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The American Revolution

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Title: The American Revolution


1
The American Revolution
A tale of two Armies
Created by Ruben Garcia
2
A tale of two Armies
3
(No Transcript)
4
13.2 The Continental Army
  • The Continental Army was made up of volunteers
    who were poor farmers, merchants, and workers.
  • At least 5,000 black soldiers fought for the
    Revolutionary cause.
  • George Washington lifted the ban on black
    enlistment in the Continental Army in January
    1776. Many were slaves promised freedom for
    serving.
  • Allies from Spain, France and Germany helped the
    Continentals in many ways.
  • They loaned money to Congress. Allies fought
    with and helped to train the Continental Army.
    They also sent soldiers and warships to help the
    Continentals.

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(No Transcript)
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13.2 Problems faced by the Continental Army
  • The Continental Army had a number of problems.
  • Congress had little money to pay the soldiers or
    buy supplies. As a result, volunteers had to
    supply their own uniforms and guns.
  • In addition, they knew very little about being
    soldiers. Often, they had little discipline.
  • Washington worked hard to train his men. He
    taught them to obey orders and to fight together.
  • Like the army, the colonial navy was small.
    Mostly it was made up of trade and fishing ships
    that carried small cannons.
  • With their inexperienced army and small navy, the
    Continentals were like a small man about to do
    battle with a giant.

7
The British Army
8
13.3 The British Army
  • The British fought the war with an army of
    professional soldiers, lifetime recruits who were
    subject to strict military discipline.
  • They also employed about 30,000 soldiers from
    Germany, mercenaries called Hessians.
  • A large number of loyalists, American supporters
    of British rule who formed their own military
    units and fought against patriot forces.
  • More than 20,000 black soldiers fought on the
    British side.
  • An estimated 13,000 Native American warriors
    fought on the British side.

9
German Hessians
10
13.4 The British Army A long way from Home
  • Distance was a major problem most troops and
    supplies had to be shipped across the Atlantic
    Ocean.
  • Ocean travel meant that British communications
    were always about two months out of date by the
    time British generals in America received their
    orders from London, the military situation had
    usually changed.
  • The Colonies had no central area of strategic
    importance.

11
13.4 The British Army A long way from Home
  • The large size of the colonies meant that the
    British lacked the manpower to control them by
    force.
  • The British had sufficient troops to defeat the
    Americans on the battlefield but not enough to
    occupy the colonies at the same time.
  • The need to retain Loyalist allegiance also meant
    that the British were unable to use the harsh
    methods of suppressing rebellions.

12
13.5 The Continental Armys Motivation to win
  • Continental soldiers had a special advantage over
    the British. They had a stronger motivation, or
    desire, to win.
  • Continental soldiers believed they were defending
    their rights described in the Declaration of
    Independence.
  • They were trying to make a better future for
    themselves. To many Continentals, these were
    things worth dying for.

13
13.5 The Continental Armys Motivation (Cont)
  • Of course, not all Americans were motivated to
    fight the British. Loyalists still believed that
    independence was unwise.
  • In addition, the British sometimes promised to
    free slaves who joined their side. As a result,
    some African Americans fought for the British to
    gain their freedom.
  • Many Native Americans also fought for the British
    to protect their lands.

14
13.6 Different War Strategies
  • Britain had to fight an offensive war. They had
    to attack the Continentals and take control of
    the cities and countryside.
  • At first, the British tried to end the war by
    stopping the rebellion in Boston.
  • They tried to show power by capturing important
    cities like New York.
  • By 1777, the British strategy was to destroy the
    Continental Army. They wanted to fight the army
    face to face, the way armies fought in Europe.

15
13.6 Different Strategies
  • In contrast, the Continentals could fight a
    defensive war. They didnt have to destroy the
    British army, only hold them off.
  • After losing New York, Washington moved his men
    into the countryside. From there, they used hit
    and run tactics. They made surprise attacks
    against small groups of British and then
    retreated.
  • Continentals also used guerilla tactics to
    frighten and discourage the British.

16
13.7 The Continental Army gains Allies (Friends)
  • France sent money, supplies and soldiers.
  • Spains General Bernardo Galvez attacked English
    forts along the southwest.
  • Gen. Marquis de Lafayette purchased warm clothes
    for the soldiers during winter. Nicknamed the
    Soldiers Friend
  • Gen. Baron von Steuben helped train Washingtons
    men at Valley Forge.
  • The French navy helped trap Gen. Cornwallis at
    Yorktown, Virginia.

17
13.8 The Treaty of Paris American Victory
  • In September 1783, the war finally ended with a
    set of agreements called the Treaty of Paris.
  • Britain agreed to recognize the United States as
    an independent nation.
  • Britain also gave the United States a huge amount
    of land. It included all the territory that was
    east of the Mississippi River, south of Canada
    and the Great Lakes, and north of Florida.
  • In the treaty, the United States promised to
    restore the rights and property of Loyalists.

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Victory
19
American Advantages
American
Victory
20
American Advantages
  • BETTER LEADERSHIP- Britain's generals were
    overconfident. Gen. Washington learned from his
    mistakes and never gave up.
  • FOREIGN AID- Britain's rivals helped America win
    the war.
  • KNOWLEDGE OF THE LAND- The Americans knew the
    land and used it well. Britain could control
    ports but not the land.
  • MOTIVATION- The Americans had more reasons to
    fight. Their lives, their property and their
    freedom.

21
Terms of the Treaty of Paris 1783
Costs of the War
Issues after the War
22
Terms of the Treaty of Paris 1783
  • The U.S. was free and Independent.
  • Boundaries were the Mississippi in the west and
    Canada on the North.
  • Each side would repay debts owed.
  • Britain would return any enslaved people.
  • Confiscated property would be returned to the
    loyalist in America.

23
Costs of the War
  • An estimated 25,000 American Revolutionaries died
    during active military service.
  • About 8,000 of these deaths were in battle the
    other 17,000 deaths were from disease, including
    about 8,000 who died while prisoners of war.
  • The United States spent 37 million at the
    national level plus 114 million by the states.

24
Costs of the War
FYI
Do not copy
  • Approximately 10,000 British troops died.
  • 1,200 Germans were killed in action and 6,354
    died from illness or accident.
  • No reliable statistics exist for the number of
    casualties among other groups, including
    Loyalists, Native Americans, French and Spanish
    troops, and civilians.
  • The British spent about 80 million and ended
    with a national debt of 250 million.
  • The French spent about 56 million, their total
    national debt was 187 million

25
Issues After the War
  • The new Constitution would create a government in
    which the people, not a king, would rule.
  • The war expenses created a debt totaling 80
    million that had to be paid off.
  • Americans also wanted more religious freedom.
  • Many argued over the hypocrisy of slavery and so
    called liberty.
  • The U.S. needed a government that would protect
    citizens rights and economic freedom.
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