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PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE

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Title: PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE


1
PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE
  • Chapter 11

2
Learning Objectives
3
PHYSICAL MATURATION
4
Physical Manifestations of Puberty
5
Growth during Adolescence The Rapid Pace of
Physical and Sexual Maturation
  • Adolescent growth spurt
  • Weight increase
  • Skeletal changes
  • Accelerated
  • Asynchronicity in growth

6
Growth Pattern
7
What is a secular trend?
  • Earlier start of puberty is example of
    significant secular trend
  • Pattern of change occurring over several
    generations
  • Trends occur when physical characteristic changes
    over course of several generations
  • Result of better nutrition over centuries

8
Puberty in Girls
  • Begins earlier for girls than for boys
  • Girls start puberty at around age 11 or 12, and
    boys begin at around age 13 or 14
  • Wide variations among individuals
  • Influences
  • Nutrition
  • Health
  • Environmental stress

9
Onset of Menarche
  • Varies in different parts of world
  • Begins later in poorer, developing countries
  • Influenced by proportion of fat to muscle in body
  • Related to environmental stress

10
Puberty in Boys
  • Penis and scrotum begin to grow at accelerated
    rate around age 12 and reach adult size about 3
    or 4 years later
  • Enlargement of prostate gland and seminal
    vesicles
  • Spermarche around age 13

11
Primary Sex Characteristics
  • Further development of sex glands
  • Testes in males
  • Ovaries in females

12
Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • Changes in genitals and breasts
  • Growth of hair
  • Pubic
  • Facial
  • Body
  • Further development of sex organs

13
Body Image Reaction to Physical Changes in
Adolescence
  • Some of the changes of adolescence do not show up
    in physical changes, but carry psychological
    weight
  • Menstruation and ejaculations occur privately,
    but changes in body shape and size are public
  • Teenagers entering puberty frequently are
    embarrassed by the changes
  • Girls are frequently unhappy about their changing
    bodies

14
Sexual Maturation
15
Timing and Tempo of Puberty
  • Variation of timing and tempo great
  • No relationship between onset and rate of
    pubertal development
  • Some differences causes are inconclusive

16
Consequences of Early and Late Maturation
17
The Consequences of Early and Late Maturation
18
The Consequences of Early and Late Maturation
19
The Consequences of Early and Late Maturation
20
Nutrition, Food, and Eating Disorders Fueling
the Growth of Adolescence
21
Fueling the Growth of Adolescence
  • For most adolescents, the major nutritional issue
    is ensuring the consumption of a sufficient
    balance of appropriate foods
  • Rapid physical growth of adolescence is fueled by
    an increase in food consumption
  • Particularly during the growth spurt, adolescents
    eat substantial quantities of food, increasing
    their intake of calories rather dramatically
  • During the teenage years, the average girl
    requires some 2,200 calories a day
  • The average boy requires 2,800
  • Several key nutrients are essential, including,
    in particular, calcium and iron

22
Nutritional Problems in Adolescence
  • Poor eating habits
  • High consumption of junk food/sugar/fats
  • Large portion sizes
  • Lack of variety
  • Related health concerns
  • Obesity
  • Osteoporosis
  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease

23
Pubertal Changes and Eating Disorders
24
Pubertal Changes and Eating Disorders
  • Ratio of body fat to muscle increases
  • Basal metabolism rate decreases
  • Overall physical appearance changes
  • 20 overweight 5 obese 15 seriously
    overweight

25
Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia
  • Definitions
  • Anorexiastarvation to maintain low weight
  • Bulimiabinge and purge eating
  • 1 anorexic and 3 bulimic
  • Higher incidence among females
  • Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction
    reported across socioeconomic lines

26
Brain Development and Thought Paving the Way for
Cognitive Growth
27
A No Brainer?????
  • Brain changes
  • Growth spurts
  • No clear 11 correspondence

28
Use It or Lose It
  • Brain produces oversupply of gray matter during
    adolescence which is later pruned back at rate of
    one to two percent per year
  • Myelination increases and continues to make
    transmission of neural messages more efficient

29
How is this related to adolescent impulse control?
  • Prefrontal cortex provides for impulse control
  • Adolescence prefrontal cortex is biologically
    immature ability to inhibit impulses is not
    fully developed

Figure 11-5 Pruning Gray Matter This
three-dimensional view of the brain shows areas
of gray matter that are pruned from the brain
between adolescence and adulthood. (Source
Sowell et al., 1999.)
30
The Immature Brain Argument Too Young for the
Death Penalty?
  • Are the brains of adolescents so immature that
    teenage offenders should receive less harsh
    punishment for their crimes than those with
    older, and therefore more mature, brains?
  • What do you think?

31
Yawning of the Age of Adolescence
  • Sleep Deprivation
  • Adolescents go to bed later and get up earlier
  • Sleep deprivation takes its toll
  • Lower grades
  • More depressed
  • Greater difficulty controlling their moods
  • Greater risk for auto accidents

32
Review and Apply
33
Review and Apply
34
Review and Apply
35
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND SCHOOLING
36
Cognitive Development
  • Approaches
  • Piaget
  • Information processing
  • Adolescent egocentrism

37
Piagetian Perspective
  • Fixed sequence of qualitatively different stages
  • Fundamentally different than child thinking
  • Utilized in variety of settings and situations

38
Piagetian Stages Related to Youth Development
  • Formal operations
  • 11 years
  • Development of abstract and hypothetical
    reasoning
  • Development of propositional logic
  • Cultural differences in use

39
Developmental of Formal Operations
  • Emergent
  • Early adolescence
  • Variable usage depends on conditions surrounding
    assessment
  • Established
  • Late adolescence
  • Consolidated and integrated into general approach
    to reasoning

40
Consequences of Adolescents Use of Formal
Operations
  • Ability to reason abstractly, embodied in their
    use of formal operations, leads to a change in
    their everyday behavior
  • Questioning parents and authority figures
  • Exhibiting greater idealism and impatience with
    imperfections
  • Experiencing indecision

41
PiagetPros and Cons
  • Pros
  • Catalyst for much research
  • Accounts for many changes observed during
    adolescence
  • Helps explain
  • Developmental differences
  • Multidimensionality
  • Metacognition
  • Cons
  • Fails to prove
  • Stage like fashion of cognition
  • FO is adolescent cognitive stage
  • Fails to account for variability
  • Between children
  • Within child
  • Within specific situations

42
Information Processing Perspectives Gradual
Transformations in Abilities
  • Changes in adolescents cognitive abilities are
    evidence of gradual transformations in the
    capacity to take in, use, and store information
  • Number of progressive changes occur in the ways
    people organize their thinking about the world,
    develop strategies for dealing with new
    situations, sort facts, and achieve advances in
    memory capacity and perceptual abilities
  • Incorporates same techniques to understanding
    human reasoning that computer scientists employ
    in writing programs

43
Changes in Information Processing
  • Gains during adolescence help to explain
    developmental differences in abstract,
    multidimensional, and hypothetical thinking
  • Store of knowledge increases as the amount of
    material to which they are exposed grows and
    their memory capacity enlarges

44
Egocentrism in Thinking Adolescents
Self-Absorption
  • New abilities make adolescents particularly
    introspective and self-conscious
  • These hallmarks of may produce a high degree of
    egocentrism
  • Adolescent egocentrism is a state of
    self-absorption in which the world is viewed as
    focused on oneself
  • Imaginary audience
  • Personal fables

45
Thinking about Thinking
  • Metacognition improves during adolescence
  • Thinks about own thoughts ? self-consciousness
  • Monitors own learning processes more efficiently
  • Paces own studying

46
School Performance
47
True or False?
  • Grades awarded to high school students have
    shifted upward in the last decade.

48
School Performance
  • Do higher grades mean smarter students?
  • Independent measures of achievement, such as SAT
    scores, have not risen
  • Consequently, a more likely explanation for the
    higher grades is the phenomenon of grade
    inflation
  • According to this view, it is not that students
    have changed, but grades have been inflated
  • This is future supported by comparison of U.S.
    students to those in other countries

49
Students Around the World
Figure 11-6 U.S. 15-Year-Old Performance Compared
with Other Countries When compared to the
academic performance of students across the
world, U.S. students perform at below-average
levels. (Source Based on National Governors
Association, 2008.)
50
The Lazy Days of Summer
  • Summer learning loss
  • Socioeconomic differences
  • Remedy
  • Summer enrichment programs
  • Stealth learning/Not traditional summer school

51
Socioeconomic Status and School Performance
  • Individual Differences in Achievement
  • Children living in poverty lack many advantages
  • Later school success builds heavily on basic
    skills presumably learned or not learned early in
    school

52
Ethnic and Racial Differences in School
Achievement
  • Significant achievement differences between
    ethnic and racial groups
  • On average, African American and Hispanic
    students tend to perform at lower levels, receive
    lower grades, and score lower on standardized
    tests of achievement than Caucasian students
  • Asian American students tend to receive higher
    grades than Caucasian students

53
What is the source of such ethnic and racial
differences in academic achievement?
54
Achievement Testing in High School Will No
Child Be Left Behind?
  • No Child Left Behind Act
  • Passed by Congress in 2002, requires that every
    U.S. state design and administer achievement
    tests that students must pass in order to
    graduate from
  • high school
  • Schools are graded so that the public is aware of
    which
  • schools have the best (and worst) test results
  • Unintended consequences
  • Teaching to test
  • Approaches to teaching designed to foster
    creativity and critical thinking discouraged
  • Anxiety level raised in students

55
Adolescent Media Usage
  • Kaiser Family Foundation survey
  • Young people spend an average of 6.5 hours a day
    with media
  • Around a quarter of the time they are using more
    than one form of medium simultaneously, they are
    actually being exposed to the equivalent of 8.5
    hours per day
  • Some teenagers send nearly 30,000 texts a month
  • See Figure 11-7 for additional information on
    teenagers, cell phones, and texting

56
The Downside of Click
  • Objectionable material available
  • Growing problem of Internet gambling
  • Safety
  • Digital divide

57
Dropping Out of School
  • Adolescents leave school for variety of reasons
  • Males are more likely to drop out of school than
    females
  • Hispanics and African American students still are
    more likely to leave high school before
    graduating than non-Hispanic white students
  • Not all minority groups show higher dropout
    rates Asians, for instance, drop out at a lower
    rate than Caucasians
  • Poverty plays larger role in higher dropout rate

58
Review and Apply
59
Review and Apply
60
Review and Apply
61
THREATS TO ADOLESCENTS WELL-BEING
62
Adolescent Drug Use
  • One in 15 high school seniors smokes marijuana on
    a daily or near-daily basis
  • Marijuana usage has increased over the last few
    years
  • Daily marijuana use is at a 30-year high for high
    school seniors

63
How Common is Illegal Drug Use during Adolescence?
Figure 11-8 Downward Trend According to an annual
survey, the proportion of students reporting
marijuana use over the past 12 months has
decreased since 1999. What might account for
the decline in drug use? (Source Johnston et
al., 2011.)
64
Why Do Adolescents Use Drugs?
  • Pleasurable experience
  • Escape
  • Peer pressure
  • Enhanced academic performance

65
Why Do Adolescents Use Drugs?
  • Biological and psychological addiction
  • Addictive drugs are drugs that produce a
    biological or psychological dependence in users,
    leading to increasingly powerful cravings for
    them.

66
Why do adolescents use drugs?
  • Psychological addiction?depend on drugs to cope
    with everyday stress of life?prevent adolescents
    from confrontingand potentially solving
    problems that led them to drug use in first place.
  • Biological addiction? presence in body becomes so
    common that body is unable to function in their
    absence causes actual physicaland potentially
    lingeringchanges in nervous system?. drug intake
    no longer may provide a high, but may be
    necessary simply to maintain the perception of
    everyday normalcy.

67
Alcohol Use and Abuse
Figure 11-9 Binge Drinking Among College
Students For men, binge drinking is defined as
consuming five or more drinks in one sitting for
women, the total is four or more. Why is binge
drinking popular? (Source Wechsler et al., 2003.)
68
Binge Drinking Effects on Brain
  • Binge drinking affects certain areas of the white
    matter of the brain, as shown in this scan.
  • (Source McQueeny et al., 2009, Figure 2)

69
Why do adolescents start to drink?
  • Genetics
  • Way of proving themselves
  • Release of inhibitions and tension and reduction
    of stress
  • False consensus effect

70
From Activity to Addiction
  • Adolescent alcoholics
  • Alcohol use becomes uncontrollable habit
  • Increasing ability to tolerate alcohol
  • Increasing need to drink ever-larger amounts of
    liquor to bring about positive effects craved

71
Hooked on Drugs or Alcohol?
  • Signals
  • Identification with the drug culture
  • Signs of physical deterioration
  • Dramatic changes in school performance
  • Changes in behavior
  • (Adapted from Franck Brownstone, 1991, p.
    593594)

72
Tobacco The Dangers of Smoking
  • Incidence
  • Differences
  • Gender
  • International
  • Racial

73
Why do adolescents begin to smoke and maintain
the habit?
  • Advertisements in the media
  • Addiction
  • Parent and peer models
  • Adolescent rite of passage

74
Selling Death Pushing Smoking to the Less
Advantaged
  • Tobacco companies carve out new markets by
    turning to least advantaged
  • Tobacco companies aggressively recruit adolescent
    smokers abroad

75
Sexually Transmitted Infections
  • AIDS
  • Leading cause of death among young women
    worldwide
  • Already, over 25 million people have died from
    AIDS worldwide, and people living with the
    disease number 34 million worldwide

76
AIDS Around the World
The number of people carrying the AIDS virus
varies substantially by geographic region. By far
the most cases (Source UNAIDS World Health
Organization, 2009.)
77
Other Sexually Transmitted Infections
78
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Among
Adolescents
Why are adolescents in particular in danger of
contracting an STI? (Sources Alan Guttmacher
Institute, 2004 Weinstock, Berman, Cates,
2006.)
79
Avoiding STIS
80
Review and Apply
81
Review and Apply
82
Review and Apply
83
EPILOGUE
  • Before turning to the next chapter, return for
    the moment to the opening prologue of this
    chapter, about Beth and Bryce Chadwick's the
    following questions about Peter.
  • Is Beth Chadwick right to be worried about the
    changes she sees in her son Peter?
  • Is Peter Chadwick's withdrawal from his family
    normal for a boy his age? Why might he be
    spending so much time in his room with the door
    closed?
  • What other changes might be occurring to Peter
    apart from the behavioral and personality changes
    mentioned by his parents?

84
EPILOGUE
  • What factors might be influencing Peter's
    declining school performance?
  • What advice would you give Peter's parents to
    deal with the changes they see in Peter?
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