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A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

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A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter Sixteen: Schools, Achievement, and Work John W. Santrock Achievement Ethnicity and culture Families and poverty ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT


1
A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT
Chapter Sixteen Schools, Achievement, and Work
John W. Santrock
2
Schools
  • Constructivist and direct instruction approaches
  • Constructivist approach
  • Emphasizes childs active construction of
    knowledge and understanding reflection and
    critical thinking
  • Teacher provides support for students exploring
  • their world and developing knowledge
  • Today opportunities and collaboration stressed
  • Criticisms not enough discipline, too
    relativistic and vague

3
Schools
  • Constructivist and direct instruction approaches
  • Direct instruction approach
  • Structured, teacher-centered/controlled
  • Criticisms creates passive learners, few
    critical thinking challenges
  • Many recommend effective teachers use direct and
    constructivist instruction together

4
Schools
  • Accountability
  • State-mandated tests have taken on a more
    powerful role No Child Left Behind
  • Critics argue that they lead to
  • Single score being used as sole predictor
  • Teaching to test use of memorization
  • Tests dont measure important skills like
    creativity and social skills

5
Schools
  • Schools and developmental status
  • Early childhood education
  • The norm in many states, private and publicly
    funded
  • Many ways young children are educated
  • The child-centered kindergarten
  • Emphasizes the whole child
  • Physical, cognitive, socioemotional development
  • Needs, interests, and learning style
  • Emphasizes learning process

6
Schools
  • Schools and developmental status
  • Montessori approach
  • Originally developed for MR children, then for
    poor
  • Teacher is facilitator
  • Children encouraged to be early decision makers
  • Fosters independence and cognitive development
    skills
  • De-emphasizes verbal interactions
  • Criticisms vary

7
Schools
  • Developmentally Appropriate and Inappropriate
    Education
  • Developmentally appropriate practice
  • focuses on age/individual (uniqueness)
    appropriateness
  • Recently more focus on sociocultural factors
  • Developmentally inappropriate practice
  • direct instruction, extensive use of
    drill/practice, relies on paper-and-pencil
    activities given to large groups
  • Children show slower development

8
Schools
  • Education for disadvantaged children
  • 1965 Project Head Start
  • U.S. programs vary for low-income children
  • Proven positive and quality experiences
  • Not all U.S. programs created equal in quality
  • Most successful well-designed and
    well-implemented
  • Controversies in early childhood education
  • Include both academic and constructivist
    approaches

9
Schools
  • Elementary education
  • Change from home-child to school-child
  • New roles and obligations
  • Too often, early schooling has more negative
    feedback lowers childs self-esteem
  • Teachers often pressured to cover curriculum
  • Tight scheduling may harm children

10
Schools
  • Educating adolescents
  • Transition to Middle or Junior High School
  • Independent from parent monitoring more choices
  • Physical and bodily image changes, cognitive
    changes
  • Impersonal structure, multiple teachers,
    stressful times
  • Top dog phenomenon
  • Benefits
  • More opportunities, friends, challenges, feel
    grown up
  • More subject choices, intellectual work challenges

11
Schools
  • Effective schools for young adolescents
  • Fears junior highs being watered-down high
    schools, mimicked curriculum, schedules
  • There are biological, psychological differences
  • Carnegie report
  • U.S. middle schools massive, impersonal, and
    lacking
  • Recommended complete overhaul and changes more
    flexible curriculum, more fitness-health programs

12
Schools
  • Effective schools for young adolescents
  • High School
  • Concerns about education and students
  • Needs pathway to student identity achievement
  • Graduate with inadequate skills
  • Enter college needing remediation classes
  • Student drop out rates decreasing today
  • Ethnic and racial differences
  • Gender differences

13
Schools
  • Effective schools for young adolescents
  • Effective programs that discourage high school
    dropping out include
  • Bill and Melinda Gates foundation funding
  • I Have A Dream program
  • Projects adopt entire public grade level or
    cohorts in housing projects gives college
    tuition to high school grads
  • Reading, tutoring, counseling, mentoring programs

14
Schools
  • College and Adult Education
  • Transition to College
  • Replays the top-dog phenomenon
  • Many of same benefits found in high school
  • Movement to a larger, more impersonal school
  • Interact with peers of more diverse backgrounds
  • Increased focus on achievement and assessment
  • More opportunities to explore lifestyles and
    values
  • Many experience more stress and depression

15
Schools
  • College and Adult Education
  • Adult education includes
  • Literacy training, community development
  • University credit programs, on-the-job training
  • Continuing professional education
  • Women the majority of adult learners
  • Occurs in many forms, offered by many sources
  • Individual reasons for attending adult ed/college
    vary

16
Schools
  • Educating children with disabilities
  • Approximately 13.5 (ages 3 to 21) in United
    States receive special education or related
    services
  • Learning disability
  • Difficulty learning/understanding/doing math
  • Gender differences Referral bias?
  • Boys are 3x more diagnosed as girls
  • Diagnosis difficult guidelines vary among states

17
Schools
  • Educating children with disabilities
  • Dyslexia
  • Severe impairment in ability to read and spell
  • Brain scans used difficulty integrating
    information
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity onset in
    childhood
  • Definitive causes unknown in DSM-IV
  • Medication is common treatment other treatments
    vary
  • Stricter behavioral school rules illuminate
    these

18
Schools
  • Educating children with disabilities
  • Autism spectrum disorders
  • Autistic disorder severe onset in first three
    years
  • Asperger syndrome mild impairments
    obsessiveness
  • No proof of being caused by family socialization
  • Affects about 1 million children today

19
Schools
  • Educating children with disabilities
  • Public Law 94-142, Education for All Handicapped
    Children Act renamed as IDEA in 2004
  • Individualized education plan (IEP) written
    program tailored to child with disability
  • Least restrictive environment (LRE) child with
    disability educated in setting similar to where
    other children educated
  • Inclusion educating child with special
    education needs in regular classroom

20
Schools
  • Socioeconomicstatus and ethnicity
  • Low-income, ethnic minority children face more
    difficulties in school
  • Schools in poor areas
  • Underfunded, low test scores and graduation rates
  • Young inexperienced teachers, largely segregated
  • Rote learning promoted
  • More minorities put in remedial/special education
    classes, suspended from school
  • Asians and Whites more likely put in advanced
    classes

21
Schools
  • SES and ethnicity
  • Improving relationships among ethnically diverse
  • Turn class into jigsaw classroom
  • Positive personal contact with diverse other
    students
  • Engage in perspective taking reduce bias
  • View school and community as a team
  • Comprehensive school plan, assessment strategy,
    and staff development plan
  • Mental health/support team
  • Parents program

22
Achievement
  • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
  • Extrinsic
  • Activity is means to an end
  • Often motivated by rewards and punishment
  • Intrinsic
  • Activity is an end in itself
  • Self-determination and personal choices
  • Personal responsibility for behavior encouraged

23
Achievement
  • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
  • Developmental shifts
  • Intrinsic motivation increases with age for most
  • Decreases in early high school
  • Greatest extrinsic increase and intrinsic
    decrease between sixth and seventh grade
  • Blamed on impersonalization experiences,
    increased evaluations (standardized tests) and
    competition

24
Achievement
  • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
  • Conclusions
  • Create stimulating cognitive environments
  • Promote more self-responsibility for student
    learning
  • Some rewards can undermine learning rewards most
    effective with high interest
  • Rewards convey mastery information

25
Achievement
  • Mastery motivation and mindset
  • Mastery Motivation
  • Mastery orientation task-oriented concerned
    with learning strategies
  • Helpless orientation one seems trapped by
    difficulty and attributes ones difficulty to a
    lack of ability
  • Performance orientation achievement outcomes
    winning matters

26
Achievement
  • Mastery motivation and mindset
  • Mindset
  • Cognitive view of oneself
  • Fixed mindset carved in stone
  • Growth mindset belief in change
  • Promotes optimistic or pessimistic outlook
  • Shaping begins due to interactions with others
  • Growth mindset shows higher achievement results
  • Self-Efficacy
  • Belief that one can master a situation/have good
    results

27
Achievement
  • Goal-Setting, planning, and self-monitoring
  • Self-efficacy and achievement improve when
    individuals set goals that are
  • Specific
  • Proximal (short-term)
  • Challenging
  • Can set both long and short-term goals
  • Expectations linked to outcomes/efforts
  • Setting highest standards that can be achieved is
    best

28
Achievement
  • Goal-Setting, planning, and self-monitoring
  • Purpose
  • Accomplish something meaningful to ones self
    contribute something to the world beyond ones
    self
  • Teachers, parents convey importance of goals
    should discuss where goals lead to (long-term
    picture)
  • Negative influences
  • Some TV/media, violent models of aggression/video
    games, unrealistic views of the world, passive
    learning, stereotyping, and other distractions

29
Achievement
  • Goal-Setting, planning, and self-monitoring
  • Purpose
  • Technology concerns for children, emerging adults
  • Computer and Internet
  • Online social environments (MySpace, Facebook)
  • Proper use, restrictions can be beneficial
  • Internet and aging adults
  • Fastest growing population of users
  • Search for information, use for fast communication

30
Achievement
  • Ethnicity and culture
  • Aging and culture
  • Good life based on health, security, kinship
    network
  • Collectivistic cultures (e.g. China, Japan) have
    high respect for older persons than
    individualistic cultures like United States
  • Possess valuable knowledge, control key family
    resources, remain useful, aging role changes
    have greater capacity, integrated extended
    family, role continuity throughout life span

31
Achievement
  • Ethnicity and culture
  • Socioeconomic status (SES)
  • Grouping by occupational, educational, and
    economic similarities
  • SES differences are proxy for material, human,
    and social capital within and beyond the family
  • SES variations in neighborhoods
  • Affect childrens adjustment disadvantages/advant
    ages
  • Crime and isolation linked to low self-esteem,
    distress

32
Achievement
  • Ethnicity and culture
  • SES differences
  • Lower-SES parents
  • More concerns with child conformity to society,
    home of strong parental authority, corporal
    punishment use and more directive than
    interactive communication
  • Higher-SES parents
  • Concerned with delayed gratification, discipline
    rules discussed with children, less physical
    punishment, more interactive conversation

33
Achievement
  • Ethnicity and culture
  • Poverty
  • Challenges of poverty have impact on adult lives
  • 2006 17 of children under age 18 in poverty
  • U.S. poverty level demarcated by family structure
    and ethnic lines minorities overrepresented
  • Psychological impact
  • Powerless, less financial resources, alternatives
    are restricted environmental inequities is
    damaging

34
Achievement
  • Ethnicity and culture
  • Families and poverty
  • Links between economic well-being, parental
    behavior, and social adjustment
  • Feminization of poverty
  • Programs that have made an positive impact
  • Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP)
  • New Hope Program

35
Achievement
  • Ethnicity and culture
  • SES, poverty, and aging
  • Older adults in poverty linked to increased
    physical and mental health problems
  • Poverty among older minorities 2 to 3 times
    higher
  • Retirement forces reduced income and spending
  • Expenses, cost-of-living increases
  • Social security for those over 65 years

36
Achievement
  • Ethnicity
  • United States is more ethnically diverse than
    ever before
  • Immigration
  • High rates impact on ethnic population growth
  • Special stressors for immigrants (language,
    changed SES, support system separation, struggle
    to adapt but preserve ethnic identity)
  • Acculturation parents and children often at
    different stages of the process

37
Achievement
  • Ethnicity and SES
  • Research unclear due to methods used
  • Ethnicity and families
  • Ethnic group variations in size, structure,
    composition, kinship network, levels of education
    and income
  • Highest risks of poverty
  • Single or uneducated parents
  • All parents face childrearing challenges
  • Greatest harm to children

38
Achievement
  • Ethnicity and culture
  • Differences and diversity
  • Historical, economic, and social experiences
    produce differences between minority groups
  • Stereotyping of perceived deficits are harmful
  • Great diversity between groups seen as one
  • Latinos experiences of Cubans and Puerto Ricans
  • Asians Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Thai
  • Ethnicity and aging
  • Face problems of racism, ageism, and sexism for
    women

39
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Career Developmental Changes
  • Young children
  • Idealistic fantasies about what to be when they
    grow up
  • High school
  • Serious career decisions as different options
    explored
  • College
  • Choose major/specialization leading to work in a
    field
  • Early adulthood
  • Start full-time occupation

40
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Career Development
  • Match personality type to career
  • Realistic prefer solitude, being outdoors
  • Investigative interested in ideas,
    intellectualist
  • Artistic creative, innovative ways for
    self-expression
  • Social helping orientation, desire to be with
    people
  • Enterprising dominating, good at persuasion
  • Conventional detail-oriented, prefer highly
    structured situations

41
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Career Development
  • Important aspect of choosing a career match
    career to ones values
  • Monitoring the Occupational Outlook
  • Labor force participation of women increasing
  • Work in Adolescence
  • 90 receive high school diplomas
  • 75 work part-time and attend school

42
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Work in Adolescence
  • U.S. high school students
  • 75 work part-time and attend school
  • Most work 16-20 hours per week
  • Most work in service jobs
  • Work more than in other developed countries less
    than developing countries

43
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Work
  • Emerging adulthood
  • Many variations of work patterns exist in merging
    roles of student and worker
  • Co-op programs, some dropouts, most graduate
  • Transition strongly influenced by level of
    education
  • Special concern many attending community
    colleges but drop out or dont finish

44
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Work
  • Adulthood
  • The work landscape
  • National survey 55 less productive due to
    stress 52 considered or made a career change
    because of stress in the workplace
  • Unemployment
  • Dual-career couples
  • Males assuming more home responsibilities
  • Women assuming more breadwinner roles

45
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Work
  • Middle Adulthood
  • Midlife time of evaluation, assessment, and
    reflection
  • Recognizing limitations in career progress
  • Deciding whether to change jobs or careers
  • Rebalance family and work
  • Planning for retirement

46
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Work
  • Late Adulthood
  • Percentage of older adults who work part-time
    steadily increased since 1960s
  • Good health
  • Strong psychological commitment to work
  • Distaste for retirement
  • Cognitive ability is best predictor
  • Many participate in unpaid work
  • Age affects many aspects of work

47
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Retirement
  • Option to retire late twentieth-century
    phenomenon in United States
  • Todays workers will spend 10 to 15 of their
    lives in retirement
  • Flexibility is key factor in adjustment

48
Careers, Work, and Retirement
  • Retirement
  • Many return to work after retirement about 7
    million in 2006
  • Adjustment to retirement varies according to life
    changes and circumstances
  • Retirement planning includes more than successful
    financial planning

49
The End
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