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Title: Learning theories, instructional design theories and instructional design models


1
Learning theories, instructional design theories
and instructional design models
  • Kai Pata

2
Role of metaphors in design
  • Characteristic of the development of a new type
    of urban car by Honda were slogans and phrases
    that were a form of explication of the personal
    hunches of various people.
  • If the automobile were an organism, how should it
    evolve ?
  • The phrase described an ideal.
  • As team members argued and discussed what this
    slogan might mean, they came up with an answer in
    the form of yet another slogan man-maximum,
    machine-minimum.
  • This captured the teams belief that theideal
    car should somehow transcend the traditional
    human-machine relationship.

3
Role of metaphors in design
  • From considering how automobiles (taken as living
    beings) would evolve emerged theconcept of Tall
    Boy (a car that growshigher without becoming
    otherwise bigger)that provided a background for
    moderncity cars.

Linguist George Lakoff and philosopher Mark
Johnson Metaphors We Live By The essence of
metaphor is understanding and experiencing one
kind of thing in terms of another.
4
Role of metaphors in design
  • Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) provide examples of
    the importance of externalization of tacit
    knowledge for innovation in Japanese firms.
  • Personal hunches must be convertible to explicit
    knowledge and shared with others to be fruitful.
  • Tacit (or implicit) knowledge mental models,
    experiences, stories, rituals and skills residing
    in the individual and private mind.
  • Explicit knowledge formal models, processes,
    rules and procedures which can be communicated
    externally

Nonaka I. Takeuchi H., The Knowledge-Creating
Company, Oxford University Press, 1995.
5
Role of metaphors in design
6
Role of metaphors in design
Implicit metaphors of learning
Discussions about what learning is
Instructional design theories and models
Learning theories
7
Discussing metaphors and proverbs of learning
  • Learning is..
  • What metaphors have been used for describing
    learning theories?
  • How are learning metaphors related with
    instructional designs?
  • Which learning theories are behind your learning
    metaphors?

8
Some metaphors and proverbs about learning
  • Planting flowers -- A seed is planted in my mind
    which I nurture with water and sun in the faith
    that it will sprout and grow.
  • Being a detective -- It's all about uncovering
    the facts, looking for clues and asking the right
    questions until the whole mystery makes sense.
  • A quest -- I'm searching for that illusive
    something and every step I take brings me closer
    to what I need to know, but I never get there ...
    it's a continuous journey.
  • Estonian proverbs
  • Ela õppimise tarvis ja õpi elamise tarvis.
  • Kes õpib, see ka teab.
  • Töö õpetab tegijat.
  • Töö õpetab iseennast.
  • Harjutus teeb meistriks.
  • Inimene õpib hällist kunni hauani.
  • Tarkust ei saa kulbiga päha tõsta.

9
Learning theories
  • Learning theory is the set of principles about
    learning
  • consisting of the descriptions what initiates
    learning
  • how learning process proceeds,
  • and what is the result of learning (Driscoll,
    1994).
  • Learning theories describe the essence of
    learning and predict the results of learning.
  • But
  • Learning theories are general and give few
    concrete guidelines how to implement these in
    certain situations.

10
Behavioural learning
11
Black box metaphor
Skinner (1950) introduced behavioural learning
theory A science of behavior must eventually
deal with behavior in its relation to certain
manipulable variables.
12
Response strenghteningmetaphor
1900-1950 Learning as response strenghtening
Teacher gives punishment and rewards, student
reacts with teacher defined behaviour
Drill, tutorial, assessment test centered learning
13
Principles of behaviourism
conditioning reflex Pavlov provided the basis
of behaviourism highlighting the importance of
stimulus for learning. Neutral Stimulus (NS) gt
No Response (NR) NS Unconditioned Stimulus
(UCS) gt Unconditioned Response (UCR) Conditioned
Stimulus (CS) gt Conditioned Response (CR)
Pavlov dog
14
Principles of behavioural learning
Skinner, 1950 1. Behaviour that is positively
reinforced will reoccur intermittent
reinforcement is particularly effective 2.
Information should be presented in small amounts
so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping")
3. Reinforcements will generalize across similar
stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing
secondary conditioning
Skinner box
15
General educational implications of behaviorism
Emphasis on behavior students should be active
respondents people are most likely to learn
when they actually have a chance to behave.
Student learning must be evaluated only
measurable behaviour changes can confirm that
learning has taken place.
16
Drill and practice
  • Repetition of stimulus-response habits
    strengthens those habits.
  • Promotes the acquisition of knowledge or skill
    through repetitive practice.
  • Refers to small tasks such as the memorization
    of spelling or vocabulary words, or the
    practicing of arithmetic facts and may also be
    found in more complex learning tasks or physical
    education games and sports.
  • Involves repetition of specific skills.
  • To be meaningful to learners, the skills built
    through drill-and-practice should become the
    building blocks for more meaningful learning.
  • Drills are usually repetitive and are used as a
    reinforcement tool.

17
Advantages of drill programs
  • personalized
  • help learners master materials at their own pace
  • mainly for the beginning learner
  • for students who are experiencing learning
    problems
  • interactive nature
  • DRILL program ABC
  • recognition of the type of skill being developed
  • use of appropriate strategies to develop
    competencies
  • use of games to increase motivation
  • provide feedback to students

18
Drill programs
New task
Show answer!
3 x Show answer gt new problem
Check answer!
Results solved/correct
  • Chemistry equations

19
Drill programs
  • Math 1
  • Math 2

Choose activity and numbers
Interactivity Competition Feedback
Timer
Check answer
correct/wrong answers
20
Drill programs
Check answer
Language learning
Choose topic
Test
Feedback
21
Drill programs
Music
Sounds -feedback from program
22
Drill programs
Find correct!
Feedback
Game elements
Punishing system
Trials and error method
Phases drilling and testing knowledge
Biology
23
Behavioural elements in computer games
  • System of tokens in computergames serves as the
    rewarding element.
  • Rewards and tokens are the source of extrincic
    motivation.
  • When behaviour is conditioned with tokens the
    behaviour itself becomes pleasant and can turn
    into the source of intrincic motivation to play
    the game.

24
Behavioural elements in computer games
Warrock
Gaining experience to proceed in levels Gaining
points to earn money to buy new weapons
25
Behavioural elements in computer games
Decisions give resourse- or environment points
and you can make the environment better. When
your health points decrease you can see that the
environmental conditions get worse.
www.honoloko.com
26
Player types
  • Agressive can do anything to win
  • Ambicious/calculating is always motivated by
    victory
  • Kamikaze does all he can to sabotage the
    winning chances
  • Cautious takes minimum risks
  • Manin et al. 2006
  • What other types could you identify related with
    tokens and rewards in games that are related with
    behavioural learning ideas?

27
Cognitive learning
28
Information processing metaphor
1960-1970 learning as information processing
(Mayer,1996).
Teacher is transmissing knowledge, students are
receivers of knowledge
Textbooks and other content management systems.
29
Knowledge acquisition metaphor
Anna Sfard 1998
  • According to the knowledge-acquisition metaphor
    learning is the construction of well-organised
    knowledge structures that provide students with
    the means of interacting with the important
    aspects of the problem situations.
  • Acquiring scientific knowledge takes place
    through conceptual change where intuitive
    knowledge is replaced/modified with
    scientifically correct knowledge.
  • Knowledge acquisition metaphoris based on the
    idea that our brainis a containerand the
    learning process is fillingthis container
    (Bereiter, 2002).

30
Brain as the computer metaphor
Computer has information inputs and action
outputs similarly as we receive signals from the
environment with our sensory organs and react
with behavours that emerge in response to the
outside signals Information is recorded, decoded
and processed both inside the computer and the
brain, this processing provides the output
behaviours.
information
reaction
31
Model of cognitive architecture
32
Dual-coding theory
  • Paivio (1986) "Human cognition is unique in that
    it has become specialized for dealing
    simultaneously with language and with nonverbal
    objects and events.

A dual coding theory of learning from visual and
verbal materials. (Mayer, 1993)
33
Cognitive load theory
  • Provides guidelines to assist in the presentation
    of information in such a way that helps learners
    to optimize their intellectual performance.
  • Is based on the assumptions of
  • an effectively unlimited longterm memory and
  • a limited working memory(e.g., Baddeley, 1986),
  • Aims at designinginstructions that donot
    overburden thelearners cognitivecapabilities.

34
Applications of information processing metaphor
  • http//mudelid.5dvision.ee/

35
Constructivist learning
36
Knowledge construction metaphor
1980-1990 learning as knowledge construction
(Mayer,1996).
guided inquiry discussions
Student is constructing knowledge on the basis of
earlier knowledge in real situations, teacher is
guiding the learning process
37
Steven Weinberg free-floating metaphor
Constructivism has been illustrated by using the
free floating metaphor that emphasises that the
rules to construct individual knowledge as well
as the paths of learning are unpredictable in
advance. The free-floating ideahas recently
been used in elearningto describe the
knowledge-management this is thebeast that is
combiningthe e-learning practices with the
free-floating knowledge created and shared by
learning organisations during their activities
(Barron, 2000)
38
Discovery metaphor
  • Discovery learningis based on the "Aha!method.
  • Dewey wrote "There is an intimate and necessary
    relation between the processes of actual
    experience and education".
  • Bruner believed that students learn best by
    discovery and that the learner is a problem
    solver who interacts with the environment testing
    hypotheses and developing generalizations.

39
Experiental learning metaphor
  • The foundation of learning is experience.
  • Learning is the transformation of our experiences
    into knowledge, skills, attitudes, values
  • Reflectionhelps to transformthe experiences.
  • (Kolb)

40
Inquiry metaphor
41
Co-lab
42
Anchoring metaphor
  • Anchored instruction is a major paradigm for
    technology-based learning that has been developed
    by the Cognition Technology Group at Vanderbilt
    (CTGV) under the leadership of John Bransford.
  • Learning and teaching activities should be
    designed around an 'anchor' whichshould be some
    sort of case-studyor problem situation.

KNOWLEDGE
Adventures of Jasper Woodbury http//peabody.vande
rbilt.edu/projects/funded/jasper/preview/AdvJW.htm
l
43
Rock Cycle game
Software http//edu.technion.ac.il/Faculty/Faculty
.asp?FMYaelk
44
Inquiry learning applications
http//bio.edu.ee/
BGUILE http//www.letus.org/bguile/
45
Young Scientist
http//bio.edu.ee/noor/
46
Lake Illuka
http//www.emlab.uow.edu.au/
Home water-usage simulaator
47
Nardooriver
Investigating highly polluted river
Algae simulator
PDA for taking water-proofs
http//learningteam.org/htmls/nardoo.html
48
Constructivist learning systems
Joint construction
  • Concept-mapping elements
  • Gliffy http//gliffy.com/
  • Brainstorming tools

Belvedere http//lilt.ics.hawaii.edu/belvedere/
49
Social-constructivist learning
50
Roots for knowledge building metaphor by
Scardamalia and Bereiter (1994)
  • Popper (1972) has emphasized that in addition to
    physical and material reality (World 1) and the
    reality that concerns mental states (World 2),
    there is a third realm (World 3), which includes
    conceptual entities such as theories and ideas.
  • World 3 is especially important for human beings
    because they do not operate only in the physical
    and mental realms, but also understand and
    develop objects belonging to the third realm.
    World 3 is dependent on World 2 and World 1, but
    it is nevertheless rather autonomous.

51
Knowledge building metaphor Scardamalia and
Bereiter (1994)
  • Knowledge building refers to collective work for
    the advancement and elaboration of conceptual
    artifacts (product plans, business strategies,
    marketing plans, theories, ideas, and models)
    (the world of cultural knowledge).
  • An important aspect of Bereiters theory is to
    make a conceptual distinction between learning,
    which operates in the realm of mental states
    (Poppers World 2), and knowledge building, which
    operates in the realm of theories and ideas
    (Poppers World 3).

Knowledge Forum (KF, see www.learn.motion.com)
52
CSILE environment
Environment for knowledge building in communities
53
Negotiations metaphor
Since 1990 The social-constructive learning has
been illustrated with the negotiations metaphor
(Mayer,1996). According to this
metaphorknowledge is always builtin the
dialogue where the actorscreate shared knowledge
of eachothersknowledge, that enablesshared
activity and supportsindividual knowledge
creation.
54
Community role in learning
  • The development of content alone does not lead to
    more effective learning and there is the need to
    structure and foster learning environments to
    enable communities to develop.
  • Learning happens through mediating artefacts
    within a framework of activity within a wider
    socio-cultural context of the rules of the
    community.

55
Participation metaphor
  • Social-constructivist learning has been
    illustrated with the participation metaphor
    (Sfard, 1998) that suggests that all learners are
    part of communities of practice that have certain
    common knowledge and skills (Lave ja Wenger).
  • Learning in the communities of practice is
    directed from the older members of thecommunity
    towards the newmembers who as a result
    oflearning move from theperipherial areas of
    the systemtowards the core of thecommunity and
    become themselvesthe experts who can transfer
    thecommunity practice.

56
Communities of Practice
Raub, S. (2002). Communities of Practice A New
Challenge for Human Resources Management,
Research and Practice in Human Resource
Management, 10(2), 16-35.
57
Knowledge creation in organisations
Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995)
58
Collaborative learning environments
Fle3 DEMO http//fle3.uiah.fi/demo/
demo/demo
Synergy DEMO http//bscl.fit.fraunhofer.de/pub2/bs
cl.cgi/0/4
59
WISE
Collaborative inquiry learning environment
http//wise.berkeley.edu
kai pata2 tihane
60
Knowledge is embedded in practices
  • Engeström, 1999
  • Human beings do not live in a vacuum but are
    embedded in their sociocultural context, and that
    their behavior cannot be understood independently
    of that context.
  • Human activity is mediated through the conceptual
    and material cultural artifacts people use.
  • The participants focus on reconceptualizing their
    own activity system in relation to their shared
    objects of activity, both the objects and the
    existing scripts are reconceptualized the
    activity system is transformed and new motives
    and objects for the activity system are created.
  • Knowledge is always embedded in practices, in
    contrast to the mentalistic tradition of
    knowledge in the head.

61
Processes within an activity
Cole Engeström, 1993
62
Cultural Historical Activity Theory
  • In its ideal form Engeströms model of expansive
    learning in work teams is based on a learning
    cycle with seven stages
  • individual participants question and criticize
    certain existing practices.
  • they analyze the situation that is, they analyze
    the historical causes and empirical inner
    relations of the activity system in question.
  • the participants engage in modeling a new
    solution to the problematic situation.
  • they examine the new model by experimenting to
    determine whether it works and what
    potentialities and limitations it has.
  • they implement the new model to explore practical
    action and applications.
  • they reflect on and evaluate the process.
  • they engage in consolidating the new practice in
    its new form.

63
Rhizomic metaphor
  • Rhizomic metaphor describes the endless
    connections in the structure of knowledge,
    culture, language, and thinking that is common to
    social-constructivist learning.
  • Differently from the roots of thetree that serve
    as the controllingspot for the whole tree,
    therhizome has manyconnection-points, it has
    nostarting- or endingpoint, it is
    anintermediate being, always inbetween two
    spots, describingthe alliance, the connection
    withthe idea ..more..and more..and more

Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari "Rhizome"
(1976), A Thousand Plateaus (1980)
64
Principles of social-constructivist learning
environment
  • Learners build their own mental structures by
    interacting with the real environment.
  • Learners have access to resources and expertise
    and they can sequence the learning activity
    according to their own needs.
  • This enables to develop more engaging and
    student-centered, active and authentic learning
    environments.
  • Toolkits and other support systems guide and
    inform users through a process of activities.
  • (Duffy and Jonassen)

65
Principles of social-constructivist learning
environments
  • Learning takes place in communication acts where
    the information is transmissed, processed,
    recombinated, contrasted in problem-solving
    situations.
  • The cognition is always distributed, this leads
    to the construction of shared knowledge between
    individuals and the surrounded information-rich
    environment of resources and relationships.

66
Ubiquitous learning metaphor
Mobile learning has ubiquitous ("anytime,
anywhere) nature.
Ubiquity is the ability to be present everywhere
or at several places at once. The term is derived
from Latin ubique which means everywhere.
Wikipedia
67
Possibilities for ubiquitous learning
(Patten et al., 2006)
68
Possibilities for ubiquitous learning
(Patten et al., 2006)
69
Possibilities for ubiquitous learning
(Patten et al., 2006)
70
Innovative learning
  • Innovative learning and knowledge advancement are
    characterized as cyclical and iterative
    processes, which have several implications.
  • Knowledge creation often requires sustained
    periods of time and is not correctly described by
    traditional narratives of heroic individuals
    making ingenious discoveries through sudden
    moments of insight.
  • Moreover, knowledge creation is not linear
    (Engeström, 1987) but a process of ambiguity and
    creative chaos (Nonaka Takeuchi, 1995),
    involving the sense of progress.
  • Knowledge creation does not start from scratch
    but is a process of transforming and developing
    sometimes in a radical way existing ideas and
    practices.

Hakkarainen et al., 2004
71
What learning theories are behind your metaphors?
  • Learning is..
  • Rethinking, which learning theories are behind
    your metaphors?

72
Task 1
  • Which metaphors are behind these learning
    environments? Explain and illustrate with
    arguments!
  • FLE3 http//fle3.uiah.fi/demo/
  • Honoloko www.honoloko.com
  • Young Scientist http//bio.edu.ee/noor
  • Miksike LEFO http//lefo.net/
  • Belvedere http//lilt.ics.hawaii.edu/belvedere/
  • Discussion and comparison of arguments.

73
Social-constructivist learning
contextualised
Cases and problems shared knoweledge
construction and expertise inquiry and
decision-making
Complex skills and intergrated knowledge
Complexity of thinking operations
Situativity
Cognitive learning
e-content, drill program or tutorial assesment
test
decontextualised
Basic skills knowledge
Behavioural learning
transmissing
conditioning
constructing
Teaching paradigm
74
Instructional-design theories
  • In his book Instructional-design theories and
    models A new paradigm of Instructional Theory
    (1999), C. Reigeluth conceptualizes the meaning
    of Instructional-Design Theory as the
    design-oriented approach towards teaching, which
    focuses on the means of attaining given goals for
    learning or development by offering explicit
    guidance on how to better help people to learn
    and develop.

75
Instructional-design theories
  • Snelbecker (1999) has assumed that it is
    important, both conceptually and practically,
    that the instructional-design theory was the
    primary interest of the study, rather than
    instructional methods were designed as by-product
    of the theory construction obtained from other
    scientists.
  • This increases the likelihood that the important
    aspects of the instruction have been focused in
    formulating ideas, rather than on trying to force
    instructional processes and outcomes to fit a
    theory from some other area.

76
Instructional-design theories
  • While the definition of Instructional-Design
    Theory by Reigeluth (1999) is decision-oriented
    by nature, the conclusion-oriented aspects of
    the design research have been emphasised by
    several authors (Cobb, 2001 Edelson, 2002
    Sweller, 2004).
  • Cobb (2001) focuses on the role of design as a
    strategy for testing theories in educational
    research.
  • The strength of theories developed through design
    research originates from their explanatory power
    and their grounding in specific experiences
    (Cobb, 2001).
  • Discovering that some instructional designs are
    superior to others can also provide insights into
    human cognitive architecture that may otherwise
    be difficult to achieve (Sweller, 2004).

77
Edelson (2000) design research paradigm
  • The design research paradigm is a strategy for
    developing and refining three types of theories
  • domain theories that characterise the
    challenges and opportunities in specific teaching
    and learning context, describe the models how
    pupils learn in this context and the desired
    outcomes of learning
  • design frameworks that provide knowledge of the
    properties of successful design solution and
  • design methodologies which provide guidelines
    for successful design procedure.

78
Aims of the instructional design research
  • Cronbach and Suppes (1969) distinguish between
    two types of inquiry
  • conclusion-oriented that describes the reality
    and
  • decision-oriented that aims to change the
    reality.
  • First type guides the theorists (e.g.
    researchers) who identify and give meaning to the
    cause-and-effect mechanisms or flows of events in
    the learning domain.
  • The latter type is common to the practitioners
    (e.g. teachers) who need to develop applications
    that consider these theories and principles in
    various teaching situations.

79
Aims of the instructional design research
  • The research related to the decision- and
    conclusion-oriented instructional designs follow
    the opposite sequences

80
Conclusion-oriented instructional design
  • Cobb (2001) has introduced the four-step strategy
    for testing theories that
  • starts from the development of the theory,
  • continues with the derivation of the design
    principles from the theory and
  • translating these into concrete designs and
  • ending with the evaluation of the designs in
    relation to the theory.

81
Decision-oriented instructional design research
  • The process of instructional-design aims to
    develop better practises for increasing certain
    outcomes of learning.
  • By Reigeluth (1999), any instructional-design
    theory identifies methods of instruction up to
    the detailed components, providing educators with
    the means how to effectively support and
    facilitate learning in certain situations.

82
Decision-oriented instructional design research
  • The development of instructional-design framework
    is a continuous process of testing various
    methods, explaining the results of testing in the
    light of theory and, if necessary, complementing
    the methods on the basis of findings and
    theoretical interpretations (Reigeluth, 1999).
  • Following the main ideas brought out by Reigeluth
    (1999), any instructional-design framework has to
    provide guidance on the following points

83
Decision-oriented instructional design research
  • Identifying the circumstances under which
    learning has to take place.
  • Identifying the desired outcomes of learning.
  • Identifying the sound theoretical background for
    instructional-designs under certain
    circumstances.
  • Identifying the best theory driven
    instructional-design methods for scaffolding the
    learning process.
  • Identifying appropriate learning-tools for
    applying certain instructional-design methods and
    scaffolding.
  • Identifying the group of learners to whom the
    instructional design methods are applicable
    effectively.

84
Iterative nature of instructional design research
  • Edelson (2002) has suggested that from the aspect
    of theory construction, the practical process of
    applying a theory to construct a design naturally
    exposes inconsistencies in theory and is more
    effective than analytical research.
  • The important characteristic of design research
    is that it is not sequential but iterative
    movement between the states of problem analysis
    and design solution during which the boundary
    between decision-oriented design and the
    conclusion-oriented research will be eliminated.

85
Instructional design models
  • Instructional design models may be defined as the
    visualized representations of an instructional
    design process, showing the main elements or
    phases, and their relationships.
  • The selection of instructional design model
    depends of the selection of the learning theory
  • Jonassen points out that the difference
  • behavioral or cognitive instructional designs
    have a predetermined outcome and intervene in the
    learning process to map a pre-determined concept
    of reality into the learner's mind
  • constructivist learning outcomes are not always
    predictable, instruction should foster, not
    control, learning

86
Instructional design models
  • Behavioural and linear design models are
  • ADDIE is a general purpose model, most useful for
    creating instructional products, but also
    applicable for program design.
  • Dick Carey model exemplifies the systematic
    approach to curriculum and program design.
  • Kemp's model is most useful for large-scale
    programs involving groups of people and multiple
    resources.
  • Social constructivist design models are spiral
  • R2D2 involves the participants into spiral design

87
Instructional design models
  • Behaviorism and cognitivism both support the
    practice of analyzing a task and breaking it down
    into manageable chunks, establishing objectives,
    and measuring performance based on those
    objectives.
  • Constructivism, on the other hand, promotes a
    more open-ended learning experience where the
    methods and results of learning are not easily
    measured and may not be the same for each
    learner.

88
The systems approach developed out of the 1950s
and 1960s focus on language laboratories,
teaching machines, programmed instruction,
multimedia presentations and the use of the
computer in instruction.
89
ADDIE
The principal example of Instructional Systems
Design is represented by the ADDIE model.
90
Dick and Carey model
  • The Dick and Carey model prescribes a methodology
    for designing instruction by breaking it down
    into smaller components.
  • Instruction is specifically targeted on the
    skills and knowledge to be taught and supplies
    the appropriate conditions for the learning of
    these outcomes.

91
Kemp Instructional Design Plan
92
Kemp Instructional Design Plan
  • The oval shape of the model (as depicted in the
    "original" diagram) gives the designer the sense
    that the design and development process is a
    continuous cycle
  • Identify instructional problems, and specify
    goals for designing an instructional program.
  • Examine learner characteristics that should
    receieve attention during planning.
  • Identify subject content, and analyze task
    components related to stated goals and purposes.
  • State instructional objectives for the learner.
  • Sequence content within each instructional unit
    for logical learning
  • Design instructional strategies so that each
    learner can master the objectives.
  • Plan the instructional message and delivery.
  • Develop evaluation instruments to assess
    objectives.
  • Select resources to support instruction and
    learning activities.

93
Kemp Instructional Design Plan
  • Revision encircles all nine elements of model.
  • The two outer ovals illustrate the feedback
    geature, which allows the designer to make
    changes in the content or treatment of elements
    at any time during the development cycle.
  • The idea is to improve any weak parts of the
    program as they are discovered to better insure
    learners will be able to accomplish the
    instructional objectives at a satisfactory level.

94
The Recursive, Reflective Design and Development
(R2D2) model
  • was introduced in a journal article by Willis in
    1995.
  • R2D2 has four overarching principles (1)
    recursion, (2) reflection, (3) non-linearity, and
    (4) participatory design.
  • makes the design process a spiral
  • emphasizes the need for the designer to
    thoughtfully seek and consider feedback and ideas
    from many sources
  • suggests a set of focal points that need not be
    approached in any particular predetermined order
  • users should be involved extensively in all
    phases of the design and development process

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Objective-Rational Instructional Design (ID)
Model
  • The process is sequential and linear
  • Planning is top down and "systematic"
  • Objectives guide development
  • Experts, who have special knowledge, are
    considered critical and central to ID work
  • Careful sequencing and the teaching of subskills
    are important
  • The goal is delivery of preselected knowledge
  • Summative evaluation is critical
  • Objective data are critical

Willis (1995)
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Implications of constructivism for instructional
design
  • D. Jonassen lists the following implications of
    constructivism for instructional design
  • "...purposeful knowledge construction may be
    facilitated by learning environments which
  • Provide multiple representations of reality -
    avoid oversimplification of instruction by by
    representing the natural complexity of the world
  • Present authentic tasks - contextualize
  • Provide real-world, case-based learning
    environments, rather than pre-determined
    instructional sequences
  • Foster reflective practice
  • Enable context- and content-dependent knowledge
    construction
  • Support collaborative construction of knowledge
    through social negotiation, not competition among
    learners for recognition

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Linking learning theories with instructional
design
  • Olivers framework
  • Individual Where the individual is the focus of
    learning.
  • Social learning is explained through
    interaction with others (such as a tutor or
    fellow students), through discourse and
    collaboration and the wider social context within
    which the learning takes place.
  • Reflection Where conscious reflection on
    experience is the basis by which experience is
    transformed into learning.
  • Non-reflection Where learning is explained with
    reference to processes such as conditioning,
    preconscious learning, skills learning and
    memorisation (Jarvis, Holford, Griffin, 1998).
  • Information Where an external body of
    information such as text, artefacts and bodies of
    knowledge form the basis of experience and the
    raw material for learning.
  • Experience Where learning arises through direct
    experience, activity and practical application.

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Linking learning theories with instructional
design
Olivers framework The representation emphasises
the relationships between the ends of the
spectrum in the form of an octahedron
Individual Social. Reflection
Non-reflection. Information Experience. The
representation is useful in terms of helping to
identify learning pathways
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Learning activities in instructional design
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Task 2
  • Form a list of activities what were present in
    one of your investigated learing system
  • Evaluate activities with the instructional design
    model in the 3 dimensions
  • Individual Social
  • Reflection Non-reflection
  • Information Experience
  • Decide what learning theories might be supported
    by this learning environment
  • Compare the results of your previous arguments
    from Task 1.
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