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The Curriculum Models and Definitions


The Curriculum Models and Definitions Goal: Explore a variety of program and curriculum definitions as well as ways to plan so you may determine what best fits your ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Curriculum Models and Definitions

The Curriculum Models and Definitions
  • Goal Explore a variety of program and
    curriculum definitions as well as ways to plan so
    you may determine what best fits your style and

  • What is a curriculum? What is a program?
  • A set of materials
  • A sequence of courses/projects
  • A set of performance objectives
  • A course of study
  • That which is taught in school/org
  • Content
  • Everything that goes on within the school/org
    including extra-class activities, guidance, and
    interpersonal relationships
  • Everything that is planned by school/org
  • A series of experiences undergone by learners in
  • That which an individual learner experiences as a
    result of schooling/org participation

How do the two differ? How are they the same?
  • According to define program,
  • Programs are
  • a system of projects or services intended to meet
    a public need "he proposed an elaborate program
    of public works" "working mothers rely on the
    day care program
  • course of study an integrated course of academic
    studies "he was admitted to a new program at the
  • (computer science) a sequence of instructions
    that a computer can interpret and execute "the
    program required several hundred lines of code

More definitions of program.
  • A program or programme (in management) has at
    least two senses 1) A collection of projects
    that are directed toward a common goal, e.g., the
    NASA space program 2) A broad framework of goals
    to be achieved, serving as a basis to define and
    plan specific projects, e.g. the EU's SAPARD
  • Generally defined as an organized set of
    activities directed toward a common purpose or
    goal, undertaken or proposed by an agency in
    order to carry out its responsibilities. In
    practice, however, the term program has many uses
    and is used to describe an agency's mission,
    programs, functions, activities, services,
    projects, and

Curriculum isAlbert OliverCurriculum is an
educational program with four basic elements 1.
The program of studies 2. The program of
experiences 3. The program of services 4. The
hidden curriculumRobert GagneCurriculum
encompasses 1. Subject matter (content) 2.
Statement of ends (end objectives) 3. The
sequencing of content 4. Preassessment of entry
Hass the curriculum is all of the experiences
that individual learners have in a program of
education whose purpose is to achieve broad goals
and related specific objectives, which is planned
in terms of a framework of theory and research or
past and present professional practice.Kerr
All the learning which is planned and guided by
the school, whether it is carried on in groups or
individually, inside or outside the school.
How does curriculum/program apply to
  • The university (athletics, student services,
  • Business/Industry Training
  • Other settings

How do you define curriculum/program in your
preferred setting?
But wait, there are other types of
curriculum.What are they?
Curriculum Definitions
Curriculum Planning VS Planned Curriculum
(whats the difference???)
  • Tested curriculum
  • Experienced curriculum
  • Hidden curriculum
  • Learned curriculum
  • Core curriculum
  • Written curriculum
  • Planned curriculum
  • Taught curriculum
  • Supported curriculum

Glatthorns Four Curriculums
Thought question... What types of curriculum do
you value most? Why? What does your organization
Now for a bit of history vis-à-vis curriculum and
schools .
  • NEA Committee of Ten
  • 1892
  • Purpose of American high schools debated
  • College preparatory OR a peoples school offering
    a range of practical courses?
  • Establishment of a standard curriculum and
    liberalizing the high school by offering
    alternatives to the Latin and Greek classic
  • Goal of high school was to prepare all students
    to do well in life, contributing to their own
    well-being and societys good, and to prepare
    some students for college.

  • John Franklin Bobbitt
  • 1918
  • Curriculum is an arena for social engineering.
  • Assumption Scientific experts are qualified
    and justified in designing curricula based on
    expert knowledge of what qualities are desirable
    in adult members of society and it can be know
    what experiences would produce those qualities.
    Thus, curriculum is defined as the experiences
    that someone ought to have in order to become the
    kind of adult they ought to become. Curriculum is
    an ideal rather than reality of what will
    actually happen.

What leadership style will you use when working
with colleagues on curricular/ program
issues? Max Weber -- Authority types French and
Raven -- Sources of supervisory power (social
Max Webers Authority Types Traditional --
authority base legitimized by tradition, devine
right of kings, etc. Examples patriarchal
businesses, paternalistic schools. Charismatic --
leader is inspired by supernatural
powers Legal-Rational -- authority based on
laws (Plus) Professional -- authority guided by
professional rules, codes of ethics
French Ravens Sources of Supervisory
Power Reward -- power based on ability to reward
(ie. pay increases, favors, better
equipment Coercive -- power based on ability to
punish Expert -- power based on expert abilities
as perceived by others (others respect the
leaders abilities) Referent -- power based on
respect/admiration Legitimate -- power based on
office held
What type of leadership works in your org? What
type will you employ?
Max Webers Authority Types Traditional Charisma
tic Legal-rational Professional
French Ravens Sources of Supervisory
Power Reward Coercive Expert Referent
(respect) Legitimate
Defining curriculum is one thing, Developing
curriculum is another.
Research paradigms, value systems, and beliefs
about the world in general will influence the
model of curriculum planning you advocate.
Which camp do you most readily fall into?
  • Applies scientific methods and principles to the
    task of curriculum development.
  • Assumptions
  • Reality is definable
  • The goals of education are knowable
  • A linear, objective process will yield a useful
    documents and high quality plans
  • ---gt

  • Deductive Process
  • Top down
  • Extensive administrator involvement
  • Starts by examining broader questions/purposes of
    education and societal needs before addressing
    the classroom level
  • Key authors Tyler, Hass, Hunkins, WIDS
  • ---gt

  • Inductive Process
  • Bottom up
  • Curriculum development
  • by classroom teachers
  • Starts by developing individual units which will
    be assembled into a cohesive program
  • Key author Taba

Tyler Model (Ornstein Hunkins, 1993,j p. 267-8
Wiles Bondi, 1989, p. 10) 1. Define purpose of
school Identify instructional objectives 2.
Relate educational experiences to school
purposes 3. Organize educational experiences 4.
Evaluate purposes for program effectiveness.
Hass Parkay Model (Hass Parkay, 1993, p.
294) 1. Identify context (gather data about
intended learners and the human, social, and
environmental variables within which learners
interact) 2. Determine objectives Set goals 3.
Select , Prepare, Implement ----gt Strategies
and Alternatives 4. Evaluate
  • Hunkins Model
  • (Hass Parkay, 1993, p. 329-32 Ornstein
    Hunkins, 1993, p. 207-73)
  • 1. Curr. conceptualization and legitimization
  • built on societys values, beliefs, knowledge
    bases, institutions, and artifacts
  • complete front end analysis
  • ask philosophical questions
  • debate purpose of schooling
  • debate curriculum designs
  • develop master curriculum plan

  • 2. Curriculum diagnosis
  • Identify reasons for human performance
  • Translate needs into causes
  • Generate goals, objectives, expected learner
  • 3. Content selection
  • Identify criteria for content selection
    (ie. economy, significance, validity, interest,
    learnability, feasibility)
  • Sequence content ---gt

  • 4. Experiencs and material selection (by
  • Determine methods, strategies, activities,
    incentives, materials, nature of educational
  • 5. Implementation
  • Pilot curriculum (assess curriculum not students)
  • Modify where necessary
  • Full implementation
  • ---gt

  • 6. Evaluation
  • Determine if curriculum is presented/taught as
    written and recommended (supervision function)
  • Furnish data so decisions can be made to
    continue, modify or discontinue program
  • 7. Maintenance
  • Monitor and maintain
  • curriculum

Taba Course Development Model (Oliva, 1992, p.
160-2) 1. Produce pilot units (see next
slide) 2. Test experimental units 3. Revise and
consolidate units 4. Develop a framework 5.
Install and disseminate new units
Taba Pilot Unit Development Model 1. Diagnose
needs - what are current gaps in student
learning 2. Formulate objectives 3. Select
content 4. Organize content 5. Select learning
experiences 6. Organize learning activites 7.
Determine what to evaluate and ways and means of
evaluation 8. Check for balance and sequence
Wisconsin Instructional Design System
  • Nontechnical-nonrational approach
  • Assumptions
  • Curriculum evolves as learners, teachers, and
    knowledge interact
  • All goals of education cannot be predefined
  • Content can only be tentatively selected
  • Learning will be based on the creation of
    knowledge, especially self-knowledge
  • Curriculum development is highly political
    requiring administrators and teachers to work
  • Key author Glatthorn (naturalistic model)

  • Glatthorn Naturalistic Model
  • (Ornstein Hunkins, 1993, p. 274 Glatthorn,
    1987, p. 89)
  • 1. Assess the alternatives - evaluate current
  • 2. Stake out the territory
  • define course parameters
  • define learning audience
  • define learning activities
  • 3. Develop a constituency
  • ---gt

  • 4. Build the knowledge base
  • identify content
  • gather data on faculty skill and support
  • gather data on student audience
  • 5. Block the unit
  • select unit topics
  • write general objectives
  • 6. Develop unit planning guide
  • ---gt

  • 7. Plan quality learning experiences
  • Select experiences not content to be learned
  • 8. Develop course examination
  • Tell how learning will be documented (not test
  • 9. Develop learning scenarios
  • 10. Package the product

Where are you in terms of curriculum definitions
and models?
Next week How does your organization
develop/revise curriculum/programs, whats the
process, who does what.