Chapter Five - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 104
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter Five

Description:

Title: No Slide Title Author: Dan Last modified by: Charles Pemberton Created Date: 9/13/1999 4:47:02 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:169
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 105
Provided by: Dan1424
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter Five


1
Chapter Five
  • First Two Years
  • Biosocial Development

2
Body Changes
  • Rapid changes
  • Consequences of neglect severe

3
Body Size
  • Most notable time for physical changes
  • in each of the first 12 months they grow an inch
  • birth weight usually doubles by 4 months and
    triples by end of first year
  • head-sparingbiological protection of the brain
    when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth

4
Sleep
  • Newborns sleep about 17 hours per day
  • needed for rapid growth
  • REM sleeprapid eye movement sleepdeclines
  • quiet sleep increases at about 3 months
  • too immature to sleep through the night
  • Infants sleep patterns influenced by brain waves
    and parents caregiving practices

5
(No Transcript)
6
Early Brain Development
  • Most critical biosocial aspect of growth
  • newborns skull disproportionately large
  • at birth, 25 of adult brain weight
  • by age 2, 75 of adult brain weight

7
Growth in the First Two Years
8
Connections in the Brain
  • Head measurement increases 35 in first year
  • brain development changes in the brains
    communication system

9
Basic Brain Structures
  • Neuronslong thin nerve cells that make up
    nervous system
  • created before birth
  • 70 in cortex (brains outer layer)
  • Axonsnerve fibers that extend from neurons that
    send impulses
  • Dendritesnerve fibers extending from neurons
    that receive impulses

10
Action Potentialhttp//faculty.washington.edu/chu
dler/ap.html
11
Action Potential
12
Areas of the Cortex
13
Basic Brain Structures, cont.
  • Neuronslong thin nerve cells that make up
    nervous system
  • created before birth
  • 70 in cortex (brains outer layer)
  • Axonsnerve fibers that extend from neurons that
    send impulses
  • Dendritesnerve fibers extending from neurons
    that receive impulses

14
Basic Brain Structures, cont.
  • Each neuron has a single axon (nerve fiber) that
    extends from it and meets the dendrites of other
    neurons at intersections called synapses
  • axons and dendrites dont actually touch at
    synapses
  • electrical impulses trigger brain chemicals
    called neurotransmitters, which carry information
    from axon of sending neuron across synaptic gap
    to dendrites of receiving neuron
  • synapses are critical communication links with
    the brain

15
Connections in the Brain
16
Exuberance
  • At birth more than 100 million neurons are
    present
  • Phenomenal growth is referred to as transient
    exuberancefivefold increase in dendrites in
    first 2 years
  • As many as 15,000 connections may be made per
    neuron

17
(No Transcript)
18
Experience Enhances the Brain
  • Specifics of brain structure and growth depend
    partly on experience
  • exuberance is transienttransitional stage
    between newborn brains immaturity and the
    maturity of older childs or adults brain
  • underused neurons are inactivated, or pruned

19
Experience Enhances the Brain, cont.
  • Reactions to Stress
  • experiencing stress may cause overproduction of
    stress hormone
  • developing brain can lose capacity to react
    normally to stress
  • normal neuron connections may have been pruned
    for rapid response to repeated stress

20
Experience Enhances the Brain, cont.
  • William Greenough identified 2 experience-related
    parts of brain growth
  • experience-expectant brain functions
  • require basic common experiences to develop
    normally
  • experience-dependent brain functions
  • depend on particular and variable experiences to
    develop

21
Experience Enhances the Brain, cont.
  • Human brains are designed for expected
    experiences
  • how the brain is structured and connected will
    depend on those experiences
  • the brain expects certain experiences at certain
    ages
  • these experiences critical if connections are to
    form if connections not formed, plasticity may
    allow new connections and pathways as experiences
    continue

22
The Senses and Motor Skills
  • Sensorimotor Stage
  • cognition develops between senses and motor skills

23
Sensation and Perception
  • All senses function at birth
  • sensationthe response of sensory system when it
    detects stimulus
  • begins with outer organnose, eyes, etc.
  • perceptionmental procession of sensory
    information when brain interprets sensation
  • begins in the brain and requires experience
  • cognitionthinking about what was perceived

24
Listening
  • Begins prenatally and is acute at birth
  • Certain sounds trigger newborns reflexes
  • Newborns particularly attentive to human voice
  • Newborns sensitive hearing combines with brain
    to distinguish sounds

25
Looking
  • Vision the least mature sense at birth
  • Visual experience combined with visual cortex
    maturation improves vision
  • with time scanning becomes more organized,
    efficient, and centered
  • Binocular visionability to focus two eyes in a
    coordinated manner to see single image

26
Tasting, Smelling, and Touching
  • tastefunctions at birth calmed by sugar,
    sensitive to sour
  • touchcomforted by human touch feel pain
  • smellcan distinguish between odors and have
    preferences
  • Early sensation is organized for
  • social interaction
  • comfort

27
Motor Skills
  • Most visible and dramatic body change of infancy

28
Reflexes
  • Reflexes for survival are categorized
  • maintain oxygen supply (breathing)
  • maintain body temperature (crying, kicking)
  • manage feeding (rooting and sucking)
  • swallowing aids feeding
  • spitting up if too much has been swallowed
  • crying when stomach empty

29
Gross Motor Skills
  • Involve large muscles and body movements
  • crawling, creeping, walking

30
Fine Motor Skills
  • Small, finely tuned movements, especially of
    hands and fingers, including
  • successful grabbing
  • fingering, pointing, and holding
  • grasping a moving object
  • transferring objects from hand to hand
  • adjusting reach

31
Age Norms (in Months) for Gross Motor Skills
32
Variations and Ethnic Differences
  • Age at which motor skills acquired varies greatly
    because of
  • ethnicity
  • inherited factorsgenetic differences
  • patterns of infant care
  • individual rate of physical maturation

33
Public Health Measures
  • Newborn Care
  • Immunizations
  • Nutrition

34
Immunization
  • Immunizationprocess that stimulates bodys
    immune system to defend against attack by a
    particular contagious disease
  • smallpox
  • polio
  • measles

35
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • Risk factors?
  • laying baby on stomach to sleep
  • secondhand smoke
  • low birthweight
  • formula feeding rather than breast feeding

36
Ethnicity and SIDS
  • Asian babies less likely to succumb
  • Babies of African descent more likely
  • Infantcare routines in different cultures play a
    role

37
Nutrition
  • How Infants Are Fed

38
Breast Is Best
  • Breast Milk
  • begins with colostrum, high-calorie nourishment
    before milk lets down
  • easily digestible
  • has antibodies and antibacterial properties
  • better for babys health
  • Bottle Feeding babies more likely to have
    allergies
  • better option if mother is HIV-positive or using
    drugs
  • Feeding on Demand

39
Malnutrition
  • Severe Malnutrition
  • brain does not have enough nutrition to develop
    normally
  • no body reserves to protect from disease
  • marasmus and kwashiorkor diseases are direct
    result of malnutrition

40
(No Transcript)
41
Chapter Six
  • The First Two Years
  • Cognitive Development

42
Sensorimotor Intelligence
  • Sensoritmotor intelligenceactive intelligence
    causing babies to think while using senses and
    motor skills

43
Stages 1 and 2 Primary Circular Reactions
  • The feedback loop involving the infants own body
    infant senses motion and tries to make sense of
    it
  • Stage 1 Reflexes
  • Stage 2 First Acquired Adaptations
  • adaptations of reflexes, i.e., suckingnew
    information taken in by senses and responded to

44
Stages 1 and 2 Primary Circular Reactions, cont.
  • Assimilation and Accommodation
  • assimilationtaking in new information by
    incorporating it into previous knowledge
  • accommodation intake of new data to re-adjust,
    refine, expand prior schema or actions
  • babies eagerly adapt their reflexes and senses
    to whatever experiences they have

45
Stages 1 and 2 Primary Circular Reactions, cont.
  • Sucking as a Stage-Two Adaptation
  • begin adapting at about one month
  • reflexive assimilation

46
Stages 3 and 4 Secondary Circular Reactions
  • feedback loop involving people and objects
  • Stage 3 Making Interesting Events Last
  • repetition
  • awareness
  • Stage 4 New Adaptation and Anticipation
  • goal-directed behavior
  • object permanence

47
Stages 5 and 6 Tertiary Circular Reactions
  • Feedback loop that involves active
    experimentation and exploration
  • involves creativity, action, and ideas
  • Stage 5 New Means Through Active
    Experimentation
  • little scientist

48
Stages 5 and 6 Tertiary Circular Reactions, cont.
  • Stage 6 New Means Through Mental Combinations
  • mental combinationssequence of mental actions
    tried out before actual performance
  • deferred imitationperception of something
    someone else does (modeling), then performing
    action at a later time

49
Piaget and Modern Research
  • Habituationprocess of getting used to an object
    or event through repeated exposure to it
  • fMRIfunctional magnetic resonance imaging
    measuring technique for brain activity and
    neurological responses
  • First three years are prime time for cognitive
    development

50
Information Processing
  • Information-processing theory perspective that
    compares human thinking processes to computer
    analysis of data, including sensory input, stored
    memories, and output

51
Affordances
  • Affordancesopportunities for perception and
    interaction offered by environment
  • How something is perceived and acted upon depends
    on
  • past experiences
  • current developmental level
  • sensory awareness of opportunities
  • immediate needs and motivation

52
Sudden Drops
  • Visual cliff measures depth perception, which is
    based not on maturity level but affordance
  • depends on prior experience
  • Object Constancy
  • things remain what they are, despite changes in
    perception or appearance
  • boundaries of three-dimensional objects

53
Movement and People
  • Dynamic perception1 of the 2 principles
    explaining infant perception namely, that from
    birth perception is primed to focus on movement
    and change
  • 2nd principle explaining infant perception is
    that babies are fascinated by people
  • Infants most interested in emotional affordances
    of their caregivers

54
Memory
  • Certain amount of experience and maturation in
    order to process and remember experiences
  • In first year infants have great difficulty
    storing new memories
  • Older children often unable to describe events
    that occurred when they were younger

55
Memory, cont.
  • Very early memories possible if
  • situation similar to real life
  • motivation high
  • special measures aid retrieval by acting as
    reminders

56
Reminders and Repetition
  • Reminder sessionany perceptual experience that
    helps a person recall an idea or experience

57
A Little Older, A Little More Memory
  • After 6 months infants capable of retaining
    information for longer periods of time with less
    reminding
  • Deferred imitation apparent after end of first
    year
  • By middle of the 2nd year, children capable of
    remembering and reenacting complex sequences

58
A Little Older, A Little More Memory, cont.
  • Memory is not just single entity distinct brain
    regions for particular aspects of memory humans
    have a memory for
  • words
  • images
  • actions
  • smells
  • experiences
  • memorized facts

59
Language What Develops in Two Years?
  • Most impressive intellectual achievement of young
    child and also of all humans

60
The Universal Sequence of Language Development
  • Children around the world have the same sequence
    of early language development but
  • timing and depth of linguistic ability vary

61
First Noises and Gestures
  • Baby talkhigh-pitched, simplified, and
    repetitive ways adults talk to babies
  • Vocalization
  • crying
  • cooing
  • Babbling
  • deaf babies do it later and less frequently, but
    are more advanced in use of gestures

62
First Words
  • First word and sentences at age of 1 year

63
The Language Explosion and Early Grammar
  • Naming explosionsudden increase in infant
    vocabulary, especially nouns, beginning at 18
    months
  • Holophrasesingle word that expresses a complete,
    meaningful thought
  • Grammarall the methods that languages use to
    communicate meaning

64
Theories of Language Learning
  • Even the very young use language well
  • Three schools of thought
  • infants are taught language
  • infants teach themselves
  • social impulses foster infant language

65
Theory 1 Infants are Taught
  • Skinners reinforcement theory quantity and
    quality of talking to child affects rate of
    language development (learned)
  • parents are good instructors
  • baby talk characterized by
  • high pitch
  • simpler vocabulary
  • shorter sentence length
  • more questions and commands
  • repetition

66
Theory 2 Infants Teach Themselves
  • Chomsky and LAD (Language Acquisition
    Device)hypothesized neurological (inborn)
    structure that prewires all children for
    language, including basic aspects of intonation,
    grammar, and vocabulary
  • infants innately ready to use their minds to
    understand and speak whatever language offered to
    them
  • they are experience expectant

67
Theory Three Social Impulses Foster Language
  • Social-pragmaticsocial reason for language to
    communicate
  • Infants seek to respond, which shows their being
    social in nature and thus mutually dependentby
  • vocalizing
  • babbling
  • gesturing
  • listening
  • pointing

68
A Hybrid Theory
  • Emergentist coalitioncombination of valid
    aspects of several theories
  • cortex contains many language centers
  • nature provides several paths to learning
    language

69
Chapter Seven
  • The First Two Years
  • Psychosocial Development

70
Theories About Early Psychosocial Development
  • Importance of parents and their contribution to
    emotional growth

71
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Connects biosocial and psychosocial development

72
Freud Oral and Anal Stages
  • Oral Stage1st stage, where infant obtains
    pleasure through sucking and biting
  • Anal Stage2nd stage, where anus becomes main
    source of gratification, i.e., bowel movements
    and the control of them

73
Erikson Trust and Autonomy
  • 1st StageTrust vs. Mistrust
  • basic needs need to be met with consistency,
    continuity, and sameness
  • 2nd StageAutonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
  • basic desire to gain self-rule over their own
    actions and bodies and to feel ashamed if it
    doesnt happen

74
Behaviorism
  • Infants emotions and personality are molded as
    parents reinforce or punish childs spontaneous
    behavior
  • social learning adds to personality formation
  • social referencing strengthens learning by
    observation

75
Cognitive Theory
  • Individuals thoughts and values determine
    perspective on the world
  • Working modelset of assumptions used to organize
    perceptions and experiences

76
Epigenetic Theory
  • Each child is born with a genetic predisposition
    to develop certain traits that affect emotional
    development
  • Temperamentconstitutionally based individual
    differences in emotion, motor, and attentional
    reactivity and self-regulation.
  • inhibited
  • uninhibited
  • epigeneticthough personality traits not learned,
    environment affects their expression

77
Research on Temperament Nine Characteristics
  • activity level
  • rhythmicity
  • approach-withdrawal
  • adaptability
  • intensity of reaction
  • threshold of responsiveness
  • quality of mood
  • distractibility
  • attention span

78
Temperament and Caregiving
  • Inhibited vs. Uninhibited
  • responsive care and encouragement can help
    inhibited children become less so
  • Match between parent and child
  • goodness of fit

79
(No Transcript)
80
Sociocultural Theory
  • Emphasizes the many ways social context can have
    impact on infant-caregiver relationship
  • If social context changes, child can change

81
Emotional Development in Infancy
  • In the first 2 years of emotional development,
    infants progress from simple reactions to complex
    patterns of social awareness

82
The First Year
  • Newborns first discernable emotions
  • distress
  • contentment
  • Later emotions (after first weeks)
  • anger
  • fear, expressed clearly by stranger wariness and
    separation anxiety

83
The Second Year
  • Fear and anger typically decrease
  • Laughing, crying more discriminating
  • New emotions appear
  • pride
  • shame
  • embarrassment
  • guilt

84
(No Transcript)
85
Self-Awareness
  • Foundation for emotional growth
  • realization of individual distinctions
  • At about 5 months begin developing a sense of
    self apart from mother
  • 15-18 months the Me-self
  • rouge experiment

86
Pride and Shame
  • Self-awareness becomes linked with self-concept
    early on
  • Negative comments more likely to lead to less
    pride or shame
  • Own pride can be more compelling than parental
    approval

87
The Development of Social Bonds
  • Social connections help us understand human
    emotions

88
Synchrony
  • Synchronycoordinated interaction attunement
  • Helps infants learn to express own feelings
  • Imitation is pivotal
  • Becomes more elaborate and more frequent with
    time
  • Learning through play
  • playful interactions by both partners
  • important for both to be responsive

89
Attachment
  • Enduring emotional connection
  • Proximity-seeking behaviors
  • Contact-maintaining behaviors

90
Secure and Insecure Attachment
  • Bowlby and Ainsworth
  • Securerelationship of trust and confidence that
    provides comfort, assurance, and secure base

91
Secure and Insecure Attachment, cont.
  • Insecurerelationship that is unpredictable or
    unstable
  • avoidant one person tries to avoid any
    connection with another
  • resistant/ambivalent anxiety and uncertainly
    keep one person clinging to another

92

93
Measuring Attachment
  • Strange Situationlab procedure to measure
    attachment observed are
  • exploration of the toys (caregiver present)
  • reaction to caregivers departure
  • reaction to caregivers return
  • disorganized behaviorneither secure nor insecure
    attachmentmarked by inconsistent behavior of
    caregiver and infant toward each other

94
Insecure Attachment as a Warning Sign
  • Stressed mother (although not always an
    indicator)
  • Mother too withdrawn
  • Inconsistent behavior of mother (conflicting
    messages sent by her)
  • Insecure attachments repairable

95
Social Referencing
  • Looking to others for cues

96
Referencing Mom
  • Look to mother for comfort
  • Mothers tone and expression can become guide to
    how to react to unfamiliar or ambiguous event

97
Referencing Dad
  • Fathers play more than mothers
  • Infants look to fathers for fun and physical play
  • Physically active play with fathers may
    contribute to development of social skills and
    emotional expression
  • Physically active play with fathers helps
    children master motor skills and develop muscle
    control

98
Cultural Differences
  • Fathers, single mothers, grandparents, and
    cultures with other family structures still
    provide needed referencing
  • Fathers involvement
  • can benefit later development of child
  • raise mothers self-confidence
  • and two parents working together are better able
    to meet infants needs than either alone

99
Infant Day Care
  • Almost all infants cared for by people other than
    parents part of the time
  • Specifics vary from culture to culture
  • The older the child and the more money the family
    has, the more likely possibility of day care

100
Infant Day-Care
  • Family day care
  • Center care
  • Day care generally beneficial
  • High-quality programs include
  • adequate attention to each infant
  • encouragement of sensorimotor exploration and
    language development
  • attention to health and safety
  • well-trained professional caregivers

101
(No Transcript)
102
Infant Day Care, cont.
  • Cognitive and biosocial development are more
    advanced by day care than at home
  • Poor day care has detrimental effects

103
Conclusions in Theory and Practice
  • No single theory stands out as best
    interpretation of developments during first 2
    years
  • Do not know the extent to which positive
    influence can compensate for negative one

104
Conclusions in Theory and Practice, cont.
  • Parental attentiveness crucial to synchrony,
    attachment, and social referencing.
  • In dealing with children with problems, need a
    practical rather than theoretical approach that
    focuses on their specific issues
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com