adult (including Higher education and
    On the Job)
  • Problem Social Engineering

15
Development Planning and Social Change Overall
Assumption
  • Classical Assumption
  • Role of the government agent is
  • ACT AS A CHANGE AGENT
  • and Provide necessary stimulation to society to
    ensure change
  • Key Focus is on Human Behavior

16
Development Planning Assumptions (Review)
  • Development Planning as a Concept
  • State will serve as engine of development
  • Goal will be to change society, economy and
    political structures
  • Controversy not over physical planning but social
    change and economic behavior

17
Perception of Development Problems- Planning Bad-
1991 to Financial Crisis, 2009 (Summary)
  • The Change End of Cold War
  • Structural Adjustment- 1989-2001
  • International conflict shifts from East-West
    rivalry and cold war to ethnic, regional and
    internal conflicts culminating in September 11,
    2001
  • Now Economic and Social Planning and State
    Building is Back

18
Development and Social Planning
  • The Devil is in the Details
  • An Old Philosopher

19
Development Planning Assumptions
  1. Assumed that development occurs because of
    planned change
  2. Originally, Keynesian planners saw state taking a
    major role in providing leadership to improve
    standards of living in LDCs

20
Development Planning Assumptions- Continued
  1. Development Planning accepts premises of
    Development Administration
  2. State bureaucracy should take major role in
    social mobilization, economic transformation and
    increases in productivity define policy goals
    for society
  3. Rejected by some advocates of Development
    Management

21
Political Assumptions with Development
Planning, Continued
  • Assumes political and administrative leadership
    have made the decision to effect changes in the
    system
  • This is a meeting point of both
    counter-dependency strategy and modernization
  • Need to strengthen administrative capacity in
    development economics and planning area

22
Implementation
  • Major responsibility for implementation lies with
    Planning official at the local level
  • Development change occurs because of planned
    action
  • Assumes political and administrative leadership
    have made decision to effect improvement in the
    social system

23
Social Assumptions
  • Assumes that there can be state managed social
    mobilization
  • Basic premise planning is setting of priorities
    for use of scarce resources through use of
    rational rather than political processes

24
Discussion
  • Assess the idea of forced social engineering

25
The Lack of Administrative Needs
  • Depends upon administrative capacity
  • Institutional arrangements for planning, planning
    agencies, management systems and processes that
    are innovative
  • Human behavior is complex Involves,
  • Networks,
  • Organizations and
  • Institutions

26
The Problem Public Corruption and Loss of Faith
in State social action
27
  • Break
  • Ten Minutes

28
Supplementary Material
  • HRD/Training

29
Education and Training
  • Knowledge Base
  • The problem of bounded knowledge no short cuts
    to education
  • The key to the short-term experience designer
    training
  • Organizational Development
  • Public Sector Higher Education System

30
Temptations of Bridging Training
  • Short 3-6 Week Training Program, in-country or
    overseas
  • Can substitute for the Experience of a University
    Education
  • Training best focused on skills not complex
    systems and knowledge

31
Temptations of Bridging Training
  • Extent to which the administrative culture
    reflects a high degree of paternalism
  • One needs flexible people, with flexible minds

32
Temptations of Bridging Training
  • The new administrators in Transitional states
  • First vs. second generation The bridging
    generation can block the next generations

33
Problem of Bounded Knowledge
  • The Concept
  • Need for gradual retirement of existing
    Administrators and a staggered bridge

34
Problem of Bounded Knowledge
  • The time factor
  • Professional and technical skills and "the art of
    management"
  • Administrative culture
  • Issue of debate and discussion within the public
    service (problem of conformity)
  • Criticism of tunnel vision
  • Mentality of the old nuts and bolts mechanisms
    within the context of a centralized state

35
Education and Training
  • Education
  • Entry Requirements The MPA style degree?
  • The role of University programs

36
Education and Training
  • The Prospects and Limits of training Problems of
    management skills
  • Basic Techniques and Processes (e.g. Computers
    and Quantitative Skills)
  • How much Consciousness Raising?
  • Development Management vs. Management Development
  • The debate over Human Resource Development
  • Chicken and Egg Redux

37
Education and Training
  • Education in Public Management, Personnel,
    Financial Management, Management Information
    Systems (Masters Degree as a Professional Degree)
  • Public Policy Analysis and Issue Areas
  • Public Administration
  • Political Institutions and Processes
  • Macro and Micro Economics
  • Development Policy and Management (NGOs)

38
Training and Education
  • The role of overseas training and education
    Problems of technical assistance
  • Role of donors and the policy process
  • Donor provision of planners and administrators
  • The attractiveness of Bridging Training
  • The Brain Drain Issue

39
Human Resource Development Background
  • The Problem Nature of the promote socio-economic
    change bureaucracy Can it?
  • Legacy The nature of the stratified Civil
    Service
  • Segregated or class based systems
  • Elitist
  • Generalist, legal or technical
  • Extractive?
  • Law and Order

40
Human Resource Development
  • Role of the state in economic development
  • Nature of the mixed economy
  • Management of public corporations
  • Role of regulation trust busting
  • Reputation of the African economic model
  • Asian, European and Latin American comparisons
    (South Africa as a NIC)

41
The Transformation
  • Management Systems Definitions and Types
  • Routine administration
  • Praetorian administration
  • Scaffolding Administration
  • Development mobilization
  • Administration
  • non-routine

42
Human Resource Development, Development
Management, Planning and Policy
  • The nature of the state decision-making process
    planning (and Planning vs. budgets)
  • Privatization--administration and contracts
  • Deconcentration vs devolution national vs. local
  • National
  • Regional
  • Local

43
Human Resource Development- Issue
  • Institutional Development, The Weberian model-
    Fit of existing institutions for development
  • Mass of Regulations, routines and the hierarchy
    SOPs
  • Absence of judgment, discretion and creativity
  • How suitable for Development

44
Human Resource Development Background
  • The civil service "spirit problems of morale
  • Pattern of indigenization, localization and equal
    access
  • Replacement of long service, old regime or
    expatriates with inexperienced, untrained, often
    "clerical" assistants or politicos with no
    professional skills

45
Human Resource Development Background
  • The civil service "spirit problems of morale
  • Role of the graduates
  • Issue of equating authority with age
  • Experience vs. the young's feeling of blockage
    from rapid promotion next generation of University

46
Sensitivity to Expatriates
  • Sensitivity to continuing influence of foreign
    expatriates in technical assistance and
    international organizations
  • Symbols of Colonialism or Dependence
  • Expatriate mentality and tendency to outside of
    the formal chain of command

47
Human Resource Development Background Issues
  • Negative image of Government Administration
  • Need to shift from law and order administration
    to development values
  • Willingness to accept non-governmental and civil
    society organizations
  • Question
  • Use of bureaucracy development to mobilize people
    for economic change and provide for
    socio-activist, "organic" civil service, not a
    hierarchical, mechanistic one?

48
Oprahs Book of the Week?
  • Discussion of Books

49
Authors of the Week
  • Fanon
  • Klitgaard

50
Book of the Week Discussion
  • Robert Klitgaard, Tropical Gangsters
  • Franz Fanon, Wretched of the Earth
  • Mahasweta Devi, "Dhowli  (See
  • Picture)
  • Graybeal and Picard, "Internal Capacity and
    Overload in Guinea and Niger"
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