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Life-Span Development

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Title: Life-Span Development


1
Life-Span Development
2
Prenatal and Childhood Development
3
The Beginnings of Life Prenatal Development
4
Prenatal Development
  • Prenatal defined as before birth
  • Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with
    the birth of the child.

5
Zygote
  • A fertilized egg
  • The first two weeks are a period of rapid cell
    division.
  • Attaches to the mothers uterine wall
  • At the end of 14 days becomes an embryo

6
Prenatal Development
7
Embryo
  • Developing human organism from about 2 weeks
    after fertilization until the end of the eight
    week
  • Most of the major organs are formed during this
    time.
  • At the end of the eight week the fetal period
    begins.

8
Fetus
  • Developing human organism from nine weeks after
    conception to birth

9
Placenta
  • A cushion of cells in the mother by which the
    fetus receives oxygen and nutrition
  • Acts as a filter to screen out substances that
    could harm the fetus

10
(No Transcript)
11
Prenatal Development
  • Play Teratogens and Their Effects on the
    Developing Brain and Mind (1244) Segment 12
    from The Mind Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd
    edition)

12
Teratogens
  • Substances that cross the placental barrier and
    prevent the fetus from developing normally
  • Includes radiation, toxic chemicals, viruses,
    drugs, alcohol, nicotine, etc.

13
(No Transcript)
14
Prenatal Brain Development
  • Play The Effects of Hormones and the Environment
    on Brain Development (650) Module 2 from The
    Brain Teaching Modules (2nd edition)

15
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • Physical and cognitive abnormalities that appear
    in children whose mothers consumed large amounts
    of alcohol while pregnant

16
Alcohol
  • Play Teratogens and Their Effects on the
    Developing Brain and Mind (1244) Segment 12
    from The Mind Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd
    edition)

17
The Beginnings of Life The Newborn
18
Newborn and the Apgar Readings
  • Insert Testing Competency In a Newborn Video
    13 from Worths Digital Media Archive for
    Psychology
  • Instructions for importing the video file can be
    found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM

19
Rooting Reflex
  • Babys tendency, when touched on the cheek, to
    open the mouth and search for the nipple
  • Is an automatic, unlearned response

20
Reflexes in the Newborn
  • Insert Reflexes in the Newborn Video 14 from
    Worths Digital Media Archive for Psychology
  • Instructions for importing the video file can be
    found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM

21
Newborn Reflexes
  • Play Capabilities of the Newborn (359) Segment
    13 from The Mind Psychology Teaching Modules
    (2nd edition)

22
Temperament
  • Persons characteristic emotional excitability
  • A child might be
  • An easy or difficult baby
  • Temperament shown in infancy appears to carry
    through a persons life.

23
Temperament
  • Play Bringing Up Monkeys (940) Segment 23
    from Scientific American Frontiers Video
    Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd
    edition)

24
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
25
Infant, Toddler, Child
  • Infant First year
  • Toddler From about 1 year to 3 years of age
  • Child Span between toddler and teen

26
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Developing Brain
27
Neural Development
28
Maturation
  • Biological growth processes that enable orderly
    changes in behavior

29
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
Motor Development
30
Motor Development
  • Includes all physical skills and muscular
    coordination

31
Motor Development
32
Motor Development
  • Play Baby Body Sense (1100) Segment 24 from
    Scientific American Frontiers Video Collection
    for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition)

33
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
34
Jean Piaget
  • Pioneer in the study of developmental psychology
    who introduced a stage theory of cognitive
    development that lead to a better understanding
    of childrens thought processes
  • Proposed a theory consisting of four stages of
    cognitive development

35
Cognition
  • All the mental activities associated with
    thinking, knowing, and remembering
  • Children think differently than adults do

36
Childs Thinking
  • Play The Magic Years (1000) Segment 25 from
    Scientific American Frontiers Video Collection
    for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition)

37
Schemas
  • Concepts or mental frameworks that people use to
    organize and interpret information
  • Sometimes called schemes
  • A persons picture of the world

38
Assimilation
  • Interpreting a new experience within the context
    of existing schemas
  • The new experience is similar to other previous
    experiences

39
Accommodation
  • Adapting current schemas to incorporate new
    information
  • The new experience is so novel the persons
    schemata must be changed to accommodate it

40
Assimilation/Accommodation
41
Assimilation/Accommodation
42
Assimilation/Accommodation
43
Sensorimotor Stage
  • Piagets first stage of cognitive development
  • From birth to about age two
  • Child gathers information about the world through
    sensory impressions and motor activities
  • Child learns object permanence

44
Object Permanence
  • Awareness that things continue to exist even when
    you cannot see or hear them
  • Out of sight, out of mind

45
Object Permanence
  • Insert Object Permanence Video 15 from Worths
    Digital Media Archive for Psychology
  • Instructions for importing the video file can be
    found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM

46
Preoperational Stage
  • Piagets second stage of cognitive development
  • From about age 2 to age 6 or 7
  • Children learns to use language but cannot yet
    think logically

47
Egocentrism
  • In Piagets theory, the inability of the
    preoperational child to take another persons
    point of view
  • Includes a childs inability to understand that
    symbols can represent other objects

48
Childhood Thinking
  • Play A Change of Mind (1200) Segment 26 from
    Scientific American Frontiers Video Collection
    for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition)

49
Concrete Operational Stage
  • Piagets third stage of cognitive development
  • From about age 6 to 11
  • Child gain the mental skills that let them think
    logically about concrete events
  • Learn conservation

50
Conservation
  • An understanding that certain properties remain
    constant despite changes in their form
  • The properties can include mass, volume, and
    numbers.

51
Piagets Conservation Task
  • Insert Piagets Conservation Task Video 18
    from Worths Digital Media Archive for Psychology
  • Instructions for importing the video file can be
    found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM

52
Conservation
53
Conservation
54
Conservation
55
Types of Conservation Tasks
56
Formal Operational Stage
  • Piagets fourth and last stage of cognitive
    development
  • About age 12 on up
  • Children begin to think logically about abstract
    concepts and form strategies about things they
    may not have experienced
  • Can solve hypothetical problems (What if.
    problems)

57
Cognitive Development
  • Play Infant Cognitive Development (714)
    Segment 14 from The Mind Psychology Teaching
    Modules (2nd edition)

58
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Assessing Piaget
59
Assessing Piagets Theory
60
Assessing Piagets Theory
  • Piaget underestimated the childs ability at
    various ages.
  • Piagets theory doesnt take into account culture
    and social differences.

61
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
62
Social Development
  • Play Social Development in Infancy (644)
    Segment 15 from The Mind Psychology Teaching
    Modules (2nd edition)

63
Stranger Anxiety
  • The fear of strangers that infants commonly
    display
  • Begins around 8 months of age

64
Stranger Anxiety
  • Insert Stranger Anxiety Video 16 from Worths
    Digital Media Archive for Psychology
  • Instructions for importing the video file can be
    found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM

65
Attachment
  • Emotional tie with another person shown by
    seeking closeness by seeking closeness to the
    caregiver and showing distress on separation
  • Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all
    contribute to attachment.

66
Harry Harlow
  • Did research with infant monkeys on how body
    contact relates to attachment
  • The monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother
    or a wire mother that provided food.

67
Harry Harlow
  • The monkeys spent most of their time by the cloth
    mother.

68
Harry Harlow
69
Harlows Studies
  • Insert Harlows studies on Dependency in
    Monkeys Video 12a from Worths Digital Media
    Archive for Psychology
  • Instructions for importing the video file can be
    found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM

70
Harlows Studies
  • Insert Harlows studies on Dependency in
    Monkeys Video 12b from Worths Digital Media
    Archive for Psychology
  • Instructions for importing the video file can be
    found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM

71
Harlows Studies
  • Insert Harlows studies on Dependency in
    Monkeys Video 12c from Worths Digital Media
    Archive for Psychology.
  • Instructions for importing the video file can be
    found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM.
  • NOTE This video clip could also be used later in
    this module.

72
Harlows Study
73
Familiarity
  • Sense of contentment with that which is already
    known
  • Infants are familiar with their parents and
    caregivers.

74
Imprinting
  • A process by which certain animals form
    attachments during a critical period early in
    life
  • Konrad Lorenz studied imprinting.

75
Konrad Lorenz
  • Studied imprinted behaviors
  • Goslings are imprinted to follow the first large
    moving object they see.

76
Critical Period
  • Optimal shortly after birth when an organisms
    exposure to certain stimuli produces proper
    development

77
Responsiveness
  • Responsive parents are aware of what their
    children are doing.
  • Unresponsive parents ignore their
    children--helping only when they want to.

78
Securely or Insecurely Attached
  • Securely attached children will explore their
    environment when primary caregiver is present
  • Insecurely attached children will appear
    distressed and cry when caregiver leaves. Will
    cling to them when they return

79
Attachment
  • Play Attachment (503) Segment 21 from
    Psychology The Human Experience

80
Harlows Studies
  • Insert Harlows studies on Dependency in
    Monkeys Video 12c from Worths Digital Media
    Archive for Psychology.
  • Instructions for importing the video file can be
    found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM.
  • NOTE This video clip could also be used earlier
    in this module.

81
Strange-Situation Test
  • Insert Morellis Strange-Situation Test Video
    17 from Worths Digital Media Archive for
    Psychology.
  • Instructions for importing the video file can be
    found in the Readme file on the CD-ROM.

82
Effects of Attachment
  • Secure attachment predicts social competence.
  • Deprivation of attachment is linked to negative
    outcome.
  • A responsive environment helps most infants
    recover from attachment disruption.

83
Parental Patterns
  • Daumrinds three main parenting styles
  • Authoritarian parenting
  • Permissive parenting
  • Authoritative parenting

84
Authoritarian Parenting
  • Style of parenting marked by imposing rules and
    expecting obedience
  • Low in warmth
  • Discipline is strict and sometimes physical.
  • Communication high from parent to child and low
    from child to parent
  • Maturity expectations are high.

85
Permissive Parenting
  • Style of parenting marked by submitting to
    childrens desired, making few demands, and using
    little punishment
  • High in warmth but rarely discipline
  • Communication is low from parent to child but
    high from child to parent.
  • Expectations of maturity are low.

86
Authoritative Parenting
  • Style of parenting marked by making demands on
    the child, being responsive, setting and
    enforcing rules, and discussing the reason behind
    the rules
  • High in warmth with moderate discipline
  • High in communication and negotiating
  • Maturity expectations are moderate.

87
Parenting Styles
88
Parental Influences
  • Play Gender Development Social Influences
    (402) Module 3 from The Brain Teaching Modules
    (2nd edition)

89
Three Key Developmental Issues
90
Continuity and Stages
  • How much of behavior is continuous and how much
    follows a more stage like development?

91
Stability and Change
  • What developmental traits remain stable over
    time, and which change?

92
Nature and Nurture
  • How much of our behavior is due to nature and how
    much is due to nurture?
  • How do nature and nurture interact in development?
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