Chapter 3 The Human Body a Nutrition perspective - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 3 The Human Body a Nutrition perspective

Description:

Chapter 3 The Human Body a Nutrition perspective OUTLINE Body Organization Cells form Tissues Tissues form Organs Organs form Systems (e.g., digestive) Cell Processes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:285
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 57
Provided by: Rober600
Learn more at: https://people.ucsc.edu
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 3 The Human Body a Nutrition perspective


1
Chapter 3The Human Bodya Nutrition perspective
2
OUTLINE
How is the Body Organized
Exchange of Nutrients using the Bodys Systems
The Digestive System/ Nutrient Absorption
Nutrition/digestion related Diseases and Ailments
3
Body Organization
  • Cells form Tissues
  • Tissues form Organs
  • Organs form Systems (e.g., digestive)

4
1. Start
5
Cell Processes
  • Constant turnover of substances
  • Require energy, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  • Require nutrients

Confirming your knowledge What is the structure
of ATP?
6
Cell Membrane
  • Double layers of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein
  • Controls passage of
  • substances
  • Distinct identification
  • structures
  • (i.e. what can go in/out)

Likes Water (polar)
Fears Water (non polar)
7
(No Transcript)
8
Organelles
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria Power plant
  • Major site for energy production ATP
    (respiration)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum Communication network
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum - protein synthesis
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - fat synthesis

9
Organelles
  • Golgi Complex
  • Packaging site for protein
  • Lysosomes
  • Cells digestive system
  • Peroxisomes
  • Detoxify harmful chemicals

10
(No Transcript)
11
Challenge Question
  • What Organelle is responsible for Major
  • Energy Production (i.e. ATP Production)?

Mitochondria
12
Nucleus
  • Double membrane
  • Genetic material DNA (your genes)
  • Directs protein synthesis and cell division
  • Affected by hormones (birth control pills,
    steroids, etc.)

13
What are the Four Types of Tissues?
  • Epithelial
  • Lines the outside surfaces and external passages
  • Connective
  • Holds structures together
  • Muscle
  • Contracts to cause movement
  • Nervous
  • Transports nerve impulses

14
OUTLINE
How is the Body Organized
Exchange of Nutrients using the Bodys Systems
The Digestive System/ Nutrient Absorption
Nutrition/digestion related Diseases and Ailments
15
Exchange of Nutrients
16
Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
  • Heart and blood vessels
  • Blood
  • Pulmonary circulation
  • Systemic circuit
  • Lymphatic system

17
Cardiovascular System Blood Circulation
18
Capillary and Lymph Vessels
19
Nervous System
  • Regulatory system
  • Central Nervous System
  • Brain and the spinal cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System
  • Branches out to organs
  • Basic unit is Neuron
  • Responds to electrical and chemical signals

20
Transmission
dopamine
Mobilizes fat (lipolysis) protein breakdown
cortisol
21
Sending Signals
  • Change in sodium (Na) and potassium (K)
    concentration
  • Neurotransmitter
  • Secretion of dopamine, epinephrine, and
    norepinephrine, cortisol
  • Dependent on nutrient supply
  • Potassium (K) levels usually low
  • signal transduction may be impaired

22
Endocrine System(Endocrinology)
  • Secretes regulatory substances (hormones)
  • Target cells with receptor proteins
  • Bodys messenger
  • Insulin
  • Thyroid hormones

23
Click on Icon to see videoabout hormones
  • Open with Internet Explorer or Firefox or your
    webprovider etc.

24
Immune System
We are Under Constant Attack! Your immune
system is there to help you out (fight
back) Help your Immune System Help you!
Live Longer Feel Better ?
25
The Skin
  • Continuous barrier
  • Can show Effects of nutritional deficiencies
  • Lysozyme

Challenge Question- What are some nutritional
deficiencies manifested in skin?
Dehydration water, dry skin
Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) e.g. linoleic,
linolenic acid) Babies mostly deficient, scaly,
dermatitis
Fe deficiency (little color- anemia) Poor O2
transport ? subpar cell metabolism
Heme group
Hemoglobin (Hb)
26
Green Blood?
  • Notable cases
  • On June 8, 2007, Canadian anesthesiologists Dr.
    Stephan Schwarz, Dr. Giuseppe Del Vicario, and
    Dr. Alana Flexman presented an unusual case in
    The Lancet.2 A 42-year-old male patient was
    brought into Vancouver's St. Paul's Hospital
    after falling asleep in a sitting position. When
    doctors drew the man's blood during surgery to
    relieve pressure from his legs, the blood was
    green. A sample of the blood was immediately sent
    to a lab. In this case, sulfhemoglobinaemia was
    possibly caused by the patient taking
    higher-than-prescribed doses of sumatriptan
  • Sumatriptan (trade names Imitrex,

27
The Intestinal Cells
  • Barrier to invading microbes
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Muscosal membrane
  • Effects of nutritional deficiency

28
White Blood Cells
  • Attack microorganisms
  • Phagocytes
  • Cell-mediated immunity
  • Antibodies
  • Antibody-antigen response
  • Template (memory) made
  • Food allergy

29
OUTLINE
How is the Body Organized
Exchange of Nutrients using the Bodys Systems
The Digestive System/ Nutrient Absorption
Nutrition/digestion related Diseases and Ailments
30
The Digestive System
31
Click on Icon to see videoabout digestion
  • Open with Internet Explorer or Firefox or your
    webprovider etc.

32
Physiology of the Stomach
33
Stomach Acid
  • Destroys activity of protein
  • Activates digestive enzymes
  • Partially digests dietary protein
  • Assists in calcium absorption
  • Makes dietary minerals soluble for absorption

34
The Small Intestine
35
Nutrient Absorption
  • 1. Passive absorption
  • 2. Facilitated absorption
  • 3. Active absorption
  • 4. Phagocytosis and pinocytosis

36
The Large Intestine
  • Indigestible food stuff
  • No villi or enzymes
  • Mucus-producing cells
  • Absorption of water, some minerals, vitamins
  • Bacteria
  • Elimination

37
(No Transcript)
38
Confirming your knowledge -break
  • Where does digestion begin?
  • Movement of food throughout the digestive system
    by smooth muscles is known as?
  • Which organ is the major cite of nutrient
    absorption?
  • Which organ absorbs mainly Water and salts ?

Mouth (salivary amylase)
peristalsis
Small intestine
Large intestine
39
Accessory Organs
  • Pancreas
  • Gallbladder
  • Liver

40
The Liver
  • What does it make?
  • -
  • Bile Acids

What does Bile acids Do?
emulsify fats fat digestion
Cholic acid (a bile acid)
  • LIVER - Removes toxins medicines, Alcohol, etc.

The Gallbladder
Bile is stored in the Gallbladder until released
to process fats etc.
41
The Pancreas
  • Digestive enzymes
  • Hormones
  • Glucagon and insulin (sugar metabolism)
  • Maintains normal sugar levels . . .
  • Pancreatic juices
  • Bicarbonate (buffering system) maintains acidity
    , basicity in blood, pH 7.2

42
The Urinary System
  • Kidneys
  • Ureter
  • Bladder
  • Urethra
  • Waste products
  • Blood
  • acid-base balance (pH)

43
Click on Icon to see videoabout Kidney
Filtration
  • Open with Internet Explorer or Firefox or your
    webprovider etc.

44
Challenge QuestionsWhat is this molecule and
how is it related to dehydration?
  • What common substance inhibits this molecules
    performance?

Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) aka Vassopressin
Ethanol Inhibits pituitary secretion of ADH
45
OUTLINE
How is the Body Organized
Exchange of Nutrients using the Bodys Systems
The Digestive System/ Nutrient Absorption
Nutrition/digestion related Diseases and Ailments
46
Genetics
  • Nutrigenomics
  • Nutritional Diseases with a genetic link
  • Cardiovascular disease (Cholesterol)
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity (leptin gherlin levels)
  • Diabetes
  • Cancer
  • Osteoporosis

47
Common Problems with Digestion
  • Ulcers
  • Heartburn
  • Constipation
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Diarrhea
  • Gallstones

48
Ulcers
  • Can occur in esophagus, stomach and small
    intestine
  • What is the most common Cause of Ulcers?
  • Heliobacter pylori (bacteria)

Yanaka et al., Dietary Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli
Sprouts Reduce Colonization and Attenuate
Gastritis in Helicobacter pylori Infected Mice
and Humans. 2009, Cancer Prevention Research, 2,
353
49
Heartburn
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

50
Constipation
  • Difficult or infrequent evacuation
  • Causes
  • Ignoring normal urges
  • Muscle spasms
  • Certain medications
  • Treatment
  • Dietary fiber
  • Fluids
  • Regular physical activity

51
Laxatives
  • Irritate the intestinal nerve
  • Draw water into the intestine
  • Regular use is harmful

THEME GO Natural - eat more Fibrous FOods! ?
52
Hemorrhoids (piles)
  • Swollen veins of the rectum and anus
  • Intense pressure and straining
  • Dietary recommendation
  • Fiber and fluid

53
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Symptoms
  • Cramps, bloating, increased frequency, diarrhea,
    constipation
  • Causes
  • Altered intestinal peristalsis
  • Decreased pain threshold
  • Individualized treatment
  • Elimination diet
  • Moderate caffeine
  • Low-fat, small, frequent meals
  • Stress reduction

54
Diarrhea
  • Fluidity and frequency
  • Causes
  • Infections (anti-biotics) Lactobacillus rudii
  • Poorly absorbed substances
  • Treatment
  • Plenty of fluid

55
Gallstones
  • Symptoms
  • Upper right abdominal pain, gas,
  • bloating, nausea and vomiting
  • Causes Genetics, high fat/cholesterol diet
  • Treatment
  • Removal of gallbladder
  • sonication

Whose at risk people who have relatives with
gallstones obese people people with a high
blood cholesterol level. women who take drugs
containing estrogen, e.g. contraceptive pills
chronic intestinal inflammation (Crohn's disease
and ulcerative colitis).
56
Reminder
  • Diet Analysis (3 days) Due Friday
  • -assignment on Website
  • - PBS Video (75 min) - Lecture 3
  • Energy balance Weight Management
  • (Fit or Fat-Covert Bailey)
  • Answer 3 Qs see website/email
  • Attendance reward (5 pts) . . .
  • - Lets watch Adjourn
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com