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Origin of the Old Testament

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Title: Origin of the Old Testament


1
Is the Old Testament Real History? Evidence
From Science, Archaeology, History Geography
2
Old Testament Geography, History, and Documents
3
The Old Testament was Written at the Crossroads
of Europe, Asia, and Africa Between 2000 430 BCE
4
The Bible Story is Set in the Fertile Crescent
Anatolia
Mesopotamia
Levant (Canaan, Israel)
Egypt
5
Mt. Hermon
Upper Galilee
Geography of Canaan
Jordan River Headwaters
Lower Galilee
Sea of Galilee
Via Maris
Samaria
Jordan River And Rift Valley
Philistia
Judean Hills
Jerusalem
Dead sea
Negev
6
The Bible Story Meshes with Real History
Mesopotamia
Levant
First written language
Sumerian
3000 BCE
2600 Egyptian Pyramids
Canaanite
Sargon Akkadian
Ur
Various Old Babylonian
2000
Patriarchs
1850 Abraham (from Ur) Entered Canaan 1600
Hebrews Entered Egypt (Jacob-Joseph) 1400
Hebrews Exodus Egypt (Moses) 1360 Hebrews
Entered Canaan (Joshua) Period of the
Judges (Deborah, Samson) 1010 David became
king 959 Solomon built Temple 930 Kingdom
divided 722 Israel fell to Assyria 586
Jerusalem temple destroyed by Babylonians
Babylonian captivity of Judah 538 Persians
allow first exiles to return 516 Temple rebuilt
Hyksos
Kassite
Judges
Assyrian
Monarchy
1000
Judah Israel
612 Babylonian
539 Persian
333 Greek
Roman
0
7
Significance of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Found in 1947, copies 1000 years older than
previously (352 BC-136 AD). Parts of all OT books
except Esther, but Esther referred to. Two
complete Isaiah scrolls virtually identical to
modern copies. Masoretic text Septuagint
transmission is remarkably accurate.
Isaiah Scroll
Qumran
8
Creation
9
Genesis 11 In the Beginning God Created the
Heavens and the Earth. Origin of the Universe
Three Possibilities
1. It always existed. (thermodynamic problems) 2.
It came into existence by itself. (Violates
principles of science) 3. It was created by an
agent external to it.
10
Gen 124 And God said Let the land produce
living creatures
The laws of science, as we know them at present,
contain many fundamental numbers. The
remarkable fact is that the values of these
numbers seem to have been very finely adjusted to
make possible the development of life.
(Hawking, A Brief History of Time, Ch. 8, 1998)
Biology is the study of complicated things that
give the appearance of having been designed for a
purpose. (Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker)
11
God Put Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden
Anatolia
Mesopotamia
Levant (Canaan, Israel)
Gen 210-15 The Garden of Eden
Egypt
12
Noah Was Saved From the Flood
Gen 84 Noahs ark landed on the mountains of
Ararat
Anatolia
Mesopotamia
Levant (Canaan, Israel)
Egypt
13
The Flood Was a Real Event in History More than
200 people groups around the world have a flood
story There was a universal destruction of
humans and animals, An ark was used to
escape, and There were a few people who
survived.
Kings before and after the flood are named in the
Sumerian King List. The Sumerian epic of
Gilgamesh tells the story of Utnapishtim who
survived the flood by building a great
boat. Archaeology and C-14 date the Sumerian
Flood at 2900100 BCE. Many modern people groups
can be traced to Noahs descendents.
Carol A. Hill A Time and a Place for Noah in
Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 53,
no. 1 March 2001
14
The Patriarchs
15
Abraham Moved from Ur to Haran to Canaan
Anatolia
Mesopotamia
Levant (Canaan, Israel)
Egypt
16
Abraham Witnessed the Destruction of Sodom (Gen
18-19 In Modern Jordan)
Anatolia
Mesopotamia
Levant (Canaan, Israel)
Egypt
17
The Bibles Historical Details are Accurate
18
The Exodus and Conquest
19
The Hebrews Moved to Egypt and Returned
Anatolia
Mesopotamia
Levant (Canaan, Israel)
Gen 46 5-7 Jacob moved his family from Canaan to
Egypt Deut Josh The Jews returned to and
settled Canaan in what is called the Exodus
Egypt
20
Hebrews Moved to Egypt During a Famine 1600 BCE
(Gen 39-47)
There was a large Semitic population in Egypt
1700-15501 Beni Hasan Tomb painting shows
Semitics entering Egypt
A 15th century BC Tomb painting shows Semitic
slaves making mud bricks2 (Ex 57-9) Tel Adaba
(Ramses), tomb of Canaanite high official found
in palace compound3 (Gen 4143)
1. Hoffmeier Symposium on Archaeology and the
Bible Albuquerque, Jan 21-25, 2003. 2. Aling
Joseph in Egypt, Part 4 Bible and Spade V161,
2003 3. Aling Symposium on Archaeology and the
Bible Albuquerque, Jan 21-25, 2003.
21
Strong Evidence for the Conquest of Caanan
There is a strong Jewish tradition and Biblical
account for the Passover starting in
Egypt. Jericho (Josh 6)1, Ai (Josh 8)2, and Hazor
(Josh 11)3 were destroyed by burning 1400.
Canaanite cities in the hill country declined in
the 14th century BC number of small settlements
grew rapidly4 Amarna letters from Canaanite
cities to Egyptian Pharaoh complain about Apiru
invading hill country 1350 BC.5 (Now in the
Egyptian Museum) Merneptah Stele (1230 BC), first
mention of Israel, an enemy of Egypt,5 Found in
Thebes in 1896.
1. Wood Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho?
Biblical Archaeology Review 16.2, 1990. 2. Wood,
and Briggs Symposium on archaeology and the
Bible Albuquerque, Jan 21-25, 2003. 3. Janeway
Hazor 2002 Bible and Spade V163, 2003 4.
Mazar Symposium on Archaeology and the Bible
Albuquerque, Jan 20-24, 2004. 5. Price The
Stones Cry Out Harvest House, 1977 6. Steven
Collins Let My People Go Trinity Southwest,
2011.
Bible and Spade Summer 2004
22
The Monarchy Period
23
The Monarchy Period (Samuel, Kings,
Chronicles) Egypt and Mesopotamia were in decline
and there was a power vacuum in the Levant.
Hittites
Assyrians
1000 BC
Israel
Egypt
24
External References to Kings of Israel and Judah
King Date Source Context
David 1000 Tel Dan Inscription Tel Dan, 1993, Ben Hadad of Damascus, battle with Israel
Ahab 853 Kurkh Stele Shalmaneser III, Battle of Qaraqar
Jehu 841 Black Obelisk Shalmaneser III, collected tribute
Joash 796 Tell al-Rimah Stele Adad-nirari III, collected tribute
Menahem 738 Annals Tiglath-pileser III, collected tribute
Pekah Hoshea 732 Nimrud Tablet Tiglath-pileser III, conquered Israel, put Hoshea on the throne
Ahaz 732 Nimrud Slab Tiglath-pileser III, collected tribute
Hezekiah 701 Annals Senacherib, collected tribute
Manasseh 674 Prism Esarhaddon, collected tribute
Manasseh 697-42 Prism C Ashurbanipal, collected tribute
Walton Charts of the Old Testament Zondervan,
1994
25
Biblical Kings of Israel, Judah, Babylon,
Assyria, Syria, Persia, Egypt are Historical
Before the Tel Dan Stele was found, Bible critics
believed David was a legend2. Found in 1993 at
Tel Dan, it is now in the Skirball Museum in
Jerusalem. Probably inscribed by Hazael king of
Aram around 850 BC (see 2 Kings 8). He brags
about defeating Joram, king of Israel and Ahaziah
of the House of David.
The Tel Dan Stele--House of David Inscription,
found in 1993, Now in the Skirball Museum in
Jerusalem
1. Bible and spade summer 2004
26
Black Obelisk, Found in Nineveh, Showing Jehu
Paying Tribute to Shalmaneser III in 840 BC (Now
in the British Museum)
27
Israel was Conquered by the Assyrians in 722 BC
Anatolia
Mesopotamia
Levant (Canaan, Israel)
Egypt
28
Sennacheribs Siege of Lachish and Jerusalem 701
BC
2 Kings 18 19, 2 Chron 32, and Isaiah 36 37
Hezekiah paid tribute to Sennacherib
Sennacherib laid siege to Lachish after
destroying other cities He sent an army to
convince Jerusalem to surrender Jerusalem
refused and Hezekiah and Isaiah prayed to God
God sent an angel who destroyed Sennacheribs
army Sennacherab returned to Nineveh in
disgrace Sennacherab was killed by his sons
in Nineveh Sennacheribs account on the Taylor
Prism Hezekiah did not submit Sennacherib
destroyed 46 walled cities He shut up
Hezekiah, like a bird in a cage Hezekiah,
overwhelmed by his splendor, paid tribute The
Babylonian Chronicle Records the murder of
Sennacherib by his sons
Taylor Prism found in Nineveh in 1830 British
Museum
Price The Stones Cry Out Harvest House, 1977
29
Mural of Sennacheribs Siege on Lachish(Found in
Nineveh, now at the British Museum)
30
Isaiah Was a Prophet in Judah 700 BCE In Isaiah
53, He Wrote To whom has the arm of the Lord
been revealed? Men hated him and rejected him. He
was pierced and killed for our sins. By his
punishment and by his wounds, we are healed. He
gave his life as a sacrifice and took the
sins of many people on himself. The most
reasonable explanation is that this is a
prophecy about Christ.
Isaiah Scroll in Jerusalem
31
Jerusalem was Destroyed by Babylon in 586 BC
Anatolia
Mesopotamia
Levant (Canaan, Israel)
Egypt
Babylon Excavated 1899-1917 Gen 108-10 Dan 1
32
The Babylonian Chronicle Confirms Biblical
Account for Battle of Carchemish 605 Fall of
Jerusalem 597
2 Ki 23, 2 Chr 35, Jer 46 Pharoah Neco went up
to Carchemish to help the Assyrian king. Neco and
the Assyrians were defeated by Nebuchadnezzar. 2
Ki 24, 2 Chron 36, Jer 24 Jerusalem fell to
Nebuchadnezzar. King Jehoiachin and Jews exiled
to Babylon. Zedekiah appointed king. Confirms
Egypt and Assyria were allies, contrary to prior
belief.
Babylonian Chronicle translated in 1956 (Now in
the British Museum)
33
Daniel Was a Jewish Prophet Taken to Babylon
600 BCE Persia Media will arise to conquer
Babylon (Dan 2, 5, 7 8) Fulfilled by Cyrus
in 539 BC Greece will arise to conquer Persia
(Dan 2, 7 8) Fulfilled by Alexander in 333
BC Rome (implied) will arise and conquer (Dan 2,
7 9) Fulfilled in 63 BC The Messiah will
enter Jerusalem and be killed (Dan 9)
Fulfilled in 33 AD Jerusalem and the temple will
be destroyed (Dan 9) Fulfilled by the Romans
in 70 AD Gods eternal kingdom will be
established (Dan 2 7) Fulfillment was
initiated in 33 AD
34
The Cyrus Cylinder Confirms Cyrus Policy of
Restoring Exiles to Homelands
2 Chron 36 and Ezra 1 Cyrus (Persia) returned
the Jews to Judah to rebuild their temple. (This
was also prophesied by Isaiah and Jeremiah.)
Cyrus CDylinder, Discovered at Babylon in 1880s
35
Scribes Names Recorded in Bullae
A scribe would typically seal scrolls with clay
seals leaving an inscription of his name. Many
of these were burned when the temple was
destroyed by the Babylonians, firing the clay and
leaving a permanent record.
Gemaryahu son of Shaphan1 Scribe of Jehoiakim Jer 3610-12, 25-26 608-598 BC
Baruch son of Neriah1 Scribe of Jeremiah Jer 32, 36, 43, 45 627-586 BC
Yehucal son of Shelemiah2 Messenger of Zedekiah Jer 373 597-586 BC
1. Price The Stones Cry Out Harvest House,
1977 2. Eliat Mazar Jewish Culture 10/14/05
36
Conclusions
37
Old Testament Historicity Conclusions
Both the Hebrew and Greek texts have been
accurately transmitted with minor differences.
(Confirmed by Dead Sea Scrolls) History and
geography in the OT fits into world history and
geography. Places, names, slave prices, contract
formats during the patriarchal period are in
close agreement with archaeology. Strong
archaeological evidence for Semitic people in
Egypt and the conquest of Canaan support the OT
exodus and conquest accounts. Evidence for the
monarchy period is extensive and solid. Fulfilled
prophecy is strong evidence for the OT account of
God interacting with the Hebrews.
38
Strong Evidence Supports the Old Testaments
Historicity
39
Old Testament Document History Greatly Simplified
Original Hebrew Writings 2000 to 430 BC Job
(century 20-19) Proverbs, Song, Eccl
(10) Pentateuch (15) Obadiah, Joel (9) Joshua
(14) Jonah, Amos, Micah, Hosea (8) Ruth
(14-11?) Isaiah , Nahum, Zephaniah (7) Judges
(12-11) Jeremiah, Lament, Habak (7-6) Samuel
(10-8?) Kings, Ezek, Daniel, Hagg, Zech
(6) Psalms (14-6) Esther, Ezra, Neh, Chron,
Malachi (5)
Greek Writings 250 BC-10 AD Apocrypha (hidden)
(Deuterocanonical)
Septuagint 250-150 BC
Masoretic (preserved) Standardization 150 BC-100
AD Council of Jamnia 90 AD Rejected Apocrypha
Early Church uses Septuagint Apocrypha 100-400
AD
Jerome-Latin Vulgate Rejects Apocrypha 420 AD
Roman Church adopts Vulgate Apocrypha Council
of Trent 1546
Protestants accept Masoretic Text, reject
Apocrypha 1517 AD
Eastern Church adopts Septuagint part of
Apocrypha Synod of Jerusalem 1672 AD
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