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Chapter 14 – PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IN THE POST-WAR ERA (GOODWIN)

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CHAPTER 14 PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IN THE POST-WAR ERA (GOODWIN) Dr. Nancy Alvarado Jean Piaget Piaget s Genetic Epistemology He referred to his approach as ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 14 – PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IN THE POST-WAR ERA (GOODWIN)


1
Chapter 14 PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE IN THE
POST-WAR ERA (GOODWIN)
  • Dr. Nancy Alvarado

2
Post-War Psychology
  • The most important development in psychology
    after WWII was modern cognitive psychology.
  • The change was evolutionary, not revolutionary,
    emerging from but not replacing behaviorism.
  • Goodwin also describes 4 other prominent areas of
    research, highlighting the work of one key
    person
  • Physiological or neuropsychology Donald Hebb
  • Social psychology Leon Festinger
  • Personality psychology Gordon Allport
  • Developmental psychology Jean Piaget

3
Early Cognitivists
  • Pioneers studying memory, attention, perception
    and thinking in the 19th century included
    Ebbinghaus, Wundt, Kulpe, Wertheimer Titchener.
  • In the 20th century the methods were different
    and models were based on the computer (as
    metaphor).
  • Some psychologists starting calling themselves
    cognitive psychologists.
  • Even during the behaviorist 30s 40s cognitive
    studies were done in the USA (Stroop) and
    especially in Europe (Piaget Bartlett).

4
Frederick C. Bartlett (1886-1969)
  • In 1932, Bartlett published Remembering A study
    in Experimental and Social Psychology describing
    his dissertation studies done 15 years earlier.
  • He earned his doctorate at Cambridge, then became
    head of the Psychology Laboratory, one of the
    first experimental psych labs in Great Britain.
  • Although he also worked on animal learning and
    applied studies (pilot fatigue), his reputation
    rests on his memory research.

5
Frederick Bartlett
6
Bartlett on Memory
  • Bartlett criticized the usefulness of Ebbinhauss
    work.
  • Memorizing nonsense syllables by rote is too
    artificial.
  • Research should focus on the person not the
    stimuli.
  • People do not passively form associations but
    actively organize material into meaningful wholes
    called schemata (plural for schema).
  • He demonstrated this in two experiments described
    by Goodwin (Chapter 14).

7
Military Men on Postcards
  • Bartlett showed subjects a series of 6 drawings
    of military men (see pg 468). He then asked them
    to describe the drawings. He found
  • Serial position effect first and last best
    remembered.
  • No memory for whether facing left or right.
  • Transposition of detail from one picture to
    another.
  • Intrusions (importation) of details not actually
    there.
  • Responses were affected by leading questions.
  • His results were presented without detail on
    method.

8
The War of the Ghosts
  • Participants were given a 328 word Native Amer.
    folk tale to read twice and then reproduce 15
    minutes later and also hours to months later.
  • Total recall declined.
  • What was recalled was shaped by the need to form
    a coherent understandable story in the context of
    their own cultural knowledge (schemata
    concepts).
  • Memory was an active process of construction.
  • In the 1960s, the significance of this work
    became more appreciated it is now widely
    accepted.

9
Karl Spencer Lashley (1890-1958)
  • Lashley studied with Yerkes and Watson, then
    became a professor at Harvard University.
  • He became a critic of S-R and associatist
    theories in a talk on the serial order problem.
  • Mental representation is needed to explain
    language.
  • Serial sequences of speech or movement require
    too fast a neural analysis to be based on simple
    contiguity.
  • Speech is more complex than simple chains of
    sounds, so the brain must be exercising
    organizational control over patterns of behavior.

10
Other Influences
  • The development of computer science provided a
    metaphor for brain functioning
  • A computer takes in info from the environment,
    processes it internally, and produces some
    output.
  • John von Neuman presented this analogy in 1948.
  • Atkinson Shiffrin presented a flowchart of
    memory analogous to computer processing.
  • Shannon Weaver introduced information theory
    in The Mathematical Theory of Communication in
    1949.

11
A Model of Memory Processing
A Joke
12
Shannon Weaver
  • Information theory was important to both computer
    science and psychology.
  • They introduced the concept of a bit binary
    digit with the logical operators of true and
    false and two states, on and off.
  • A coin toss contains one bit of information
    because it decides between heads and tails.
  • The bit provides a way of standardizing
    information regardless of what form it takes
    (coin toss, numbers, letters, etc).

13
Noam Chomsky
  • The development linguistics, especially at MIT by
    Chomsky, further undermined behaviorism.
  • Skinner tried to put language into operant terms.
  • Chomsky wrote a highly critical review of
    Skinners book, saying language development is
    too fast for conditioning to be relevant.
  • Language came to be viewed as behavior governed
    by application of a hierarchical set of rules
    called a grammar innate linguistic universals.
  • Grammar can generate an infinity of unique
    utterances.

14
George A. Miller
  • Miller recognized the relevance of information
    theory for psychology.
  • He studied the difficulty hearing spoken messages
    while sitting in loud airplanes at Harvard.
  • The magical number seven, plus or minus two
    Some limits on our capacity for processing
    information.
  • Bits and channel capacity can describe limits on
    human processing, such as the limited capacity of
    memory.
  • The term chunk captures the idea that the
    information in bits can vary widely. Recoding
    reorganizes data.

15
Donald Broadbent (1926-1993)
  • Broadbent applied information theory to the study
    of attention.
  • Engineers did not take into account human pilots
    when designing airline cockpit instrumentation,
    causing errors.
  • He pioneered modern attention research with the
    dichotic listening task in which people hear two
    channels of information (one in each ear).
  • He proposed a selective filter to explain the
    cocktail party phenomenon.

16
The TOTE Model
  • Miller, Galanter Pribram (a student of Lashley)
    developed a model of how plans operate on images
    to guide behavior.
  • Called TOTE (Test-Operate-Test-Exit) and based on
    the idea of feedback from cybernetics (computer
    science). See example pg 479 for hammering nail.
  • This feedback system was proposed as an
    alternative for the reflex arc hypothesized by
    behaviorists.

17
TOTE Model for Slicing Carrots
18
Ulric Neisser
  • Momentum for cognitive approaches continued to
    build in the 1960s Neisser published Cognitive
    Psychology in 1967, naming the approach.
  • Neisser studied with Miller at Harvard, then
    Kohler at Swarthmore, then MIT and Harvard again.
  • Cognitive psychology is the experimental study of
    all cognitive processes those processes by
    which sensory input is transformed, reduce,
    elaborated, stored, recovered, and used.

19
Evolution of Cognitive Psychology
  • New journals appeared in the 70s 80s.
  • Neisser urged greater ecological validity
    research with relevance to every day activities.
  • In response, Loftus studied eyewitness testimony,
    Bahrick studied long-term recall of school
    material.
  • Cognitive science was created an
    interdisciplinary field including cognitive
    psych, linguistics, computer science, cultural
    anthropology epistemology.

20
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • AI is an applied field attempting to enable
    machines to act with some degree of intelligence.
  • Herb Simon and Alan Newell collaborated on a
    General Problem Solver (GPS) aimed at solving a
    broad range of problems.
  • An algorithm is a set of rules for obtaining a
    solution. A heuristic is a more creative
    strategy, not guaranteed to work but more
    efficient than an algorithm.
  • The GPS used means-end analysis as a heuristic,
    with feedback about goal status.

21
The Turing Test
  • The more dominant approach in AI is now to create
    a program that solves a problem in the most
    efficient way, not necessarily the way people do.
  • This has led to the question of testing whether
    computers can be intelligent or learn to think,
    posed by Alan Turing in 1950 as an imitation
    game.
  • Strong AI proposes computers can think as people
    do. Weak AI proposes that computers can yield
    important insights about human thinking.
  • Searle described the Chinese Room problem.

22
Evaluating Cognitive Psychology
  • Skinner was a vocal critic, objecting to
    hypothetical mental mechanisms like STM that
    become frozen into explanatory fictions.
  • Attributing memory failure to limited STM
    explains nothing.
  • The computer metaphor ignores emotion, motivation
    and intentionality.
  • It also ignores neurological reality (although
    this is less true today as models are tested
    against neuroscience).

23
The Brain and Behavior
  • How does the firing of neurons in the brain
    actually result in psychological experience?
  • Psychologists concentrated on finding
    relationships between physical and mental events.
  • Lashleys conclusions that the brain operated as
    an integrated system dampened brain research.
  • Equipotentiality all areas of the brain work
    together.
  • Behaviorist emphasis on behavior, not the person,
    eliminated the need for physiological
    explanations.

24
Donald O. Hebb (1904-1985)
  • Interest in studying the functioning of the brain
    was rekindled by Hebb, a student of Lashleys.
  • As a student, Hebb was skeptical of Pavlovs
    model of the cortex.
  • He worked with Wilder Penfield on surgical
    treatment of epilepsy results contradicted
    Lashleys idea of equipotentiality.
  • Early childhood experiences are important to
    intelligence but adult injury does not reverse it
    later.

25
Hebbs Theory
  • Hebb proposed that cortical organization occurs
    through cell assemblies and phase sequences.
  • Cell assembly is the basic unit, a set of
    associated neurons that work together because
    activated together.
  • Phase sequences incorporate several cell
    assemblies. They account for why stimuli do not
    simply produce responses but are mediated by the
    brain.
  • Repeated stimulation produces structural changes
    at the synaptic level Hebbs rule.
  • Interest was renewed in the study of
    brain-behavior.

26
Leon Festinger (1919-1989)
  • Festinger studied at the Univ. of Iowa under Kurt
    Lewin. During WWII he was a statistician then
    rejoined Lewin at MIT.
  • After Lewin died, he moved to the U. of Michigan,
    U. of Minnesota, then Stanford University in1955,
    then the New School for Social Research in NY in
    1968.
  • He is remembered for developing the theory of
    cognitive dissonance.
  • People are motivated to be consistent in their
    thoughts, feelings and actions and feel
    discomfort otherwise.

27
Leon Festinger
People are motivated to seek consistency between
their beliefs, feelings and actions, to reduce
cognitive dissonance.
28
Festingers Contributions
  • Festinger created an experimental tradition in
    social psychology of using elaborately staged and
    deceptive research settings, to get true
    reactions.
  • Festinger Carlsmith administered a boring task,
    then asked subjects to tell the next person it
    was interesting.
  • Participants were paid either 1 or 20 for the
    lie.
  • Those paid 20 later thought the expt was still
    boring but those paid 1 changed their opinions
    because 1 was insufficient justification for
    being dishonest.
  • Festinger used ANOVA to analyze his data.

29
Personality Psychology
  • Most of psychology is nomothetic attempting to
    find principles that affect humans in general.
  • An alternative approach is idiographic focusing
    on a detailed analysis of how individuals differ.
  • This distinction is attributed to Gordon Allport,
    but Hugo Munsterberg also used the terms which go
    back to German philosopher Windelband.
  • Personality psychology focuses on individuals in
    order to find general principles about how they
    differ.

30
Gordon Allport (1897-1967)
  • Gordon Allport published Personality A
    Psychological Interpretation in 1937, creating
    personality psychology as a subfield.
  • His brother Floyd did the same for Social
    Psychology.
  • His study was taboo at Harvard where Titcheners
    approach was dominant.
  • He taught at Harvard in a new dept of Social
    Ethics, then Dartmouth, then Harvard for the
    remainder of his career.

31
Gordon Allport
The influence of Allports work on psychology is
close to Skinners.
32
Allports Conception of Personality
  • The basic unit of personality was the trait a
    particular pattern of thinking, feeling and
    behaving characteristic of a person, different
    than others.
  • Cardinal traits were attributes dominant in a
    person.
  • Central traits provide a reasonable accurate
    summary description of an individual (letter of
    recommendation).
  • Secondary traits, less manifested, known only to
    friends.
  • Allport advocated use of the case study as
    method.
  • Allport rejected psychoanalysis and Freuds
    emphasis on sex, and he rejected projective tests.

33
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
  • While working on standardizing a reasoning test
    developed by Cyril Burt, Piaget had more interest
    in the thinking processes of kids than their
    answers.
  • Especially revealing were wrong answers.
  • Piaget began interviewing children about how they
    solved problems, concluding that kids think
    differently than adults, not just know less.
  • This led to his stage theory of cognitive
    development.

34
Jean Piaget
35
Piagets Genetic Epistemology
  • He referred to his approach as genetic
    epistemology genetic refers to developmental
    processes not heredity (as G.S. Hall used the
    term).
  • He asked, how do schemata develop in the
    individual
  • He believed children were active formulators, not
    passive recipients of their experiences.
  • Knowledge structures are formed as wholes that
    cannot be reduced to their elements (like Gestalt
    psychologists)
  • He established a research institute at the
    University of Geneva in the 1950s and remained
    there.
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