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1.1 The Text of the Old Testament


Codex Sassoon 1053 of the Bible (tenth century) ... Jewish Targumim exist for all the books of the Hebrew Bible except Ezra, Nehemiah and Daniel. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1.1 The Text of the Old Testament

1.1 The Text of the Old Testament
  • 1. Proto-Masoretic Masoretic Texts
  • 2. Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 3. Septuagint
  • 4. Targumim
  • 5. Peshitta
  • 6. Vulgate
  • 1.2 Text Criticism of the Old Testament

  • R. Ishmael "My son, be careful, because your
    work is the work of heaven should you omit
    (even) one letter or add (even) one letter, the
    whole world would be destroyed" b. Sot. 20a

  • There are many witnesses to the Old Testament
    (First Testament). The Hebrew is the easiest to
    deal with, while the translations are dealt with
    in a secondary manner, due to the problem of

  • Until the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls,
    however the earliest Hebrew witness to the
    Scriptures were the Nash Papyri (1st-2nd century

  • Although early Church Fathers were already
    interested in comparing the Hebrew text along
    with different Greek versions, it was Origen, in
    the third century that produced a 6 columned
    Greek Hebrew edition of the Bible called the
  • http//rosetta.reltech.org/Ebind/docs/TC/

  • Although Jerome, ultimately relied on the Greek
    text of the Old Testament, he compared his
    translation and commentaries with Hebrew
    manuscripts of his time, along with the older
    Latin version.

1. Proto-Masoretic Masoretic Texts
  • "The name Masoretic Text refers to a group of
    manuscripts and other sources all of which are
    close to each other. Many of the elements of
    these manuscripts and even their final form were
    determined in the early Middle Ages, but they
    continue a much earlier tradition.
  • Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, 16

1. Proto-Masoretic Masoretic Texts
  • The name Masoretic Text was given to this group
    because of the apparatus of the Masorah attached
    to it. This apparatus, which was added to the
    consonantal base, developed from earlier
    traditions in the seventh to the eleventh
    centuries the main developments occurring in
    the beginning of the tenth century with the
    activity of the Ben Asher family in Tiberias.
  • Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, 16

1. Proto-Masoretic Masoretic Texts
  • The Masoretic Text (MT) Contains
  • The consonantal text found in the proto-Masoretic
    texts of the Second Temple era and the Masorah
    which developed later
  • The vocalization developed by the Masoretes
  • Para-textual elements
  • Accentuation
  • The apparatus of the Masorah

Some Helpful Books
  • Ginsburg, C. D. Introduction to the
    Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible.
    London Trinity Bible Society, 1897.
  • Kelly, Page H., Daniel S. Mynatt and Timothy
    Crawford. The Masorah of the Biblica Hebraica
    Stuttgartensia. Grand Rapids Wm. B. Eerdmans,

Some Helpful Books
  • Tov, Emanuel. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew
    Bible. Minneapolis Fortress Press,
  • Yeivin, Israel. Introduction to the Tiberian
    Masorah. n.l. Scholars Press, 1980.

1.1 The History of the MT
  • The MT probably developed via the Pharisees, with
    possible Temple ties.
  • 1. The period of internal differences in the
    textual transmission.
  • This period comes to an end at the time of
    destruction of the Second Temple.

1.1 The History of the MT
  • The Qumran material contains not only
    proto-Masoretic texts, but also pre-Samaritan,
    Hebrew source for the LXX, Qumran original, and a

1.1 The History of the MT
  • The differences in the proto-Masoretic group and
    the later MT tended to be limited to single words
    and phrases, although this understanding may
  • The Talmudic and later rabbinic literature have
    preserved other early variants. Tov

1.1 The History of the MT
  • 2. The Period of relatively high degree of
    textual consistency.
  • From the destruction of the Second Temple until
    the 8th century CE.
  • Documents from the Judean Desert
    (????????????????? and ????????????? ) written
    before the Bar-Kochba rebellion (132-135 CE)
  • Cairo Genizah material.

1.1 The History of the MT
  • 3. The Period of almost complete textual unity.
  • From the 8th century until the end of the Middle
  • "The earliest dated Masoretic mss proper are from
    the 9th century, and are characterized by the
    introduction of vocalization, cantillation signs,
    and the Masorah. The consonantal texts of the
    individual codices are virtually identical." Tov

1.1 The History of the MT
  • N.B. Moshe Goshen-Gottstein's discussion of the
    Ben Asher witness
  • Second Rabbinic Bible eclectic text (BH1-2)
  • codex Leningrad B 19a (AD 1009) (BH3-BHS)
  • But, the Aleppo Codex is considered the best
    (Hebrew University Library Project)

1.2 Masorah
  • Some Editions of the Masorah
  • C. D. Ginsburg, The Massorah Compiled from
    Manuscripts, Alphabetically and Lexically
    Arranged, vols. I-IV (London/Vienna, 1880-1905
    repr. Jerusalem 1971)
  • G. E. Weil, Massorah Gedolah manuscrit B.19a de
    Leningrad, vol. I (Rome, 1971).
  • D. S. Loewinger, Massorah Magna of the Aleppo
    Codex (Jerusalem, 1977).

1.3 MT Manuscripts
  • Qumran, Murabba'at, Masada
  • Nash Papyrus (Exod 20.2-17, partly Deut 5.6-21)
  • Geniza fragments
  • Ben Asher Manuscripts
  • Codex Cairensis (Former Latter Prophets, 895
  • Aleppo Codex (Shelomo ben Buya'a wrote the
    consonants, while Aaron Ben Asher vocalized and
    accentuated the codex, 925 CE) lost Gen
    1.1-Deut 28.26 SoS 3.12-the end, i.e., Qoheleth,
    Lamentation, Esther, Daniel, and Ezra.

1.3 MT Manuscripts
  • Ben Asher Manuscripts
  • A Tenth-century codex from the Karaite synagogue
    in Cairo containing the Pentateuch.
  • Codex Leningrad B 19A (from 1009)
  • Codex B.M. Or. 4445, indicated as B (significant
    sections of the Torah from the first half of the
    tenth century)
  • Codex Sassoon 507 of the Torah (tenth century)
  • Codex Sassoon 1053 of the Bible (tenth century)

The First Edition of the Psalter, 1477 Bologna,
with David Kimhi
Complutensian Polyglot (1514-17)
Codex Cairensis 827CE, Moshe ben Asher
Aleppo Codex Shelomo ben Buya?a, 930CE
Aleppo Codex Shelomo ben Buya?a, 930CE
Codex 17, Firkowitsch Collection 930CE
Codex Leningrad B19A 1008-9CE
Codex Leningrad B19A 1008-9CE
Benjamin Kennicott Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum
cum variis lectionibus, 2 vol. (Oxford, 1776-1780)
Benjamin Kennicott Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum
cum variis lectionibus, 2 vol. (Oxford, 1776-1780)
Benjamin Kennicott Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum
cum variis lectionibus, 2 vol. (Oxford, 1776-1780)
2. Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • "The Samaritan Pentateuch contains the text of
    the Torah, written in a special version of the
    "early" Hebrew script as preserved for centuries
    by the Samaritan community. Tov

2. Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • This text is permeated with ideological elements
    which, however, form only a thin layer added to
    the text. Scholars are divided in their opinion
    on the date of this version, but it was probably
    based on an early, pre-Samaritan, text, similar
    to those found in Qumran." Tov See Esther
    Hanan Eshel

2. Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 1. Origin Background "The Samaritans
    themselves believe that the origin of their
    community goes back to the time of Eli (11th
    century BC), when the Jews withdrew from
    Shechem to establish a new cult in Shiloh, which
    was later brought to Jerusalem. Tov

2. Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • A different view is reflected in 2 Kgs 1724-34,
    according to which the Samaritans were not
    originally Jews, but pagans brought to Samaria by
    the Assyrians after the fall of Samaria in the
    8th century BC. Tov

2. Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 2. Character of the Samaritan Pentateuch
  • The academic consensus was that the SP differed
    from the MT in 6000 details and of those
    differences the SP agreed with the LXX on 1600
  • Kyung-Rae Kim concludes that the SP and LXX agree
    over against the MT in 964 cases . . . 471 of
    these are insignificant, while among the 493
    remaining, 328 are common harmonizations. Kim,
    Diss, 1994

2. Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 1. Harmonizing Alterations The SP has been
    understood to be a part of a group of
    harmonistic texts, in which passages are added
    from other parts of the Torah in an
    expansionistic fashion. Esther and Hanan Eshel,
    Kim and Tov
  • It is interesting to note that conflicting laws
    have not been harmonized.

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • ". . . in the MT the Fourth Commandment in Exod
    208 begins with ??????? (remember) and in
    Deut 512 with ???????? (observe), but the Sam.
    Pent. reads ???????? in both verses." Tov

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 2. Linguistic Corrections this is found in both
    the Pre-Samaritan and SP in general.
  • 3. Sectarian Changes in the Samaritan Pentateuch
  • The Place of worship Mount Gerizim and not
  • The addition of a commandment to the Decalogue
    after Exod 20.12 Deut 5.18 which makes Mount
    Gerizim the proper place of worship The first
    commandment is added to the introduction.

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 4. Orthography in the SP
  • The use of matres lectionis
  • 5. Modern Editions of the SP
  • A. F. von Gall, Der hebräische Pentateuch der
    Samaritaner, (Giessen, 1914-18 repr. Berlin,
    1966). http//rosetta.reltech.org/Ebind/docs/TC/
  • A R. Sadaqa, Jewish and Samaritan Version of
    the Pentateuch - With Particular Stress on the
    Differences between Both Texts, (Tel Aviv,

Some Helpful Recent Reads
  • Anderson, Robert T. and Terry Giles. The Keepers
    An introduction to the History and Culture of the
    Samaritans. Peabody, MA Henderickson Publishers,
  • Hjelm, Ingrid. Jerusalem's Rise to Sovereignty
    Zion and Gerizim in Competition. London T. T.
    Clark, 2004.
  • Hjelm, Ingrid. The Samaritans and Early Judaism
    A Literary Analysis. Sheffield JSOT Academic
    Press, 2000.
  • Hjelm, Ingrid. What do Samaritans and Jews have
    in Common? Recent Trends in Samaritan Studies.
    Currents in Biblical Research 3, no. 1 (2004)

Samaritan Pentateuch 1215/6 - Num 34.26-35.8
A. F. von Gall, Der hebräische Pentateuch der
Samaritaner, (Giessen, 1914-18 repr. Berlin,
3. Septuagint
  • "LXX is a Jewish translation which was made
    mainly in Alexandria. Its Hebrew source differed
    greatly from the other textual witnesses (MT, T,
    S, V and many of the Qumran texts), and this
    accounts for its great significance in biblical
    studies. Moreover, LXX is important as a source
    for early exegesis, and this translation also
    forms the basis for many elements in the NT."

3. Septuagint
  • Date Utilizing Septuagintal manuscripts and
    citational evidence, Eugene Ulrich has argued
    that the Greek translation of the Torah was made
    by the late third century B.C.E. Nina Collins,
    focusing primarily on text critical and
    comparative analysis of the Letter of Aristeas,
    concludes that it was translated in 281 B.C.E.

3. Septuagint
  • Witnesses
  • 1. Early texts written on papyrus and leather
    including both scrolls and codices.
  • 2nd Century BCE onward, many fragments in
    Palestine Egypt.
  • Chester Beatty / Scheide Collection (Egypt, 1931)
    contained most of the books, even Daniel.
  • Also Qumran 4QLXXLeva

Online Sources on Manuscripts
  • Kaft, Robert A. Some Observations on Early Papyri
    and MSS for LXX/OG Study http//ccat.sas.upenn.ed
  • Kraft, Robert A. The Textual Mechanic' of Early
    Jewish LXX/OG Papyri and Fragments
  • Kraft, Robert A. Treatment of the Greek Variants
  • Muccigrosso, John D. Papyrology Home Page
  • Kalvesmaki, Joel. The Septuagint Online

3. Septuagint
  • 2. Uncial (uncialis) or majuscule (majusculus)
    manuscripts from the fourth century onwards,
    written with "capital" letters.
  • B Vaticanus, dates from the 4th century and is
    considered the best complete manuscript of the
    LXX. Relatively free of corruption and influences
    of the revisions of LXX.

3. Septuagint
  • S or a Sinaiticus, dates from the 4th century
    and usually agrees with B, when the two reflect
    the Old Greek translation, but S is influenced by
    the later revisions of the LXX.
  • See http//rosetta.reltech.org/Ebind/docs/TC/

3. Septuagint
  • Witnesses
  • is influenced by the later revisions of the LXX.
  • A Alexandrinus dates from the 5th century and
    is greatly influenced by the Hexaplaric tradtion
    and in several books represents it faithfully.

Codex Vaticanus LXX, - B Cod. Vat. Gr. 1209
3. Septuagint
  • Witnesses
  • 3. Minuscule (minusculus) or cursive
    manuscripts, written with small letters, from
    medieval times.
  • Many minuscule manuscripts from the ninth to the
    sixteenth centuries are known. N.B. Göttingen and
    Cambridge editions.

3.3 Septuagint
  • Critical Editions
  • 1. A. E. Brooke, N. McLean and H. St. J.
    Thackeray, The Old Testament in Greek according
    to the Text of Codex Vaticannus (Cambridge,
    1906-1940) known as "The Cambridge Septuagint".
  • Gen-Neh, Esther, Judith, Tobit according to B,
    and where that manuscript is lacking, it has been
    supplemented by A or S.
  • http//rosetta.reltech.org/Ebind/docs/TC/

"The Cambridge Septuagint"
3. Septuagint
  • Critical Editions
  • 2. Ziegler, ed., Göttingen Septuaginta, Vetus
    Testamentum Graecum auctoritate Societatis
    Litterarum Göttingensis editum.
  • This is the most precise and thorough critical
    edition of the LXX.

Göttingen Septuaginta
3. Septuagint
  • Importance of LXX for Biblical Studies
  • Gen genealogies, chronological data
  • Exod the second account of the building of the
    Tabernacle in chapters 35-40
  • Num sequence differences, pluses and minuses of

3. Septuagint
  • Josh significant transpositions, pluses, and
  • Sam-Kgs many major and minor differences,
    including pluses, minuses, and transpositions,
    involving different chronological and editorial

3. Septuagint
  • Jer differences in sequence, much shorter text
  • Eze slightly shorter text
  • Pro differences in sequence, different text
  • Dan Est completely different text, including
    the addition of large sections, treated as
  • Chr "synoptic" variants, that is, readings in
    the Greek translation of Chronicles agreeing with
    MT in the parallel texts.

3. Revisions of the Septuagint
  • General
  • LXX and the revisions share a common textual
  • The revision corrects the LXX in a certain

3. Revisions of the Septuagint
  • Kaige-Theodotion
  • The Greek scroll of the Minor Prophets found in
    Nahal Hever was identified as an early kaige
    revision of the LXX by Barthelemy (1952).
  • Also in 6th column of the Hexapla and in the
    Quinta (fifth) column of the Hexapla . . .
  • Supplanted the current Greek version of the Book
    of Daniel . . . ." Jellicoe, The Septuagint and
    Modern Study, 84
  • Corrected the LXX with a Hebrew text.

3.3.1 Revisions of the Septuagint
  • Aquila
  • Aquila prepared his revision in approximately 125
    CE. Some biblical books have two different
  • Student of R. Akiba
  • "Aquila . . . Made an attempt to represent
    accurately every word, particle, and even
    morpheme. For example, he translated the nota
    accusativi ta separately with su,n, "with,"
    apparently on the basis of the other meaning of
    ta, namely "with"." Tov
  • The Aquila Onqelos theory.

3. Revisions of the Septuagint
  • Symmacus
  • 2nd or 3rd century CE either an Samaritan who
    had become a proselyte or and Jewish-Christian
  • "Two diametrically opposed tendencies are visible
    in Symmachus's revision. On the one hand he was
    very precise, while on the other hand, he very
    often translated ad sensum rather representing
    the Hebrew words with stereotyped renderings."

3. Revisions of the Septuagint
  • Hexapla
  • Origen in the mid-3rd century CE.
  • Six columns
  • Obelos (?) elements in Greek, but not in Hebrew
  • Asteriskos (?) extant in Hebrew, but not in
    Greek, which were added in the fifth column from
    one of the other columns.

3. Revisions of the Septuagint
  • Post-Hexaplaric Revisions
  • Lucian (d. 312 CE). (b, o, c2, e2 in the
    Cambridge Septuagint).
  • Known from both Greek and Latin sources, now in
    Hebrew (4QSama).

Helpful Literature
  • Dines, Jennifer M. The Septuagint. London T T
    Clark, 2004.
  • Hengel, Martin. Tthe Septuagint as Christian
    Scripture Its Prehistory and the Problem of Its
    Canon. Grand Rapids Baker Academic, 2004.
  • Jellicoe, Sidney. The Septuagint and Modern
    Study. Winona Lake Eisenbrauns, 1993.

Helpful Literature
  • Marcos, Natalio Fernandez. The Septuagint in
    Context Introduction to the Greek Versions of
    the Bible. Boston/Leiden E. J. Brill, 2001.
  • Jobes, Karen H. and Moises Silva. Invitation to
    the Septuagint. Grand Rapids Backer Academic,
  • Tov, Emanuel. The Text-Critical Use of the
    Septuagint in Biblical Research. 2nd Edition.
    Jerusalem Simor Ltd., 1997.

4. Peshitta
  • Peshitta means "the simple translation or
  • "Peshitta is of Christian or Jewish-Christian

4. Peshitta
  • "The quality of the Peshitta (Syriac translation)
    varies from book to book, ranging from fairly
    accurate to paraphrastic. The Heb Vorlage of the
    Peshitta was more or less identical with MT. The
    Peshitta offers fewer variants than the LXX, but
    more than the Targums and the Vulgate." Tov

4. Peshitta
  • The Hebrew Vorlage for the Peshitta has been seen
    as close to an early MT, most likely after the
    LXX had split off from the development of MT. Yet
    at times the Peshitta's Vorlage stands with the
    LXX trajectory when the MT has a corrupted
    reading. Some scholars argue for an early
    Rabbinic oral vocalization of the text, playing
    into the translation and at times Targum-like

Helpful Sources
  • Dirksen, P. B. The Old Testament Peshitta. In
    Mikra, 255-98.
  • Lamsa, George M. Holy Bible From the Ancient
    Eastern Text. New York HarperSanFrancisco, 1968.
  • Weitzman, M. P. The Syriac Version of the Old
    Testament An Introduction. Cambridge Cambridge
    University Press, 1999.

Helpful Sources
  • Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon http//cal1.cn.huc.
  • Hugoye Journal of Syriac Studies
  • Beth Mardutho The Syriac Institute

5. Targumim
  • Targum means explanation, commentary or
  • Both Jewish and Samaritan Targumim exist. However
    the Jewish Targumim had a higher status within
    their own community.

5. Targumim
  • Jewish Targumim exist for all the books of the
    Hebrew Bible except Ezra, Nehemiah and Daniel.
  • The Targumim reflect a Hebrew text that is very
    close to the MT, except for the Job Targum from

3.5 Targumim
  • Targum Onqelos (Torah)
  • Translated by Onqelos the proselyte, "under the
    guidance of R. Eliezer and R. Joshua"
  • Date first, third or fifth century CE?
  • As a rule Onqelos follows the plain sense of
    Scripture, but in the poetical sections it
    contains many exegetical elements.
  • Sperber argues that there are 650 minor variants
    in the Targum Onqelos.

3.5 Targumim
  • Palestinian Targumim (Torah)
  • Jerusalem Targum I Targum Pseudo-Johnathan.
  • Jerusalem Targum II, III The Fragment(ary)
  • Targumim from the Cairo Genizah
  • Vatican Neophyti 1 discovered in 1956 in a
    manuscript dating 1504 1st/2nd century CE but
    others 4th/5th century CE.

3.5 Targumim
  • Targum to the Prophets
  • Targum Jonathan to the Prophets varies from book
    to book.
  • Targum to the Hagiographa

5. Targumim
  • "The quality of the translation of the Aramaic
    Targums varies from Targum to Targum and from
    book to book. As a rule, the Targums from
    Palestine are more paraphrastic in character than
    the Babylonian ones. The more literal
    translations of 11QtgJob and 4QtgLev, though
    found in Palestine, are an exception to this
    rule." Tov

3.5 Targumim
  • "The Targums usually reflect the MT deviations
    from it are based mainly on exegetical
    traditions, not on deviating texts. An exception
    must be made for 11QtgJob, which contains
    interesting variants and which possibly lacks
    some verses of the MT (4212-17), a fact which
    would be significant for the literary criticism
    of the book. It may perhaps be assumed that
    other Targums in an earlier stage of their
    development also contained more variants than in
    their present form. Targum Onqelos as a rule
    contains more variants than the Palestinian
    Targums." Tov

Suggested Reading
  • Alexander, P. S. Jewish Aramaic Translations of
    Hebrew Scriptures. In Mikra, ed. M. J. Mulder,
    217-54. Minneapolis Fortress Press, 1990.
  • Beattie, D. R. G. M. J. McNamara. The Aramaic
    Bible Targums in their Historical Context.
    Sheffeild Sheffield Academic Press, 1994.
  • Flesher, Paul V. M. ed. Targum Studies Volume 1
    Textual and Contextual Studies in the
    Pentateuchal Targums. Atlanta Scholars Press,
  • Levin, Etan. The Aramaic Version of the Bible.
    Berlin W. de Gruyter, 1988.

Online Sources
  • Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon http//cal1.cn.huc.
  • Newsletter for Tagumic Cognate Studies
  • N.B. the Journal Aramaic Studies can be located
    via APTS's EbcoHost site!

6. Vulgate
  • Old Latin Tradition The lack of a completed
    critical edition of the Old Latin tradition,
    differing translation consistencies from book to
    book and the debate over whether there was a
    single original translation or multiple separate
    translations are just a few of the problems that
    plague the work on this witness.

6. Vulgate
  • The Old Latin holds the potential for uncovering
    an early Greek tradition that attests to a better
    reading than the MT in places, comparative
    material for analyzing the Targumic and Christian
    versus Jewish interpretations in the LXX, and an
    exposition of the beliefs of early Christians
    during the period of its writing and transmission.

6. Vulgate
  • Although Jerome utilized a rabbinic Hebrew Bible
    for his Vulgate translation, he continued to
    rely on different Setuagintal witnesses in both
    his translation and commentaries.

4.1 Text Criticism of the OT
  • "Until recently, OT textual criticism has paid
    much attention to the Versions. This interest
    was justified because the oldest Heb mss were
    dated to the Middle Ages while some of the mss of
    the LXX, Peshitta, and Vulgate date from the 4th
    and 5th centuries AD (some fragmentary papyruses
    of the LXX go back as far as the 2d century BC).
    This situation has now changed because the Hebrew
    scrolls from the Judean desert/Dead Sea are not
    only considerably older than these but often also
    more important. Therefore text-critical interest
    will in the future be focused more on

4.1 Text Criticism of the OT
  • Hebrew sources than on the Versions, even though
    text-critically the LXX will always remain of
    great importance. The importance of the other
    Versions for textual criticism is diminishing,
    although occasionally they contain significant
    readings. At the same time, these Versions
    remain important as witnesses to ancient
    exegesis." Tov

4.1 Text Criticism of the OT
  • 1. Relationship between Textual Witnesses
  • "The most important textual witnesses to the OT
    are MT, with Heb Vorlage of the LXX (here simply
    designated as LXX), independent Qumran texts
    and those written in the Qumran orthography and
    language, the proto-Samaritan sources, and the
    Sam. Pent. All other sources (such as the
    Peshitta, Vulgate, Targums, the Heb texts from
    ?????????????, ?????????????????, Masada, and
    many Qumran texts) are less significant for the
    history of the OT text since they are virtually
    identical with MT." Tov

4.1 Text Criticism of the OT
  • 2. Urtext or Early Divergence
  • de Lagarde vs. Kahle
  • 3. Textual Variations
  • Unintentional Variants
  • Confusion of consonants
  • Dittography errors produced by the repetition
    of letters or words.
  • Haplography errors produced by skipping one or
    more letters or words.
  • Homoeoteleuton errors produced by skipping a
    group of words with the same

4.1 Text Criticism of the OT
  • ending, cause by the eye of the copyist jumping
    down to a similar word.
  • Metathesis transposition of letters.
  • Doublet (conflated readings) the juxtaposition
    of two or more parallel readings, with or without
    grammatical connection, could lead to an error.
  • Different word division.
  • Other Variants
  • Linguistic
  • Theological
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