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The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger

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The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 2 Theories of Development What Theories Do Grand Theories Newer Theories – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger


1
The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by
Kathleen Stassen Berger
  • Chapter 2 Theories of Development
  • What Theories Do
  • Grand Theories
  • Newer Theories

2
Developmental Theory
  • Developmental Theory
  • a group of ideas, assumptions, generalizations
    that interpret and illuminate the thousands of
    observations made about human growth
  • provides a framework for understanding how and
    why people change as they grow older.

3
What Theories Do
  • Theories produce a hypothesis.
  • Theories generate discoveries.
  • Theories offer practical guidance.
  • Theories are NOT facts.

4
Grand Theories
  • Grand Theories of the Early 20th Century
  • Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Behavioral Theory
  • Cognitive Theory
  • Newer Theories
  • Sociocultural Theory
  • Universal Perspective
  • Humanism and Evolutionary Theory

5
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • A theory of human development that holds that
    irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often
    originating in childhood, underlie human
    behavior.
  • Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund
    Freud (1856 1939)

6
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Freuds Psychosexual Stages of Development

App. Age Stage
0-18 months ORAL STAGE lips, tongue, gums are focus of pleasurable sensations
18ms. -3 years ANAL STAGE Anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations, toilet training most important
3-6 years PHALLIC STAGE Phallus (penis) most important. Boys proud/Girls wonder whats wrong
6-11 years LATENCY not really stage. Period during which sexual needs quiet
Adolescence GENITAL STAGE Genitals are the focus, young person seeks sexual satisfaction
Adulthood Genital stage last throughout adulthood
7
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Erik Erikson (19021994)
  • Described eight developmental stages, each
    characterized by a challenging developmental
  • crisis.
  • His first five stages build on Freuds theory
    but he also described three adult stages.

8
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development

App. Age Conflict
Infancy 0-1 year Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
Early Childhood 1-3 years Autonomy vs. Shame
Preschool 3-6 years Initiative vs. Guilt
School Age 6-12 years Industry vs. Inferiority
Adolescence 12-19 years Identity vs. Confusion
Young Adulthood 20-25 years Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Adulthood 26-64 years Generativity vs. Stagnation
Maturity 65-death Integrity vs. Despair
9
Behaviorism
  • A theory of human development that studies
    observable behavior.
  • Also called learning theory as it describes
    the laws and processes by which behavior is
    learned.
  • Conditioning - the processes by which responses
    become linked to particular stimuli and learning
    takes place.
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Social Learning

10
Behaviorism
  • Classical conditioning - Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
  • (also called respondent conditioning), a process
    in which a person or animal learns to associate a
    neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus,
    gradually reacting to the neutral stimulus with
    the same response as to the meaningful one.
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vHZPXVb0W3Hc

11
Behaviorism
  • Operant Conditioning

12
Behaviorism
  • Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner (19041990)
  • (also called instrumental conditioning) a
    learning process in which a particular action is
    followed either by something desired or by
    something unwanted.
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vy-g2OmRXb0g
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vAK32448CgKE

13
Behaviorism
  • Social Learning Theory- Albert Bandura
  • An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the
    influence that other people have over a persons
    behavior.

Modeling- people learn by observing other people
and then copying them. Self-Efficacy- how
effective people think they are when it comes to
changing themselves or altering their social
context. http//www.youtube.com/watch?vYclZBhn40
hU
14
Cognitive Theory
  • Jean Piaget (18961980)
  • Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect
    action.
  • Focuses on changes in how people think over time.
  • Cognitive development occurs over
  • four age-related periods
  • Constructivist Perspective of Learning

15
Cognitive Theory
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vTRF27F2bn-A
16
Cognitive Theory
  • Cognitive Equilibrium
  • A state of mental balance, no confusion
  • Interpret new ideas through past ideas
  • Easy equilibrium not always possible
  • If new experience is not understandable,
  • cognitive disequilibrium can occur
  • Assimilation
  • Accommodation

17
Cognitive Theory
  • Information Processing
  • Not a single theory but a framework
  • Inspired by how a computer works
  • How people think before they respond
  • How attention and thought
  • affects mental function
  • Relationship between one
  • persons thinking and
  • anothers

18
Newer Theories
  • Sociocultural Theory
  • Leo Vygotsky (1896-1934)
  • Development results from a persons interaction
    with their social and cultural surroundings
  • Culture is integral to development
  • Apprenticeship in thinking
  • how cognition is taught by
  • the older and more skilled

19
Sociocultural Theory
  • Zone of proximal development
  • Made up of the skills, knowledge, and concepts
    that the learner is close to acquiring
  • Learner needs help to master
  • Learning must be individualized

20
The Universal Perspective
  • Humanism
  • Abraham Maslow (1908-1970),
  • Hierarchy of Needs
  • Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
  • Stresses the potential of humans for good
  • All people have the same needs
  • Emphasize what people have in common

21
The Universal Perspective
  • Evolutionary Theory
  • Based on Darwins ideas
  • Humans are more alike than different
  • Human development influenced by drives to survive
    and reproduce
  • Selective adaptation process by which people
    adapt to their environment

22
Eclectic Perspective
  • Eclectic perspective
  • The approach taken by
  • most developmentalists
  • Aspects of each of the various theories of
    development are applied
  • rather than adhering
  • exclusively to one
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