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It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.

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Title: It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.


1
It is not the strongest of the species that
survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one
most responsive to change. - Charles Darwin
2
Chapter 22 Mammals
  • What is a mammal?
  • There are 6 things to consider when asked if an
    animal is a mammal.

3
What is a mammal?
  • Character One
  • The first characteristic that guarantees that an
    animal is a mammal is that it (if it is female)
    can produce milk to feed its young. This milk is
    produced by modified sweat glands called
    'mammary' glands. It is from these glands that
    the whole group takes its name, 'Mammals.  
  • Character Two
  • The second test is the possession of hair,
    something humans often have problems with but
    which they should respect more. No other animal
    has hair in the same form as mammals, and all
    mammals have some hair at least at the beginning
    of their lives - baby whales and dolphins are
    born with a moustache.    
  • Character Three
  • The lower jaw in mammals is a single bone on
    either side. In all other vertebrates there are
    more than one bone on each side of the jaw.
  •    

4
What is a mammal?
  • Character Four
  •   The mammal middle ear, and only the mammal
    middle ear, contains 3 bones. The Stapes or
    (Stirrup), Incus or (Anvil) and the Malleus or
    (Hammer). Once these bones were part of the lower
    jaw, but during the early evolution of mammals
    they changed jobs and became a part of our
    hearing apparatus instead.  
  • Character Five
  •   In mammals the main artery leaving the heart
    curves to the left becoming the aortic arch. In
    birds it curves to the right and in all other
    vertebrates there are more than one main artery
    leaving the heart.    

5
What is a mammal?
  • Character Six
  • Finally mammals have a diaphragm. A sheet of
    muscle and tendon that separates the body cavity
    into two sections. Heart and lungs before/above,
    liver, kidneys, stomach, intestines, etc,
    behind/below. No other animal has a diaphragm.
  • There are about 4260 named species of mammal in
    the world. I say about, because it is hard to get
    a list of species that all the experts agree on.
    So until you become an expert taxonomist and can
    solve the problems of what are or are not
    species, 4260 will do for 2000 AD, but more will
    be discovered.

6
Introduction
  • Mammals are the dominant life form on this planet
    at the moment, at least from a human perspective.
  • There are about 4260 species of mammals known on
    this planet at the moment, though taxonomists are
    still arguing.
  • Mammals are not the largest animal group on the
    planet, three other groups of vertebrates
    out-number them at the moment, Reptiles 6787
    species, Birds 9703 species and Fishes with
    approximately 28000 species.

7
General Info
  • Mammals are friendly or fierce, cuddly, cute
    and/or awesome depending on which ones you look
    at. They fascinate and horrify us. We eat them,
    ride them, keep them as pets, makes clothes out
    of them, hunt other mammals with them and use
    them as substitutes for ourselves in scientific,
    particularly medical, research. We use them to
    carry our burdens, support our foolish habits
    (gambling) and expect them to entertain us. To
    most people animals are mammals.

8
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9
Did you Know??
  • Nearly a quarter of all mammals can fly. Yes,
    it's true, with a huge 985 species bats make up
    23.1 of all known mammals by species.
  • The meek shall inherit the earth, or at least
    Australia which is a reasonable portion of it.
    With about 147 million head of sheep, there are
    about 8 to 9 sheep for every person in Australia.
  • A prehistoric mammal, the extinct Irish Elk,
    Megaloceros giganteus, had the largest antlers
    ever. A specimen found in an Irish peat bog had
    antlers 4.3 m or 14 ft across which weighed 45kg
    or 100 lbs.
  • The Giant Anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla,
    eats over 10,000,000 ants or termites a year.
  • No two Giraffes have the same pattern of spots
    and no two Zebras have the same pattern of
    stripes.

10
Did you Know??
  • Whales and dolphins sleep one side of their
    brains at a time - while one side is asleep the
    other keeps watch for danger.
  • Sperm whales can stay submerged for up to two
    hours descending over a mile below the surface.
  • The Andes Fishing Mouse was first recorded for
    science when scientists from the British Mammal
    Society watching a television programme on the
    'Wildlife of the Andes' saw a specimen in the
    programme and realised that no records of it
    existed.
  • House mice, Mus musculus, have on several
    occasions been so numerous that they had a
    population density of over 200,000 per
    hectare,that's 2 mice for every square metre of
    land if they were all spaced out evenly.

11
Did you Know??
  • Rodents, at least the few species that are pests,
    cost us about 43 million tonnes of damaged and
    destroyed food every year.
  • There is a vine in Madagascar that is pollinated
    exclusively by lemurs.
  • Chimpanzees can go bald as they age.
  • A female kangaroo can produce 2 different kinds
    of milk at the same time when she is suckling
    youngsters of different ages.
  • Anteaters are the only mammals to have no teeth.
  • Hippopotamuses produce a special reddish oil from
    modified sweat glands that acts like a sun-cream
    to stop them getting sunburned.
  • Shrews evolved 54 million years ago, today some
    species have such fast metabolisms that they need
    to eat up to 1.3 times their own weight in food
    everyday.

12
Skeleton of a Mammal
13
Start of Day 2
14
External Structure and Locomotion page 347
  • The first structure we need to examine is the
    skin of a mammal.
  • Functions to protect from mechanical injury,
    invasion by microorganisms, the suns ultraviolet
    rays, regulates body temperature, sensory
    perception, excretion, and water regulation.

15
External Structure and Locomotion page 347
  • The second structure is Hair.
  • Facts hair is composed mostly of dead cells, it
    is periodically molted
  • Functions as insulation, camouflage, the sense
    of touch.

16
External Structure and Locomotion page 347
  • The third is claws.
  • Functions used for movement, offensive and
    defensive behavior
  • (can be nails more like humans or hooves)

17
Specialized Glands
  • 1. sebaceous glands
  • 2. sudoriferous glands
  • 3. Scent or musk glands
  • 4. mammary glands

18
Specialized Glands
  • sebaceous glands
  • Work with the hair follicles.
  • Produce/secrete an oily substance that lubricates
    and waterproofs the skin and hair.
  • sudoriferous glands
  • The small glands- These release watery secretions
    used in evaporative cooling.

19
Specialized Glands
  • The large glands- secrete a mixture of salt,
    urea, and water which the microorganisms then
    convert into a odorous product. (smell)
  • Scent or Musk Glands-
  • These are found around the face, feet or anus of
    many mammals.
  • These secrete pheromones which are involved with
    defense, sex recognition, and territorial
    behavior.

20
Specialized Glands
  • Mammary glands-
  • Functional in the female
  • Present but not functional in the male
  • The milk that they secrete contains water,
    carbohydrates, fat, protein, minerals, and
    antibodies.

21
So bone structure and locomotion leave what
behind???
  • Tracks

22
What is the significance of a track?
  • Tracks can be used for many things
  • 1. identifying the animal
  • 2. tracking an animal in a hunt
  • 3. searching for a lost animal
  • 4. mammals may follow the tracks of others for
    both mating and predatory type actions.
  • 5. scientific research

23
How do tracks form?
  • 1st you must have the correct ground conditions
    for a track to be created.
  • The ground must be moist so that the impression
    can be made.
  • Second the animal must be heavy enough in
    combination with ground conditions to make an
    impression.
  • Thirdly The following conditions after an
    impression is made must be such so that
    impression stays in tact and is not disturbed.

24
So, Lets give track making a try??
  • You will need a writing utensil
  • In just a moment you will go into the lab and
    find the station that has a piece of paper at it
    with your name on it.
  • Second you will check to see that you have a
    dissecting pan, blank piece of paper, two
    containers of play dough, and a track.
  • Thirdly on my signal you will mash out the play
    dough flat and try with your fingers to make the
    impression matching the paper copy you found at
    your station.
  • Fourthly on my signal you will again work on the
    track but this time you can use other objects
    other than your hand to make the track.

25
After tracking making.
  • Following track making we will again play our
    vocabulary flashcard game. You will have 30
    seconds at each station the stationary person at
    the station will write down your name and whether
    or not you got the question correct. When time is
    called you will move to the next station and
    repeat. The person that gets the most correct
    will win reward.

26
After vocabulary flashcards
  • Our last activity will be a matching game.
  • Half the class will get a card with a picture on
    it and the other half a card with a word on it.
  • You will have to wonder the room to find the
    matches.

27
Forms of Learned Behaviors
  • Associative learning
  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning
  • Observational learning or modeling
  • Insight learning

28
Associative Learning
  • Where an animal learns to associate one stimulus
    with another.
  • 2 forms
  • 1. classical conditioning example rubbing meat
    powder on dogs gums for several days, and then
    doing that plus ringing a bell. Both made the dog
    produce salvia and become hungry.

29
Associative Learning Continued
  • 2. operant conditioning when an animal learns
    how do something because there is a treat or
    reward. Example an animal learns to press a
    lever and get food out of a machine.

30
Observational Learning or Modeling
  • When an animal learns a behavior from watching
    other animals conducting that behavior
  • Example an animal learning to hunt in a pack

31
Insight learning
  • This is the highest form of learning. This is the
    ability to solve problems.
  • Example (from the video) The monkeys stacking up
    boxes to reach a banana. Or the squirrel going
    through the obstacle course to reach food.

32
Nature vs Nuture
  • Nature is the way that things happen within
    mother earth without human intervention.
  • Nuture- is where an animal cares for another.
  • One type is Imprinting- this happens when young
    mammals are in contact with another non-related
    species shortly after birth. They model the
    non-related species in eating, behavior such as
    eating and aggression. This is usually
    irreversible.
  • Example would be the Goslings that imprinted with
    humans instead of other geese.

33
Additional things in the behavior note section
  • Behaviors
  • aggression- any sign of frustration
  • Examples hair standing on end, showing of the
    teeth, growling or making a defensive noise
  • 2. territoriality- behavior in which an animal
    attempts to mark his or her environment as there
    own.
  • Examples urinating on things, expelling feces,
    expelling pheromones, leaving claw marks etc on
    trees, mating

34
Nutrition and Digestive System
  • Very similar to that of other vertebrates
  • Has specializations for different feeding habits
  • We have herbivores, carnivores, omnivores
  • A specialization of the digestive tract for our
    herbivores is an enlarged cecum for the digestion
    of cellulose.

35
Nutrition and Digestive System
  • The cecum is a digestive or fermentation pouch
    where microorganisms aid in cellulose digestion
  • Our ruminant mammals have four chamber stomachs,
    to help in digestion.

36
Winter Sleep and Hibernation
  • Mammals react in different ways to environmental
    situations
  • Winter sleep is a period of time when they become
    less active but are still relatively alert and
    easily aroused.
  • Hibernation is a period of winter inactivity in
    which the hypothalamus of the brain slows the
    metabolic, heart, and respiratory rates. Prior to
    hibernation animals acquire large quantities of
    body fat. The body's temperature is at 2 degrees
    Celsius during this time.

37
Reproduction
  • 1. starts with a specific time during the year
    when ova are capable of being fertilized.
  • 2. climatic conditions must be in favor of
    successful development
  • 3. Estrus happens next and can happen in accord
    with number one. Estrus is a time when the female
    is behaviorally and physiologically receptive to
    the male. When the egg is available and can be
    fertilized.

38
Gestation Periods for Different Mammals
  • Killer Whale- 15-18 months
  • Swine- warthog- 170-175 days
  • Cat- 63-65 days
  • Dog- 56-72 days
  • Cow- 283 days
  • Horse- 320 days
  • Rat- 21 days
  • Rabbit- 27-36 days
  • Elephant- 2 years
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