The Age of Enlightenment aka The Age of Reason - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Age of Enlightenment aka The Age of Reason


The Age of Enlightenment aka The Age of Reason 18th Century Thought Age of Reason aka the Enlightenment 1700s Truth via rational & logical thought! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Age of Enlightenment aka The Age of Reason

The Age of Enlightenment akaThe Age of Reason
  • 18th Century Thought

Age of Reason aka the Enlightenment
  • 1700s
  • Truth via rational logical thought!
  • Assumption Everything in the universe can be
  • Ideas spread via coffeehouses, salons, secret
    clubs Masonic Lodge, published writings
  • Public Opinion thru common knowledge

Influences on the Age of Reason
Early Philosophes
  • Thinkers, writers, critics, reformers
  • Qs directed at the growing urban society
  • Immanuel Kant Dare to Know! Q! Think!
  • Denis Diderot gtgt Encyclopedia
  • 17 volumes of known information
  • Francois-Marie Arouet aka Voltaire
  • Jailed in Bastille gt exile in England gt travels
  • Candide satire attacking human optimism
  • Free Speech / Religious Toleration

Enlightenment Religious Thought
  • Claims established religion is hindrance to
    rational thought human development
  • Against secularized Church of Old Regime
  • Deism
  • God rational, watchmaker
  • Q the Biblical narrative
  • Against Judaism (primitive)
  • Islam (fanatics)
  • Spinoza secularized Judaism... God/nature
  • Mendelsohn blend w/ Europeans while keeping
    faith toleration

Enlightenment Society
  • John Locke
  • Tabula Rasa experience alone makes us!
  • Humans are rational, trust them to choose wisely
  • Cesar Beccaria
  • Vs. torture capital punishment b/c it is cruel
  • Utilitarian greatest good for greatest
  • Physiocrats
  • Govt exists to protect property / farming is 1
  • Adam Smith
  • Capitalism via Invisible Hand of free market
  • Laissez-faire govt hands off economy

Enlightenment Politics
  • Thomas Hobbes Leviathan
  • Man is evil, needs control by strong ruler
  • Social Contract give up your rights in exchange
    for protection
  • J Locke Two Treatises on Government
  • Man is rational good, can choose well
  • Social Contract Government exists by the consent
    of the governed, bad government should be replaced

Enlightenment Politics
  • Montesquieu Spirit of the Laws
  • Constitutional Monarchy
  • Separation of powers 3 Branches of Govt
  • Legislative (Create Law)
  • Executive (Enforce Law)
  • Judicial (Interpret Law)
  • JJ Rousseau The Social Contract
  • Direct Democracy via General Will of people
  • Loyalty to community is 1
  • Man is good, but corrupted by society

Enlightenment Women
  • Supported Philosophes via Salons
  • Madames Geoffrin, Pompadour etc.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft Vindication of Rts
  • Education is key / Gender equality / Reform
  • Montesquieu
  • Gender equality / Traditional / Limited change
  • JJ Rousseau Emile
  • Educated but Separate spheres
  • Traditional roles / Subordinate to men

Enlightened Absolutism
  • Frederick the Great (Prussia)
  • Religious toleration / Merit based ennobling
  • Legal codes / Education / Reform
  • Catherine the Great (Russia)
  • Limited reform / Charter of Nobility (rights)
  • Joseph II (Austria)
  • Religious toleration / Legal reform
  • Abolished serfdom

Enlightenment the Arts
  • Rococo
  • Light-hearted, frivolous, pastel, light, playful
  • Hôtel gardens suggestive statuary
  • Neo-classical
  • Greek-Roman themes, topics, style

Poland Victim of Competition
  • Poland lacked
  • Strong monarchy
  • Natural defenses
  • Loyal nobility
  • Bureaucracy
  • Partitioned by Prussia, Russia Austria
  • Ceased to exist as a country, 1795 until 1919
  • Polish people live under others
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