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Title: 3. God in the Old Testament


1
3. God in the Old Testament
  • BIB566/THE566 Old Testament Theology

2
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • 3.1 Names of God in the O.T.

3
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • 1. The EL Names in the Patriarchal Narratives
  • 1.1 El in names of persons and places
  • We recognize it easily in such names as Beth-El
    (Gen 28.19, Peni-El (32.30), Ishama-El (16.11),
    Isra-El (32.28), and Bethu-El (24.15). We also
    know that this El element is sometimes left out
    of such names (cf. Jephtah-El Josh 19.14, 27
    and Jephtah, Judg 11.1). There are good reasons
    to believe that the patriarchal names Isaac and
    Jacob are abbreviated El names of this sort
    (originally Isaac-El and Jacob-El). One such El
    name, Jaqub-El, is attested in Babylonia about
    one hundred years before the time of Hammurabi,

4
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • whose dates are ca. 1729-1686 BCE. It is, then,
    clear that the divine name El plays an important
    part in the patriarchal narratives." Mettinger,
    Ibid., 66

5
El in Names of Places
Divine Name Place Text
El Elyon El Most High Salem Gen 14.18-22
El Roi El of Seeing Beer-Lahai Roi Gen 16.13
El Olam El the Everlasting Beer-Sheba Gen 21.33
El Elohe Yisrael El the God of Israel Shechem Gen 33.18-20
El Bethel El of Bethel Bethel Gen 31.13 35.7
El Shaddai El of the Mountain   Gen 17.1 28.3 35.11 43.14 48.3 49.25
6
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • 2. El in the Canaanite Texts
  • 2.1 The god called El was a different character
    from Baal. El was old and wise, a mild and
    merciful god. El was call both father of
    humankind and creator of all created beings.
    El is the one who gives a child to the childless
    king Keret. El is sometimes referred to as
    king, but if we wish to describe his
    peculiarities accurately, we can justifiably
    characterize him as the patriarch among the gods
    of Canaan. El emerges from the texts as an aged
    father figure with an air of mild and generous
    wisdom." Mettinger, Ibid., 67

7
Canaanite El
8
Canaanite Baal
9
Canaanite Baal
10
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  •  2.2 Canaanite El as origins for the El names of
    God
  •  2.2.1 Gen 33.20 The altar at Shechem was to be
    called El is the God of Israel )e4l )elo4he
    yisra4)e3l
  •  2.2.2 Gen 46.3 In the nocturnal revelation to
    Jacob in Beer-Sheba we are told, I am El, the
    God of your father. Here the word )e4l bears the
    definite article.
  •  2.2.3 Gen 49.25 In Jacob's blessing to Joseph we
    find the words, by the El of your father.

11
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • 3. El as Semitic marker of deity
  • 3.1 la Gen 33.20 Jacob built an altar to
    El-Elohe-Israel.
  •  3.1.1 These El names were originally
    pre-Israelite in their meaning. With the
    exception of El Shaddai, they generally appear in
    connection with particular Canaanite shrines and
    reflect ancient Semitic religion. When the
    Israelites came into Canaan, they took over these
    shrines, together with the religious traditions
    associated with them to the worship of Yahweh.
    Anderson, "God, Names of," IDB, I, 413a

12
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  •  3.1.2 Admittedly it is true that the word )e4l
    is not only used as )e4l the proper name of a
    deity, that is El with a capital E. The word is
    also the common Semitic word for deity. In the
    biblical tradition the word )e4l in the El names
    has gradually acquired this reduced content to
    Israelites in later times names such as El
    Elyon and El Olam meant God the Most High
    and God the Eternal. Mettinger, Ibid., 67

13
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • 4. El-Elyon (God Most High) Gen 14.22
  • 4.1 "The Hebrew word elyon is an adjective
    meaning "higher, upper," e.g., the "upper" pool
    (Isa. 73), the "upper" gate (II Kings 1535),
    and "highest," e.g., the "highest" of all the
    kings of the earth (Ps. 8928). When used in
    reference to God, the word can rightly be
    translated as "Most High." Since in reference to
    God elyon is never preceded by the article ha-
    ("the"), is must have been regarded as a proper
    noun, a name of God. Thus, it can be used as a
    divine name meaning "the Most High" (e.g., Deut.
    328 Isa. 1414 Ps. 93) or in parallelism with
    YHWH (e.g., Ps. 18 14 218 83 19), El (Num.
    24 16 Ps. 10711), and Shaddai (Ps. 911)."
    Encyclopedia Judaica

14
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • 4.2 "Among the Canaanites, El and Elyon were
    originally distinct deities, the former attested
    by archaeological evidence from Ugarit in Western
    Syria, the latter by evidence from Phoenicia
    further south. Later, both terms were combined to
    designate a single god El Elyon. In the Tell
    el-Amarna Letters of the 15th14th centuries
    B.C.E., the Canaanites called El Elyon "the lord
    of the gods." According to Genesis 14 1820,
    Melchizedek, king of Salem, was "a priest of God
    Most High El Elyon," and he blessed Abraham by
    "God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth."
    Abraham accepted the title "Most High" as merely
    descriptive of his own God he swore by "YHWH,
    God Most High, Creator of

15
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • heaven and earth." The combined form El Elyon
    occurs also in the Aramaic Sefire inscriptions of
    the eighth century B.C.E. (see Pope, El in the
    Ugaritic Texts (1955), 54ff.) and in later Greek
    inscriptions as Zeus Hypsistos. Whereas for the
    pagans the term referred to the god who was
    supreme over the other gods, in Israel it
    referred to the transcendent nature of the one
    true God. Encyclopedia Judaica

16
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • 5. El-)olam (Everlasting God) Gen 21.33
    everlasting time, time whose boundaries are
    hidden from view. Ps 90.1-2 93.2 Isa 26.4
  • 5.1 According to Genesis 2133, "Abraham planted
    a tamarisk at Beer-Sheba, and invoked there the
    name of YHWH, the everlasting God." The Hebrew
    for "the Everlasting God" is el olam, literally,
    "the God of an indefinitely long time." Perhaps
    it was the title of El as worshiped at the local
    shrine of Beer-Sheba (cf. El Bethel, "the El of
    Bethel," in Gen. 357). Then Abraham would have
    accepted this Canaanite term as descriptive of
    his true God. In any case, the epithet is logical

17
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • in the context, which concerns a pact meant for
    all times. The term by which Abraham invoked YHWH
    at Beer-Sheba is apparently echoed in Isaiah
    4028, where YHWH is called "the Everlasting God
    elohei olam, the Creator of the ends of the
    earth" (cf. Jer. 1010, melekh olam, "the
    everlasting King" Isa. 264, zur olamim, "an
    everlasting Rock"). In Deuteronomy 3327, where
    "the ancient God" (elohei qedem) parallels "the
    everlasting arms" (zeroot olam), the text is
    uncertain. Only in the late passage of Daniel
    127 (probably translated from Aramaic) is the
    article used with olam "The man clothed in
    linen... swore by Him that liveth for ever
    (be-hei ha-olam)." Encyclopedia Judaica

18
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • 6. El-Bethel Gen 31.13 35.7
  • 7. El Roi Gen 16.13 God who sees me
  • 7.1 The divine name El Roi occurs in Genesis
    1613. After Hagar was driven away by Sarai
    (Sarah) and fled into the western Negev, at a
    certain spring or well she had a vision of God,
    "and she called YHWH who spoke to her, 'You are
    El Roi.'" The meaning of the word "Roi" in this
    context is obscure. By itself it can be either a
    noun, "appearance" (I Sam. 1612), "spectacle,
    gazingstock" (Nah. 36), or a participle with a
    suffix of the first person singular, "seeing me,"
    i.e., who sees me (Job 78). Therefore, El Roi
    could mean either "the God of Vision" (who showed
    Himself to me) or "the God who sees me." The
    explanation of the divine name that is given in
    the second half of the same verse (Gen. 1613b)
    is equally obscure. As the Hebrew text now
    stands, it is usually rendered as "She meant,
    'Have I

19
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • not gone on seeing after He saw me aharei
    roi?'" (JPS, 1962), or, "She meant, 'Did I not
    go on seeing here halom after He had seen me?'"
    (E.A. Speiser, Genesis (1964),117). In the
    following verse (1614) it is stated "Therefore
    the well was called Beer-Lahai-Roi." This name is
    explained in a footnote as "Apparently, 'The Well
    of the Living One Who sees me.'" (JPS). However,
    on the basis of the name of the well, E.A.
    Speiser (op. cit., p. 119) would emend the
    unvocalized Hebrew text of Genesis 16 13, hgm
    hlm ryty hry ry, to read hgm lhm ryty why,. "Did
    I really see God, yet remain alive?" The name of
    the well he would then take to mean, "Well of
    living sight." Since the well was in the region
    occupied by the Ishmaelites (and Hagar was the
    mother of Ishmael), the divine name, El Roi, may
    have been proper to the Ishmaelites rather than
    to the Israelites. Encyclopedia Judaica

20
3.1.2 The God of the Fathers EL
  • 8. El Berith Judg 9.46 (alternate of
    Baal-berith in Judg 8.33 9.4). Note the
    covenantal idea of Josh 24
  • 8.1 The divine name El Berit ("God of the
    Covenant") occurs only in Judges 946, where
    mention is made of "the house i.e., temple of
    El Berit" at Shechem. This is certainly the same
    sanctuary that is called "the house i.e.,
    temple of Baal Berit" in 94. From the treasury
    of the temple of Baal-Berith the citizens of
    Shechem gave seventy silver shekels to Abimelech,
    the son of Jerubbaal (another name of Gideon) to
    aid him in his fight for the sole kingship of
    Shechem against the other sons of Jerubbaal
    (ibid.). A few years later, the rebellious
    citizens of Shechem were burned to death by
    Abimelech in the temple of El-Berith where they
    had taken refuge (94649)."

21
3.1.3 EL SHADDAI
  • 1. How old is this divine name?
  • 1.1 Of the forty-eight occurrences of the name,
    quite a number appear in late literature, such as
    Ezekiel (twice) and Job (thirty-one times).
    Nevertheless, there is practically no
    contemporary scholar who claims that the name El
    Shaddai was a late invention of the exilic
    period. This is because there is broad agreement
    about the antiquity of some of the other biblical
    passages in which the name occurs for example,
    Jacobs patriarchal blessing (Gen 49.25), the
    Baalam text (Num 24.4, 16), and an ancient list
    of names (Num 1.5-16) in which Shaddai is the
    theophoric element in several

22
3.1.3 EL SHADDAI
  • personal names Shede-ur, Zuri-shaddai, and
    Ammi-shaddai (vv. 5, 6, 12). There is also a
    single extra-biblical attestation. An Egyptian
    figurine bears the legend Shaddai-ammi. Thus it
    contains the same elements as the previously
    mentioned biblical Ammi-shaddai. The figurine
    in question is datable to ca. 1300 BCE.
    Mettinger, In Search of God, 69

23
3.1.3 EL SHADDAI
  • 2. Old Testament References
  • 2.1The divine name (El) Shaddai occurs 48 times
    in the Old Testament
  • The Pentateuch 9 times. Three occurrences are
    in ancient tribal blessings, like the blessing of
    Jacob (Gen 49.25) and Balaams blessing (Numb
    24.4, 16) the other six occurrence are usually
    assigned to the so-called Priestly tradition in
    the Pentateuch Gen 17.1 28.3 35.11 43.14ff.,
    48.3 Exo 6.3.
  • The book of Ruth 2 times (Ruth 1.20-21)
  • The Prophets 4 times (Isa 13.6 Joel 1.15 Ezk
    1.24 10.5)

24
3.1.3 EL SHADDAI
  • The Psalter 2 times (Ps 68.14 15 91.1)
  • Job 31 times
  • 2.2 ". . . In addition to these attestations, the
    name Shaddai is component in the personal names
    Shede-ur, Zuri-shaddai, and Ammi-shaddai (Num
    1.5, 6, 12). This map of the distribution of
    name in the texts raises the question of its
    age. Mettinger, In Search of God, 69-70

25
3.1.3 EL SHADDAI
  • 3. Theories on Derivation and Significance
  • 3.1 A common Greek rendering of El Shaddai is
    pantokrato4r, the ruler of all (16 times in LXX
    Job). It is clear, however, that this does not
    represent an actual attempt to translate the
    divine name. Rather, it is a conventional
    rendering and not an effort at a linguistic
    interpretation of El Shaddai. What we usually
    find in modern biblical translations of the name
    El Shaddai are reflections of this convention.
    As a result, the expression the Almighty in the
    biblical translations provides no key to the
    understanding of El Shaddai. Mettinger, In
    Search of God, 70

26
3.1.3 EL SHADDAI
  • 3.2 Early Judaism understood the contents of the
    name as he who is sufficient (derived from Heb.
    se day). This interpretation underlies the
    translation hikanos (he who is sufficient),
    which we find in certain Greek translations.
    Today, however, this is not held to be a
    convincing alternative. Mettinger, In Search of
    God, 70
  • 3.3 An early interpretation associated El
    Shaddai with a Hebrew root signifying violence
    and destruction - sdd. This view is expressed
    already in the expression as destruction of a
    so4d, violence, destruction, which comes from
    Shaddai (cf. Isa 13.6 Joel 1.15). But this is
    probably a pun, not a linguistic-historical
    derivation. Mettinger, In Search of God, 70

27
3.1.3 EL SHADDAI
  • 3.4 The derivation that has won broadest
    acceptance does not associate the name with any
    Hebrew word, but with an Akkadian one found in
    Babylonian texts - sadu - the usual Akkadian
    word for mountain. On this theory the name El
    Shaddai would then signify something like El,
    the One of the mountain. Mettinger, In Search
    of God, 71
  • 3.5 The Amorites dwelt in northern Mesopotamia,
    at the upper course of the Euphrates they were a
    nomadic people whom scholars have designated
    proto-Arameans, and they have been held to have
    been related to the tribal groups that eventually
    made up the people of Israel. These Amorites
    worshipped a god called Amurru. In some texts,
    it develops that this deity was characterized as
    be4l sade, the lord of the mountain.
    Mettinger, In Search of God, 71

28
3.1.3 EL SHADDAI
  • 4. Possible Associations
  • 4.1 A number of scholars have felt that it was a
    notion of God as protector and refuge. Similar
    thoughts are presumably expressed when the god of
    Israel is characterized as the rock of his
    people (cf., e.g., Deut 32.4, 15, 18, 30, 31 2
    Sam 23.3 Ps 18.46). Another possibility is the
    notion that the name El Shaddai designates God as
    the One of the mount of the divine council (cf.
    Isa 14.13). In this event El Shaddai would be a
    name that characterized the God of the fathers as
    the chief of the heavenly council. The use of the
    name (El) Shaddai in close association with (El)
    Elyon, God the Most High (Num 24.16 and Ps
    91.1), provides a degree of support of this
    conjecture, as does the occurrence of the name in
    the Deir Alla inscriptions. Mettinger, In
    Search of God, 71

29
3.1.3 EL SHADDAI
  • 4.2 . . . El Shaddai frequently appears in
    contexts which deal with a divine blessing one
    has only to think of the blessings of Jacob and
    Baalam (Gen 49.25 Num 24.4, 16 respectively).
    Most occurrences in the patriarchal narratives
    appear in similar contexts. Thus El Shaddai
    reveals himself to Abraham and promises him
    innumerable offspring (Gen 17.1) in the name El
    Shaddai, Isaac blesses Jacob and communicates to
    him the assurance of numerous progeny and the
    blessing of Abraham (Gen 28.3-4). The same motif
    recurs in Gen 35.11 in the words, I am El
    Shaddai. Be fruitful and multiply. Mettinger,
    In Search of God, 72

30
3.1.4 ELOHIM
  • 1. General Usage
  • 1.1 "The word eloha "God" and its plural, elohim,
    is apparently a lengthened form of El (cf.
    Aramaic elah, Arabic ilah). The singular eloha is
    of relatively rare occurrence in the Bible
    outside of Job, where it is found about forty
    times. It is very seldom used in reference to a
    pagan god and then only in a late period (Dan.
    11 37ff. II Chron. 3215). In all other cases
    it refers to the God of Israel (e.g., Deut.
    3215 Ps. 5022 139 19 Prov. 305 Job 34,
    23). The plural form elohim is used not only of
    pagan "gods" (e.g., Ex. 1212 18 11 20 3),
    but also of an individual pagan "god" (Judg.
    1124 II Kings 12ff.) and even of a "goddess"
    (I Kings 115)."

31
3.1.4 ELOHIM
  • 2. When Describing the God of Israel
  • 2.1 "In reference to Israel's "God" it is used
    extremely oftenmore than 2,000 timesand often
    with the article, ha-elohim, "the true God."
    Occasionally, the plural form elohim, even when
    used of the God of Israel, is construed with a
    plural verb or adjective (e.g., Gen. 20 13
    357 Ex. 324, 8 II Sam. 723 Ps. 58 12),
    especially in the expression elohim hayyim, "the
    living God." In the vast majority of cases,
    however, the plural form is treated as if it were
    a noun in the singular. The odd fact that Hebrew
    uses a plural noun to designate the sole God of
    Israel has been explained in various ways. It is
    not to be understood as a remnant of the
    polytheism of Abraham's ancestors, or hardly as a
    "plural of majesty"if there is such a thing in
    Hebrew. Some scholars take it as a plural that
    expresses an abstract idea (e.g., zekunim, "old
    age" neurim, "time of youth"), so that Elohim
    would really mean "the Divinity."

32
3.1.4 ELOHIM
  • 2.2 "More likely, however, it came from Canaanite
    usage the early Israelites would have taken over
    elohim as a singular noun just as they made their
    own the rest of the Canaanite language. In the
    Tell-el-Amarna Letters Pharaoh is often addressed
    as "my gods ilaniya the sun-god." In the
    ancient Near East of the second half of the
    second millennium B.C.E. there was a certain
    trend toward quasi-monotheism, and any god could
    be given the attributes of any other god, so that
    an individual god could be addressed as elohai,
    "my gods" or adonai, "my lords." The early
    Israelites felt no inconsistency in referring to
    their sole God in these terms. The word elohim is
    employed also to describe someone or something as
    godlike, preternatural, or extraordinarily great,
    e.g., the ghost of Samuel (I Sam. 2813 cf. Isa.
    819 "spirits"), the house of David (Zech. 128),
    the mountain of Bashan (Ps. 6816), and Rachel's
    contest with her sister (Gen. 308).
    Encyclopedia Judaica

33
3.1.4 ELOHIM
  • 3. Cassutos Differentiation between Elohim and
    Yahweh
  • 3.1 The designation, yhla was originally a
    common noun, an appellative, that was applied
    both to the One God of Israel and to the heathen
    gods (so, too, was the name la). Cassuto, The
    Documentary Hypothesis, 18
  • 3.2 ...the name hwhy is a proper noun, the
    specific name of Israels God, the God whom the
    Israelites acknowledged as the Sovereign of the
    universe and as the Divinity who chose them as
    His people. Cassuto, The Documentary
    Hypothesis, 18

34
3.1.4 ELOHIM
  • 3.3 "It selected the name YHWH when the text
    reflects the Israelite concept of God, which is
    embodied in the portrayal of YHWH and finds
    expression in the attributes traditionally
    ascribed to Him by Israel, particularly in His
    ethical character it preferred the name Elohim
    when the passage implies the abstract idea of the
    Deity prevalent in the international circles of
    "wise men"- God conceived as the Creator of the
    physical universe, as the Ruler of nature, as the
    Source of life. The Tetragrammaton is used, when
    the expression is given to the direct, intuitive
    notion of God, which characterizes the faith of
    the multitude or the ardor of the prophetic
    spirit the name Elohim, when the concept of
    thinkers who meditate on the lofty problems
    connected with the existence of the world and
    humanity is to be conveyed. The name YHWH occurs
    when the context depicts the Divine attributes in
    relatively lucid and, as it were palpable terms,
    a clear picture being conveyed

35
3.1.4 ELOHIM
  • Elohim, when the portrayal is more general,
    superficial and hazy, leaving an impression of
    obscurity. The Tetragrammaton is found when the
    Torah seeks to arouse in the soul of the reader
    or the listener the feeling of the sublimity of
    the Divine Presence in all its majesty and glory
    the name Elohim, when it wishes to mention God in
    an ordinary manner, or when the expression or
    thought may not, out of reverence, be associated
    directly with the Holiest Name. The YHWH is
    employed when God is presented to us in His
    personal character and in direct relationship to
    people or nature and Elohim, when the Deity is
    alluded to as a Transcendental Being who exists
    completely outside and above the physical
    universe. The Tetragrammaton appears when the
    reference is to the God of Israel

36
3.1.4 ELOHIM
  • relative to His people or to their ancestors
    Elohim, when He is spoken of in relation to one
    who is not a member of the Chosen People. YHWH is
    mentioned when the name concerns Israel's
    tradition and Elohim, when the subject-matter
    appertains to the universal tradition. Cassuto,
    The Documentary Hypothesis, 31-32

37
3.1.4 ELOHIM
  • 4. Problems with the Name of God criterion for
    Source Critical Divisions
  • 4.1 Can not be applied consistently i.e.,
    supposed E text of Gen 22.11 uses YHWH in Gen
    2-4 it is usually YHWH Elohim in J.
  • 4.2 Editorial rationale is weak in spite of the
    Ex 6.2c-3 and 3.13-15.
  • 4.3 Easy solution of name interchange, i.e.,
    "YHWH is the covenant name of God, which
    emphasizes his special relationship to Israel.
    Elohim speaks of God's universality as God of all
    earth. To put it simply, Elohim is what God is
    and YHWH is who he is." Garret, Rethinking
    Genesis, 19

38
3.1.4 ELOHIM
  • 4.4 The idea that J thought the patriarchs knew
    YHWH, while E and P did not is not true. Note
    the problem of Gen 4.26 (J) Ex 3.13-15 (E) Ex
    6.2-8 (P).
  • 4.5 Using the divine name as a source criterion
    is contrary to all ancient Near eastern
    analogies.

39
3.1.5 hwhy YAHWEH
  • 1. General
  • 1.1 "Yahweh. The name of God the OT. When it
    stands alone, and with prefixed prepositions or
    the conjunction wa-, and, the name is always
    written with the four Hebrew letters yod, he,
    waw, he-, and is for that reason called the
    Tetragrammaton. In this form the name appears
    more than 6,000 times in the OT. (Variation in
    the Masoretic mss makes it difficult to establish
    the number of occurrences exactly.) Shorter forms
    of the divine name occur in personal names. At
    the beginning of names the form is ye6ho- or the
    contracted form yo- at the end of names,
    -ya4hu or -ya4h." Thompson, Henry O., Yahweh,
    ABD (6,828X)

40
3.1.5 hwhy YAHWEH
  • 2. Pronunciation
  • 2.1 "The pronunciation of yhwh as Yahweh is a
    scholarly guess. Hebrew biblical mss were
    principally consonantal in spelling until well
    the current era. The pronunciation of words was
    transmitted in a separate oral tradition. The
    Tetragrammaton was not pronounced at all, the
    word )a6dona4y, my Lord, being pronounced in
    its place )elo4hm, God, was substituted in
    cases of combination )a6dona4y yhwh (305 times
    e.g., Gen 15.2). (This sort of reading in MT is
    called a qere perpetuum.) Though the consonants
    remained, the original pronunciation was
    eventually lost. When the Jewish scholars (called
    Masoretes) added vowel signs to biblical mss some
    time before the 10th century AD, the
    Tetragrammaton was punctuated with the vowels of
    the word Adonai or Elohim to indicate that
    that the reader should read Lord or God
    instead of accidentally pronouncing the sacred
    name (TDOT, 5, 501-02)."

41
3.1.5 hwhy YAHWEH
  • 2.2 "The form Jehovah results from reading the
    consonants of the Tetragrammaton with the vowels
    of the surrogate word Adonai. The dissemination
    of this form is usually traced to Petrus
    Galatinus, confessor to Pope Leo X, who in 1518
    AD transliterated the four Hebrew letters with
    the Latin letters jhvh together with the vowels
    of Adonai, producing the artificial form
    Jehovah. (This confused usage may, however,
    have begun as early as 1100 AD note (KB, 369).
    While the hybrid form Jehovah has met much
    resistance, and is universally regarded as an
    ungrammatical aberration, it nonetheless passed
    from Latin into English and other European
    languages and has been the hallowed by usage in
    hymns and the ASV it is used only a few times in
    KJV and not at all in the RSV.

42
3.1.5 hwhy YAHWEH
  • 2.3 "The generally acknowledged vocalization
    Yahweh is a reconstruction that draws on
    several lines of evidence. The longer of the two
    reduced suffixing forms of the divine, ya4h and
    ya4hu, indicates that the name probably had the
    phonetic shape /yahw-/ with a final vowel. The
    vowel is supplied on the basis of the observation
    that the name final vowel /e4/ this inference is
    confirmed by the element yahw4 occurring in the
    names in the Amorite language (see TDOT 5512
    the relevance of the Amorite names is challenged
    by Knauf 1984 467). In the Aramaic letters from
    Elephantine in Egypt (ca. 404 BC ANET, 491-92),
    the divine name occurs in the spelling yhw,
    probably with the vocalization /yahu/ (TDOT
    5505). Instances of the divine name written in
    Greek letters, such as Iao (equivalent to
    Yaho), Iabe (known to the Samaritans, Theodoret
    4th century AD, and Epiphanius), Iaoue, Iaouai
    (Clement of Alexandria 3d century), and Iae
    also favor the form Yahweh (NWDB, 453).

43
3.1.5 hwhy YAHWEH
  • 2.4 Mettinger also notes
  • 2.4.1 ...the name which is above every name.
    (Phil 2.9) which is influenced by Lev 24.10-16
  • 2.4.2 N.B. Pss 42-83 (the Elohist Psalms)
  • 2.4.3 Some of the Dead Sea Scrolls use an archaic
    lettering for the Tetragrammaton

44
3.1.5 hwhy YAHWEH
  • 3. Meaning
  • 3.1 "The meaning of the name is unknown.
    Arguments favoring particular meaning have been
    for the most part grammatical. The name has long
    been thought to be a form of the verb ha4wa4y, an
    older form of the Hebrew verb -ha4ya4h, to be.
    The reconstructed from yahwe4h is parsed as
    either a third-person Qal imperfect of this verb
    or as the corresponding form of the causative
    stem. This analysis is encouraged by theological
    notions of God as one who is, or who exists, or
    who causes existence. Thus the explanation of
    Yahweh in Exod 3.14, I am who I am, is a folk
    etymology based on the verb (ROTT, 181-182). the
    analysis of the name as a causative falters on
    the grammatical point observed by Barr that the
    causative of this verb does not occur in Hebrew
    elsewhere (HDB, 335). However, the name could be
    a unique or singular use of the causative stem."

45
3.1.5 hwhy YAHWEH
  • 3.2 Possible Meanings According to Mettinger
  • 3.2.1 As a "vocative" ya and huwa (He) "He!"
    (Isa 43.10, 13 Deut 32.39)
  • 3.2.2 Arabic hwy meaning "to fall" or "scatter"
    therefore the meaning "the one who sows seeds"

46
3.1.5 hwhy YAHWEH
  • 4. Theological Significance
  • 4.1 Exodus 6.2-3
  • The Context of 6.2-9
  • Functions as the greatest guarantee of the
    promise.
  • 4.2 Exodus 3.13-15
  • The Context of a "call narrative"
  • Functions as an proof of the "call" and
    "commission"
  • 4.3 Other Texts of Interest Deut 33.2-3 Judg
    5.4-5 (Ps 68.7-8, 17-18) Hab 3.3ff.

47
3.1.5 hwhy YAHWEH
  • 4.4 Egyptian Sources (Amenophis III 1400BCE
    Ramses II 1250BCE)
  • Shasu bedouins
  • Yhw in the land of the Shasu bedouins
  • Seir in the land of the Shasu bedouins
  • 4.5 Relations to the verb "to be" in Exodus
    3.13-14.
  • 4.6 N.B. Hos 1.9
  • 4.7 G-Stem (Qal) - He is! I am
  • 4.8 H-Stem (Hiphil) "Creator"
  • 4.9 He is here and now helping God's active
    presence to help.

48
3.2 Metaphors about God in the Old Testament
49
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 A Root Metaphor "The LORD as King is a "root
    metaphor." It generates such metaphors as the
    notion of the temple as God's royal dwelling -
    God's palace the concept that God is an
    enthroned ruler of the Universe and presides over
    a heavenly court of divine armies the there will
    be a great battle, the "Day of LORD."
  • 2. Statistics
  • 2.1 "The OT speaks of the Lord as King a total of
    85 times (ignoring personal names in which this
    concept is also expressed). These are contexts in
    which such words as king,' throne,' reign,'
    and the like are used of God." Mettinger, In
    Search of God, 116

50
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 2.2 Tabulations
  • "King" l,m, used of God 43 times.
  • Pent 2X Num 23.21 Deut 33.5
  • Sam 1X 1 Sam 12.12
  • Prophets 18X Isa 6.5 33.17, 22 41.21 43.15
    44.6 Jer 8.19 10.7, 10 6.18 48.15 51.57
    Micah 2.13 Zeph 3.15 Zech 14.9, 16, 17 Mal
    1.14
  • Psalter 21X 5.23 10.16 24.7, 8, 9, 10
    29.10 44.45 47.2, 6, 73, 7, 8 48.23
    68.2425 74.12 84.34 89.1819 95.3 98.6
    99.4 145.1 149.2.
  • Daniel 1X Dan 4.37Aram v34

51
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "to be king" lm' is used 13 times of God.
  • Pent 1X Exod 15.18
  • Sam 1X 1 Sam 8.7
  • Prophets 6X Isa 24.23 52.7 Eze 20.33 Micah
    4.7
  • Psalter 6X 47.89 93.1 96.10 97.1 99.1
    146.10
  • Chronicles 1X 1 Chr 16.31 (Ps 96.10)

52
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • Terms signifying "kingdom" occur 10 times in
    connection with God.
  • tWkl.m Ps 103.19 145.11, 12, 13(X2) Dan 4.3
    Aram 3.33 4.34Aram 4.31
  • hk'Wlm. Obad 21 Ps 22.2829
  • 1 Chr 29.11
  • The Lord's sitting on his throne is mentioned 11
    times. not including the expression "he who
    thrones upon the cherubim," 1 Kgs 22.19 Isa
    6.1 66.1 Jer 3.17 17.12 Eze 1.26 Pss 9.4,
    75, 8 47.89 89.1415 93.2 103.19.

53
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "to rule, govern" lvm' 8X Judg 8.23 Isa
    63.19 Pss 22.2829 59.1314 66.7 89.910
    1 Chr 29.12 2 Chr 20.6.
  • 2.3 "The root metaphor of the Lord as King
    utilizes two divine designation "the King," and
    "YHWH Sabaoth." The first gives us a glimpse of
    YHWH as the warring deity and the second of YHWH
    as the enthroned reigning deity." N.B. Isaiah
    6.1-5

54
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3. The LORD as KING The Victorious Warrior
  • 3.1 YHWH is King not Baal!
  • Problem of identifying YHWH with Baal
  • Hos 2.16 2.18 On that day, says the LORD, you
    will call me, My husband, and no longer will
    you call me, My Baal.
  • The large stone jar with "I bless you by Yahweh
    our guardian Yahweh of Samaria and by his
    Asherah." From Kuntillet Ajrud. Dever, Recent
    Archaeological Discoveries and Biblical Research,
    140-149 N.B. ABD Picture!

55
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.1.1 Elimination of Baal in worship
    "...characterized by Israel's reaction to the
    sexual athleticism and the dying and rising
    features of the Canaanite deities." Mettinger,
    In Search of God, 94
  • 3.1.2 Integration
  • 3.1.3 The Battle
  • Ps 74.12-14 Yet God my King from of old,
    working salvation in the midst of the earth. You
    divided the sea y" by your might You broke
    the heads of the dragons on the waters. You
    crushed the heads of Leviathan.

56
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • Isa 27.1 In that day the LORD with his hard and
    great and strong sword will punish Leviathan the
    fleeing serpent, Leviathan the twisting serpent,
    and he will slay the dragon that is in the sea.
  • 3.2 The LORD as King The Creation Battle
  • Ps 74.15-17 You cut openings for springs and
    torrents and you dried up ever-flowing streams.
    Yours is the day, yours also the night you
    establish the luminaries and the sun. You have
    fixed all the bounds of the earth you made
    summer and winter. Note the connection of the
    chaos battle and the description of creation.

57
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • Ps 89.9-12 v5-18 God as King gt v1819 should be
    rendered "The Holy One of Israel, he is our
    king" You rule the raging of the sea when its
    waves rise, you still them. You crushed Rahab
    like a carcass you scattered your enemies with
    your mighty arm. The heavens are yours, the earth
    also is yours the world and all that is in it -
    you have founded them. The north and the south -
    you created them Tabor and Hermon joyously
    praise you name.
  • Rebuke gt rg"
  • Ps 104.7 "At your rebuke they fled at the sound
    of your thunder they took to flight." Isa 17.3

58
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "The concept of the Lord as King is associated
    with the idea of the chaos battle. We have just
    seen how the chaos battle also serves as a motif
    of creation. In this context, the creation bears
    witness of God's victory over chaos. This
    establishes a connection between the Lord as King
    and his creation of the world, and this
    connection is attested in other biblical texts
    (e.g., Jer 10.7, 12-16) and in other Jewish
    literature." Mettinger, In Search of God, 100

59
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.3 The LORD as King The Temple and the Zion
    Battle
  • 3.3.1 Ps 24 How the King of Glory enters his
    Temple
  • 24.7-10 God's royal progression to his temple.
  • 24.1-2 A glimpse of the Creator's battle with
    the powers of chaos
  • 3.3.2 1 Kgs 8.13 The temple as God's royal
    palace "I have built a royal house for you, an
    established place for your throne forever."
  • The temple in Jerusalem often called lk'yhe Ps
    27.4 Isa 6.1.

60
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.3.3 Note the Zion Theology in Ps 46 48 76
  • The Lord is the great King (Ps 48.2)
  • God has chosen Jerusalem (Pss 78.68-69) 132.13)
    the temple on Zion is his royal palace, and God
    is always present in it.
  • The royal presence of the god on Zion has a
    series of consequences
  • God's blessing emanates from Zion (Pss 128.5
    134.3) the temple river is a manifestation of
    this (Ps 46.4 Eze 47.1-12).
  • In a virtual repetition of the chaos battle, the
    Lord intervenes against the enemies who are
    threatening Zion. God's presence makes Zion
    inviolable God is the guarantor of Zion's
    security (Ps 46.5).

61
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • God's presence entails special demands on the
    inhabitants of Zion, as sinners cannot endure the
    presence of God (Pss 15 24.3-6 Isa 33.13-16).
  • 3.3.4 Three Key texts
  • Isa 17.12-14 gt The chaos battle here is
    transformed into God's battle with the enemy who
    attack Zion.
  • Ps 46 gt God brings peace by being the battling
    king and intervening against every new
    manifestation of the forces of chaos.
  • Ps 76

62
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.3.5 "So far we have witnessed the importance of
    the temple to the metaphor of the Lord as King.
    Its architecture and cult symbols (esp. the
    cherubim throne) imply that the structure in
    question is the palace of he great King. In the
    biblical ideological complex in which the Lord as
    King is the very center, there are three
    components chaos battle, kingship, and temple.
    It is logical to assume that this root metaphor
    was especially cultivated in the milieu of the
    temple, which would help to explain its
    occurrence in the Psalter and related
    literature." Mettinger, In Search of God, 104

63
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.4 The LORD as King The Exodus Battle
  • 3.4.1 Passages describing the miracle of the
    exodus as a re-enactment of God's battle with the
    power of chaos
  • Ps 114.1-5
  • Ps 77.13-10
  • Exod 15.1-18
  • Isa 51.9-10
  • 3.4.2 "We have now seen how the motif of the
    chaos battle is used in the OT in a variety of
    ways to show how God created this world in an
    act of royal sovereignty and how God acts in new
    ways on the historical plane. In this connection
    we find the historicization' of the motif in
    order to describe God's saving action in the
    exodus. Here, too, we find God's defense of Zion
    against the attacking enemy peoples. The original
    mythological motif was historicized' in Israel.

64
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.5 The LORD as King The Battle on the Day of
    the LORD
  • 3.5.1 The Day of Yahweh in General
  • 3.5.1.1 "'The Day of the Lord' (the Day of
    Yahweh') is a central feature of the prophets'
    message to their contemporaries. This phrase and
    such closely related expressions as the day of
    the anger of Yahweh,' or Yahweh has a day,'
    occur over two dozen times in the prophetic books
    (most frequently in Isaiah, Joel, and Zephaniah),
    and once in Lamentations (2.22). Similar terms,
    particularly that day,' the day of,' and the
    day when,' appear nearly 200 times in the
    prophets, occasionally in Lamentations, and twice
    in Psalms (Pss 110.5 137.7). The terms often are
    used interchangeably with the fuller expressions
    or in contexts that refer

65
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • specifically to one or the other of them, e.g.,
    Isa 2.12-22 (see vv 12, 17, 20) Jer 46.10 Ezk
    7.5-27 (see vv 7, 10, 12, 19) and Ezk 30.2-3."
    Heirs, "Day of the Lord," ABD
  • 3.5.1.2 hwhy Ay "An expression found in the
    following OT passages Isa 13.6, 9 Ezk 13.5
    Joel 1.15 2.1, 11 3.4 4.14 Amos 5.18-20 (3x)
    Obad 15 Zeph 1.7, 14 Mal 3.23. There occur also
    the related expressions hwhyl wy a day of
    Yahweh' (Isa 2.12 Ezk 30.3 Zech 14.1) hmqn wy
    a day of retribution' (Jer 46.10) hwhyl qn wy
    Yahweh's day of retribution' (Isa 34.8) hwhy
    trb wy the day of Yahweh's wrath' (Ezk 7.19
    Zeph 1.18) hwhy _at_a wy the day of Yahweh's
    anger' (Zeph 2.3 cf. Lam 2.22) and hwhy xbz wy
    the day of Yahweh's feast' (Zeph 1.8). There is
    also the phrase, My Lord Yahweh of hosts has a
    day of tumult and din and confusion' (Isa 22.5)."
    Cathcart, "Day of Yahweh," ABD

66
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.5.1.3 Mettinger's "More Important OT Day of
    the LORD' Texts
  • "In the NT, the expression the Day of the Lord'
    refers to the day Jesus arose from the dead -
    Sunday. Alternatively, it sometimes refers to the
    day of the return of Christ. In the OT, the
    phrase often has eschatological connotations.
    There it has to do with the day of God's final
    intervention in world history, the day when he
    will judge the peoples. The day of the Lord' and
    related expressions occur virtually only in the
    prophetic literature." Mettinger, In Search of
    God, 117
  • "...the more important of the Day of the Lord'
    texts include Isa 2.6-22 13.1-22 22.1-14
    34.1-8 Jer 46.1-12 Ezk 7.1-27 Joel 1.1-20
    2.1-17 2.28-32 3.1-4 3.1-21 4.1-21 Amos
    5.18-20 obad 15-21 Zeph 1.2-18 3.9-20 Zech
    14.1-21. In addition to these texts, the

67
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • following should be considered. They do not
    contain the technical terms of the Day of the
    Lord' texts, but are nevertheless related Isa
    24-27 Jer 4.23-31 50-51 Ezk 38-39."
    Mettinger, In Search of God, 117
  • 3.5.1.4 Hoffmann's Two Principles Hoffmann,
    "The Day of the Lord as a Concept and a Term in
    the Prophetic Literature," ZAW 93, pp. 37-50
  • The investigation should start with Amos 5.18-20.
  • We must not draw conclusions about an earlier
    text from a later one.
  • 3.5.2 Major Interpretations
  • 3.5.2.1 von Rad von Rad, "The Origin of the
    Concept of the Day of the Yahweh," JSS, 4, pp.
    97-108 Old Testament Theology, Vol II, pp.
    119-125 Holy War in Ancient Israel

68
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "There is in fact something peculiar about the
    expectation of of the Day of Jahweh, for wherever
    it occurs in prophecy, the statements culminate
    in an allusion to Jahweh's coming in person."
    von Rad, OTT, II, 119
  • "The first result of this survey is to show that
    the prophets expect the day of Jahweh to bring
    war in its train.... In itself, the almost
    stereotyped connexion of the day of Jahweh with
    intervention in war reminds one of the holy wars
    and all the phenomena which traditionally
    accompanied them.... A particularly important
    part is played by the terror caused by God
    himself, a panic confusion and demoralization of
    the enemy, whose effect was to paralyze their
    confidence in their fighting powers and so lead
    them to compass their own destruction." von Rad,
    Ibid., 123-124

69
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "The concept connected with the Day of Jahweh are
    therefore in no way eschatological per se, but
    were familiar to the prophets in all their
    details from the old Jahwistic tradition. The
    prophets, however, also believed that Jahweh's
    final uprising against his foe would take the
    same form as it had done in the days of old. It
    is beyond question that the prophetic vision of
    the concept of Jahweh's intervention in war
    became greatly intensified for the war was now
    to affect all nations, even the fixed orders of
    creation, and even Israel herself. The event has
    been expanded into a phenomenon of cosmic
    significance. Thus, under the influence of this
    traditional element the prophetic concept of the
    eschaton was also to some extent systematized,
    that is to say, predictions connected with the
    expectation of the Day of Jahweh which began from
    different traditions were to some extent
    blended." von Rad, Ibid., 124

70
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "...von Rad maintains in his theology of the OT
    that the Day of the Lord' implied a renewal of
    that intervention which the Lord once undertook
    in connection with the holy war' which took
    place after the exodus from Egypt and in
    conjunction with the conquest of Canaan. Of
    course, we know that the prophets sometimes
    looked to the past when they spoke of that which
    was to come. Thus, for example, it is possible to
    interpret Isa 9.4 in the light of Judges 7, or
    Isa 28.21 on the basis of 2 Sam 5.20. Moreover,
    it is clear that the description of the holy
    wars' of the past contain a number of miraculous
    details (e.g., Ex 14.20 Josh 10.11 1 Sam
    7.10)." Mettinger, In Search of God, 108

71
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "He is convinced that the Day of Yahweh
    encompasses a pure event of war, the rise of
    Yahweh against his enemies, his battle and his
    victory' (von Rad 1959 103). He pays particular
    attention to Isaiah 13 and 34, Ezekiel 7, and
    Joel 2, but criticizes those scholars who take
    Amos 5.18 as the starting point for in his view
    this text is not sufficiently unequivocal to be
    used as a suitable starting point for the
    examination (1959 98)." Cathcart, Ibid., 84
  • 2.5.2.2 Mowinckel Mowinckel, He that Cometh
  • "Inspired by Gressmann's work, S. Mowinckel
    proposed in 1917 that the Israelite New Year
    Festival was the enthronement festival of Yahweh.
    However, he differed from Gressmann, and from
    others before him, by rejecting the existence of
    a preprophetic

72
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • eschatology. For him the Day of Yahweh
    originally means the day of Yahweh's
    manifestation in the cult at the New year
    Festival. Eschatology and the eschatological
    significance of the Day of Yahweh have their
    ultimate source in the autumn festival, but
    strictly they belong to later prophecy."
    Cathcart, Ibid., 84
  • 2.5.2.3 John Gray Gray, "The Day of Yahweh in
    Cultic Experience and Eschatological Prospect,"
    SEA, 39, pp.5-37 The Biblical Doctrine of the
    Reign of God
  • "...J. Gray, has argued effectively that the Day
    of Yahweh signified essentially the moment of
    the epiphany as King, which was the highlight of
    the autumn festival'.... Utilizing evidence
    gathered from Canaanite sources, and esp. the
    Baal myth from Ugarit, Gray

73
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • stresses the importance of mispat, i.e., the
    imposition of the effective rule of Yahweh as
    king, the main theme of the liturgy of the autumn
    festival with its ultimate origins in the
    Canaanite festival at the same seasonal crisis'.
    Furthermore, Gray argues that Yahweh's conflict
    with the enemies of Israel, the
    Volkerkampf-mythus, is the historification in
    Israel of the cosmic conflict to sustain the
    effective Kingship of Yahweh in the liturgy of
    the autumn festival." Cathcart, Ibid., 85
  • Mettinger follows a similar line when he
    emphasizes that, "It is a simple fact that
    certain of the texts that speak of the Day of
    the Lord' or of the Day' also expressly speak of
    the Lord as King. Here I content myself with
    brief reference to Ob 15-21 Micah 4.6-8 Zeph
    3.11-15 and Zech 14.9, 16." Mettinger, In
    Search of God, 109

74
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 4. The LORD of Hosts The Regnant God
  • 4.1 The Contexts of twabc hwhy
  • 4.1.1 "There are 284 occurrence of the name of
    these, no fewer than 251 (i.e., 88) are in the
    prophetic books. The 82 occurrences in the Book
    of Jeremiah represent a problem.... However, one
    should note the frequency of the term in Isaiah
    1-39 (56 times), Haggai (14 times), Zechariah (53
    times), and Malachi (24 times). These prophets
    have one notable feature in common they
    represent a tradition closely associated with the
    Jerusalem temple." Mettinger, In Search of God,
    125

75
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 4.1.2 "...the first attestations of the name
    occur in 1 Samuel (1.3, 11 4.4), where it
    appears in the context of ancient traditions
    associated with the Shiloh of he period of the
    judges. Note also that Shiloh contained a
    sanctuary, which was in fact the only sanctuary
    prior to the erection of Solomon's temple that
    was designated by the word hekal, temple (1 Sam
    1.9 3.3). Additionally, in the early materials
    the ark of the covenant is especially connected
    with the Sabaoth name (1 Sam 4.4 2 Sam 6.2), and
    it soon took up its place in the temple of
    Solomon (1 Kgs 8.6)." Mettinger, In Search of
    God, 125-6

76
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 4.1.3 In the Psalter 15X 24.10 46.7, 118,
    12 48.89 59.56 69.67 80.4, 7, 14,
    195, 8, 15, 20 84.1, 3, 8, 122, 4, 9, 13
    and 89.89.
  • 4.2 Iconographic Context
  • 4.2.1 The Sabaoth name seems to be connected with
    the Temple and especially the Cherubim Throne.
  • 1 Sam 4.4 2 Sam 6.2 Isa 37.16 Ps 80.4, 7, 14,
    19.
  • "The Sabaoth name was connected with Jerusalem
    and Zion. It was sometimes complemented by the
    cherubim formula,' so that the combined divine
    name YHWH Sabaoth, who is enthroned above the
    cherubim.' Therefore, we may conclude that the
    Sabaoth name was at home

77
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • in the milieu of the temple. After all, it was
    in the temple that the two cherubim were placed
    which formed the throne of YHWH Sabaoth. It
    accordingly seems likely that the Sabaoth name
    was the designation used by the temple priests
    for God." Mettinger, In Search of God, 129-30
  • 4.2.2 The Temple Meeting Place of Heaven and
    Earth.
  • Ps 11.4 "The Lord is in his holy temple, the
    Lord's throne is in heaven."

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82
3.1 Names of God in the O.T.
83
3.1.0.1 The Significance of Names in the Biblical
World
  • 1. Name and Reality Gen 2.19 Enuma Elish and
    the before of things named.
  • 2. Name and Personality 1 Sam 25.25 (Nabal) Gen
    27.36 (Jacob) I know you by name (Ex 33.17)
    Ps 30.27 20.1.
  • 3. Name and Presence Ex 20.24, Deut 4.7 (Where
    God's name is proclaim, God is said to be
    present.)
  • 4. Pronouncing Names as a Legal Act Psa
    49.1112 Isa 4.1 Jer 15.16 I Kgs 8.43 Amos
    9.12

84
3.1.0.2 Exodus 6.2-3 3.14-15
  • A I am Yahweh.
  • B And I made myself known to Abraham, to Isaac,
    and to Jacob as El Shaddai.
  • A' And my name is Yahweh.
  • B' Did I not make myself known to them?
  • "I am the God of your fathers, God of Abraham,
    God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob."

85
Preliminary Observation
  • 1. In the patriarchal narratives a number of
    names of persons and places are mentioned that
    have long attracted scholarly interest Abram,
    Sarai, Jacob, Laban, Serug, Nahor, and Terah . .
    . . Mettinger, In Search of God, 52
  • 2. ...the matter of the ethnic origins of the
    patriarchs. There is a well-established tradition
    that associates the patriarchs with the Arameans
    and that also manifests itself in the texts about
    Jacob, since he is said to be related to the
    Arameans through his mother, Rebecca. Rebecca was
    the daughter of the Aramean Bethuel and the
    sister of Laban, likewise referred to as Aramean
    (cf. Gen 25.20 28.5 31.20, 24). A text from the
    D-literature records that a wandering Aramean
    was my father and he went down into Egypt (Deut
    26.5). Mettinger, Ibid., 53

86
Preliminary Observation
  • 3. Although Jerusalem and Zion played a major
    role in the cult during the monarchy there is no
    evidence of either in these pre-monarchical
    period texts. There is also no major evidence in
    this literature that points to the later conflict
    with the worship of the Canaanite Baal and
    depicted in the monar
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