Life Span Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 144
About This Presentation
Title:

Life Span Development

Description:

Life Span Development Prenatal and Childhood Development The Beginnings of Life: Prenatal Development Prenatal Development Prenatal defined as before birth ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:779
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 145
Provided by: isiteLpsO7
Category:
Tags: development | life | span

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Life Span Development


1
Life Span Development
2
Prenatal and Childhood Development
3
The Beginnings of Life Prenatal Development
4
Prenatal Development
  • Prenatal defined as before birth
  • Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with
    the birth of the child.

5
Zygote
  • A newly fertilized egg
  • The first two weeks are a period of rapid cell
    division.
  • Attaches to the mothers uterine wall
  • At the end of 14 days becomes an embryo

6
Prenatal Development
7
Embryo
  • Developing human from about 14 days until the end
    of the eight week
  • Most of the major organs are formed during this
    time.
  • At the end of the eight week the fetal period
    begins.

8
Fetal Period
  • The period between the beginning of the ninth
    week until birth

9
Placenta
  • A cushion of cells in the mother by which the
    fetus receives oxygen and nutrition
  • Acts as a filter to screen out substances that
    could harm the fetus

10
(No Transcript)
11
Teratogens
  • Substances that pass through the placentas
    screen and prevent the fetus from developing
    normally
  • Includes radiation, toxic chemicals, viruses,
    drugs, alcohol, nicotine, etc.

12
(No Transcript)
13
Smoking and Birth Weight
14
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • A series of physical and cognitive abnormalities
    in children due to their mother drinking large
    amounts of alcohol during pregnancy

15
The Beginnings of Life The Newborn
16
Rooting Reflex
  • Infants tendency, when touched on the cheek, to
    move their face in the direction of the touch and
    open their mouth
  • Is an automatic, unlearned response
  • Child is looking for nourishment.

17
Temperament
  • A persons characteristic emotional reactivity
    and intensity
  • A child might be
  • An easy or difficult baby
  • Temperament shown in infancy appears to carry
    through a persons life.

18
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
19
Infant, Toddler, Child
  • Infant First year
  • Toddler From about 1 year to 3 years of age
  • Child Span between toddler and teen

20
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Developing Brain
21
Neural Development
22
Maturation
  • Biological growth processes that enable orderly
    changes in behavior

23
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
Motor Development
24
Motor Development
  • Includes all physical skills and muscular
    coordination

25
Motor Development
26
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
27
Cognition
  • All the mental activities associated with
    thinking, knowing, and remembering
  • Children think differently than adults do

28
Jean Piaget (pee-ah-ZHAY)
  • Developmental psychologist who introduced a stage
    theory of cognitive development
  • Proposed a theory consisting of four stages of
    cognitive development

29
Schemas
  • Concepts or mental frameworks that people use to
    organize and interpret information
  • Sometimes called schemes
  • A persons picture of the world

30
Assimilation
  • Interpreting a new experience within the context
    of ones existing schemas
  • The new experience is similar to other previous
    experiences

31
Accommodation
  • Interpreting a new experience by adapting or
    changing ones existing schemas
  • The new experience is so novel the persons
    schemata must be changed to accommodate it

32
Assimilation/Accommodation
33
Assimilation/Accommodation
34
Assimilation/Accommodation
35
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
36
Sensorimotor Stage
  • Piagets first stage of cognitive development
  • From birth to about age two
  • Child gathers information about the world through
    senses and motor functions
  • Child learns object permanence

37
Object Permanence
  • The awareness that things continue to exist even
    when they cannot be sensed
  • Out of sight, out of mind

38
Preoperational Stage
  • Piagets second stage of cognitive development
  • From about age 2 to age 6 or 7
  • Children can understand language but not logic

39
Egocentrism
  • The childs inability to take another persons
    point of view
  • Includes a childs inability to understand that
    symbols can represent other objects

40
Concrete Operational Stage
  • Piagets third stage of cognitive development
  • From about age 7 to 11
  • Child learns to think logically and understands
    conservation

41
Conservation
  • An understanding that certain properties remain
    constant despite changes in their form
  • The properties can include mass, volume, and
    numbers.

42
Conservation
43
Conservation
44
Conservation
45
Types of Conservation Tasks
46
Formal Operational Stage
  • Piagets fourth and last stage of cognitive
    development
  • Child can think logically and in the abstract
  • About age 12 on up
  • Can solve hypothetical problems (What if.
    problems)

47
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Assessing Piaget
48
Assessing Piagets Theory
  • Piaget underestimated the childs ability at
    various ages.
  • Piagets theory doesnt take into account culture
    and social differences.

49
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
50
Stranger Anxiety
  • The fear of strangers an infant displays around 8
    months of age

51
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Attachment
52
Attachment
  • An emotional tie with another person resulting in
    seeking closeness
  • Children develop strong attachments to their
    parents and caregivers.
  • Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all
    contribute to attachment.

53
Harry Harlow
  • Did research with infant monkeys on how body
    contact relates to attachment
  • The monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother
    or a wire mother that provided food.

54
Harry Harlow
  • The monkeys spent most of their time by the cloth
    mother.

55
Harry Harlow
56
Harlows Study
57
Familiarity
  • Sense of contentment with that which is already
    known
  • Infants are familiar with their parents and
    caregivers.

58
Imprinting and Critical Period
  • A process by which certain animals, early in
    life, form attachments
  • The imprinted behavior develops within a critical
    period--an optimal period when the organisms
    exposure to certain stimuli produce the imprinted
    behavior.
  • Konrad Lorenz studied imprinting.

59
Konrad Lorenz
  • Studied imprinted behaviors
  • Goslings are imprinted to follow the first large
    moving object they see.

60
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Parenting Patterns
61
Responsiveness
  • Responsive parents are aware of what their
    children are doing.
  • Unresponsive parents ignore their
    children--helping only when they want to.

62
Securely or Insecurely Attached
  • Securely attached children will explore their
    environment when primary caregiver is present
  • Insecurely attached children will appear
    distressed and cry when caregiver leaves. Will
    cling to them when they return

63
Attachment
64
Effects of Attachment
  • Secure attachment predicts social competence.
  • Deprivation of attachment is linked to negative
    outcome.
  • A responsive environment helps most infants
    recover from attachment disruption.

65
Parental Patterns
  • Daumrinds three main parenting styles
  • Authoritarian parenting
  • Permissive parenting
  • Authoritative parenting

66
Authoritarian Parenting
  • Low in warmth
  • Discipline is strict and sometimes physical.
  • Communication high from parent to child and low
    from child to parent
  • Maturity expectations are high.

67
Permissive Parenting
  • High in warmth but rarely discipline
  • Communication is low from parent to child but
    high from child to parent.
  • Expectations of maturity are low.

68
Authoritative Parenting
  • High in warmth with moderate discipline
  • High in communication and negotiating
  • Parents set and explain rules.
  • Maturity expectations are moderate.

69
Parenting Styles
70
Three Key Developmental Issues
71
Continuity and Stages
  • How much of behavior is continuous and how much
    follows a more stage like development?

72
Types of Growth Patterns
73
Stability and Change
  • What developmental traits remain stable over
    time, and which change?

74
Nature and Nurture
  • How much of our behavior is due to nature and how
    much is due to nurture?
  • How do nature and nurture interact in development?

75
Adolescence
76
What is Adolescence?
77
Adolescence
  • The period between childhood and adulthood
  • From puberty (the start of sexual maturation) to
    independence from parents

78
Physical Development in Adolescence
79
Puberty
  • The period of sexual maturation where the person
    becomes capable of reproducing
  • Starts at approximately age 11 in females and age
    13 in males
  • Major growth spurt

80
Physical Development
81
Primary Sex Characteristics
  • The body structures that make sexual reproduction
    possible
  • Ovaries in females
  • Testes in males

82
Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • Nonreproductive sexual characteristics
  • Breasts and hips in females
  • Facial hair and voice changes in males

83
Sexual Characteristics
84
Sexual Orientation
  • Ones attraction toward people of a particular
    gender
  • Usually heterosexual or homosexual small
    minority bisexual

85
Heterosexual
  • A sexual orientation in which a person is
    attracted to members of the opposite sex
  • straight

86
Homosexual
  • A sexual orientation in which a person is
    attracted to members of the same sex
  • Approximately 3-4 of the male population and
    1-2 of the female population

87
Cognitive Development Reasoning
88
Formal Operational Stage
  • Piagets fourth and final stage of cognitive
    development
  • The person can think logically, hypothetically,
    and in the abstract
  • Qualitative change over the thinking of a child

89
Cognitive Development in Adolescence Morality
90
Lawrence Kohlberg
  • Author of a three-stage theory on how moral
    reasoning develops

91
1. Preconventional Moral Reasoning
  • Characterized by the desire to avoid punishment
    or gain reward
  • Typically children under the age of 9

92
2. Conventional Moral Reasoning
  • Primary concern is to fit in and play the role of
    a good citizen
  • People have a strong desire to follow the rules
    and laws.
  • Typical of most adults

93
3. Postconventional Moral Reasoning
  • Characterized by references to universal ethical
    principles that represent the rights or
    obligations of all people
  • Most adults do not reach this level.

94
Kohlbergs Moral Ladder
  • As moral development progresses, the focus of
    concern moves from the self to the wider social
    world.

Morality of abstract principles to
affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical
principles
Postconventional level
Conventional level
Morality of law and social rules to
gain approval or avoid disapproval
Preconventional level
Morality of self-interest to avoid punishment or
gain concrete rewards
95
Social Development in Adolescence
96
Erik Erikson
  • Constructed an 8-stage theory of social
    development
  • Each stage has its own psychosocial,
    developmental task.

97
(No Transcript)
98
(No Transcript)
99
(No Transcript)
100
Social Development in Adolescence Developing
Identity
101
Identity
  • A strong, consistent sense of who and what a
    person is
  • Identity search includes the following
    characteristics
  • Experimentation
  • Rebellion
  • Self-ishness
  • Optimism and energy

102
Social Development in Adolescence Developing
Intimacy
103
Intimacy
  • A close, sharing, emotional, and honest
    relationship with other people
  • To Erikson this is the primary task of early
    adulthood
  • Not necessarily ones spouse or a sexual
    relationship

104
Social Development in Adolescence Independence
from Family
105
Three Key Developmental Issues
106
1. Continuity and Stages
  • How much of behavior is continuous and how much
    follows a more stage like development?

107
Types of Growth Patterns
108
2. Stability and Change
  • Which developmental traits remain stable over
    time, and which change?

109
3. Nature and Nurture
  • How much of our behavior is due to nature and how
    much is due to nurture?
  • How do nature and nurture interact in development?

110
Adulthood and Aging
111
Early Adulthood Transitions and the Social Clock
112
Social Clock
  • The culturally (societys) preferred timing of
    social events such as marriage, parenthood, and
    retirement
  • The best timing for certain life events
  • The timing varies from culture to culture.

113
Emerging Adulthood
  • Developmental period between adolescence and
    adulthood

114
Physical Changes and Transitions Middle
Adulthoods Physical Changes
115
Menopause
  • The time of natural cessation of menstruation
  • Referred to as the biological changes a woman
    experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
  • Usually occurs between age 45 and 55
  • Does not usually lead to depression

116
Physical Changes and Transitions Later
Adulthoods Physical Changes
117
Physical Changes Vision
118
Physical Changes Sense of Smell
119
Physical Changes Hearing
120
Physical Changes Hearing
121
Physical Changes and Transitions Diseases
Related to Aging
122
Alzheimers Disease
  • A progressive and irreversible brain disorder
    characterized by gradual deterioration of memory,
    reasoning, language, and physical functioning

123
Senile Dementia
  • The mental disintegration that accompanies
    alcoholism, tumor, stroke, aging, or Alzheimer's
    disease

124
Senile Dementia
125
Cognitive Changes and Transitions Memory
126
Aging and Memory
127
Cognitive Changes and Transitions Intelligence
128
Fluid Intelligence
  • Ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly
  • Can be used to solve novel logic problems
  • Declines as people get older

129
Crystallized Intelligence
  • Ones accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
  • Tends to increase with age

130
Age and Verbal/Nonverbal Intelligence
131
Social Changes and Transitions Lifes
Commitments
132
Erik Erikson
  • Constructed an 8-stage theory of social
    development
  • Each stage has its own psychosocial developmental
    task.
  • The last 4 stages deal with Adolescence through
    late adulthood.

133
(No Transcript)
134
Generativity
  • Eriksons term for being productive and
    supporting future generations

135
Commitment to Work
  • Most high school/college students arent sure of
    their career goals.
  • Happiness seems to be correlated with work that
    is challenging, provides a sense of
    accomplishment, and is interesting.

136
Commitment to Love
  • An important factor in adult happiness
  • Lasting love includes
  • Intimate self-disclosure
  • Shared emotional and material support
  • Similar interests and values

137
Commitment to Marriage
  • 90 of the population gets married
  • 50 divorce rate
  • 75 of those who have divorced remarry

138
Commitment to Children
  • Children result in a change in the marital
    relationship
  • Potential disagreement on the division of labor
    with children

139
Empty Nest
  • The change married couples go through as a result
    of their children leaving home
  • Not necessarily a negative event for couples

140
A Lifetime of Well-Being
141
Overall Life Satisfaction
  • Most studies show the elderly as happy and
    satisfied with life.
  • People tend to mellow with age.
  • Most regrets focus on what the person didnt do
    rather than mistakes they have made in life.

142
Overall Life Satisfaction
143
Death and Dying
144
Reactions to Death
  • Reactions to death are different from culture to
    culture.
  • Attitudes toward death and dying are changing in
    the United States. --more
    openness
    --facing death with dignity hospice helps
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com