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OLD TESTAMENT THEOLOGY

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Title: OLD TESTAMENT THEOLOGY


1
OLD TESTAMENTTHEOLOGY
2
O. T. Theology Origin
Johann Gabler, in 1787, delivered an address on
the difference between Dogmatic and Biblical
Theology
  • Biblical Theology
  • Simple
  • Treats the religion of the Bible
  • Historical (discusses what the sacred writers
    thought of divine things)
  • Special Revelation
  • Dogmatic Theology
  • Complex
  • Biblical Theology and philosophy
  • Didactic (what the theologians think)
  • Special and General Revelationgt

3
O. T. Theology Definition
  • Geerhardus Vos, Biblical Theology is that
    branch of Exegetical Theology which deals with
    the process of the self revelation of God
    deposited in the Bible. Biblical Theology, 13.
  • John Murray, Biblical theology deals with the
    data of special revelation from the standpoint of
    its history systematic theology deals with the
    same in its totality as a finished product. The
    method of systematic theology is logical, that of
    biblical theology is historical. WTJ, 261,
    33.gt

4
O. T. Theology The Redemptive Historical
Framework
  • Exegesis (then interpretation)
  • Compare with other passages
  • Formulate ideas without distorting the facts
  • Be aware of the flow of Biblical revelationgt

5
O. T. Theology Techniques
  • Word Studies key words their theological
    thrust one cannot exegete without knowing the
    meaning of the words
  • Subject Studies tracing the growth or
    development of a subject determining the key
    verses
  • Theology of Biblical Books What does_____say?
    Examines the book as a literary unit. Determines
    the theme or themes. How do the parts support
    that theme? 
  • Theology of the Old Testament such as Vos,
    Payne, etc.gt

6
O. T. Theology and Systematic Theology
  • Biblical theology is the ground for systematic
    theology
  • Biblical and systematic theology are
    complementary, not antithetical
  • There is a difference in method and nature of the
    approach
  • Biblical Theology- what has God revealed?
  • Systematic Theology- what is true about God?gt

7
O. T. Theology and Systematic Theology
  • The Danger of Systematic Theology
  • Theological drift the system is substituted for
    Scripture
  • Strong denominationalism leads to failure to
    recognize the catholicity of the Church
  • Biased exegesis (the whole determines the meaning
    of the parts)gt
  • The Value of Systematic Theology
  • It presents the results of Bible study in capsule
    form
  • It is useful in combating heresy
  • It provides conventional language

8
O. T. Theology History
  • The Rise of Old Testament Theology
  • Federal Theology Cocceius (1603-1669)
  • Attempt to escape from traditionalism and
    confessions to purely Biblical orientation
  • Developed theology around the structure of
    covenant (foedus)
  • Pietism Spener and Francke- (1635-1705)
  • Emphasized practical orientation of theology and
    the devotional use of Bible
  • Argued for historical interpretations as opposed
    to prooftexting
  • Johann Gabler Father of Biblical Theology, a
    rationalist, seeking to explain the biblical
    religion in terms of universal laws of reasongt

9
O. T. Theology History
  • The Triumph of Israels Religion Extreme
    Rationalism (1790-1830)
  • Hermann Samuel Reimarus, 1694-1768
  • Wolfenbüttel Fragments
  • J.D. Semler, 1725-1792, canon the result of human
    endeavors entirely
  • Georg Lorenz Bauer, 1755-1806, rationalist
    theology, Theologie des Alten Testaments
  • W.M.L. de Wette, first to do Biblical Theology
    under influence of Kantianismgt

10
O. T. Theology History
  • Rationalism under the influence of a philosophy
    of religion (Historicists)
  • Hegel The dialectic
  • Schleiermacher the focus of theology  
  • Wilhelm Vatke Biblische Theologie, 1835,
    developed the history of religions approach
    (Religionsgeschichte)
  • Bruno Bauer a student of Vatke, wrote a second
    history of religions, Old Testament theology
    based on the Hegelian philosophygt

11
O. T. Theology History
  • Julius Wellhausen wrote Prolegomena zur
    Geschichte Israels, 1878
  • Signaled a shift in Biblical Theology from
    rationalism to the history of Israel's religion
  • Based on Graf and Keunen
  • OT prophets lived before the giving of the OT
    law.
  • OT religion grew out of nature religion
  • Behind the sacrifices and rituals of Israel lay
    the agricultural feasts of her pagan neighborsgt

12
O. T. Theology Wellhausian Scheme
  • Animism moving objects are indwelt with spirits
  • Gen 147, spring of judgment
  • Gen 126, oaks of Moreh 1318, oaks of Mamre
  • Polytheism Joshua 1511, baals
  • Totemism- some members of tribes related to
    animals Caleb-dog, or el names as descendants
    of some god
  • Taboo- certain prohibited foods (can't eat
    because they belong to the tribal gods)
  • Ancestor worship- Genesis 23
  • Monolatry recognize many gods, worship one
  • Monotheism eighth century, J documentsgt

13
O. T. Theology Key Themes in the
Religionsgeschichte Approach
  • Late date assigned to P document in
    Pentateuchal criticism
  • New picture of Israels religion, based on
    documentary hypothesis
  • Evolutionary model, based on Hegel and Darwingtgt

14
OLD TESTAMENTTHEOLOGY
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