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Title: 3.2 Metaphors about God in the Old Testament


1
3.2 Metaphors about God in the Old Testament
2
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 "All, or almost all of the language used by
    the Bible to refer to God is metaphor." Caird
  • "A metaphor draws similarities between different
    entities, but does not equate them." Brettler

3
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.2 A Root Metaphor "The LORD as King is a "root
    metaphor." It generates such metaphors as the
    notion of the temple as God's royal dwelling -
    God's palace the concept that God is an
    enthroned ruler of the Universe and presides over
    a heavenly court of divine armies the there will
    be a great battle, the "Day of LORD."

4
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 2. Statistics
  • 2.1 "The OT speaks of the Lord as King a total of
    85 times (ignoring personal names in which this
    concept is also expressed). These are contexts in
    which such words as king,' throne,' reign,'
    and the like are used of God." Mettinger

5
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 2.2 Tabulations
  • "King" l,m, used of God 43 times.
  • Pent 2X Num 23.21 Deut 33.5
  • Sam 1X 1 Sam 12.12
  • Prophets 18X Isa 6.5 33.17, 22 41.21 43.15
    44.6 Jer 8.19 10.7, 10 6.18 48.15 51.57
    Micah 2.13 Zeph 3.15 Zech 14.9, 16, 17 Mal
    1.14
  • Psalter 21X 5.23 10.16 24.7, 8, 9, 10
    29.10 44.45 47.2, 6, 73, 7, 8 48.23
    68.2425 74.12 84.34 89.1819 95.3 98.6
    99.4 145.1 149.2.
  • Daniel 1X Dan 4.37Aram v34

6
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "to be king" lm' is used 13 times of God.
  • Pent 1X Exod 15.18
  • Sam 1X 1 Sam 8.7
  • Prophets 6X Isa 24.23 52.7 Eze 20.33 Micah
    4.7
  • Psalter 6X 47.89 93.1 96.10 97.1 99.1
    146.10
  • Chronicles 1X 1 Chr 16.31 (Ps 96.10)

7
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • Terms signifying "kingdom" occur 10 times in
    connection with God.
  • tWkl.m Ps 103.19 145.11, 12, 13(X2) Dan 4.3
    Aram 3.33 4.34Aram 4.31
  • hk'Wlm. Obad 21 Ps 22.2829
  • 1 Chr 29.11
  • The Lord's sitting on his throne is mentioned 11
    times. not including the expression "he who
    thrones upon the cherubim," 1 Kgs 22.19 Isa
    6.1 66.1 Jer 3.17 17.12 Eze 1.26 Pss 9.4,
    75, 8 47.89 89.1415 93.2 103.19.

8
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "to rule, govern" lvm' 8X Judg 8.23 Isa
    63.19 Pss 22.2829 59.1314 66.7 89.910
    1 Chr 29.12 2 Chr 20.6.

9
M. Brettler, God is King
  • 1. Royal Appellation
  • 1.1 "These are lm, 'king', dygn, 'divine
    designee', xyXm, 'anointed one', hwhy ryxb, 'the
    chosen of the LORD', hr, 'shepherd', ayXn,
    'exalted one', Xar, 'head', yhla, 'God', !wda,
    'master', jpX 'judge', rg, 'lamp', wnypa xwr,
    'our life-spirit', !gm 'shield', xmc, 'branch'
    and lXm, 'ruler.'"
  • 1.2 Not used of God 'anointed one,' 'divine
    designee,' 'the chosen of Yahweh,' 'exalted one,'
    'head,' 'officer.'
  • 1.3 Full-fledged Royal appellations 'king,'
    'master,' and 'shepherd.'

10
M. Brettler, God is King
  • Special differences
  • "A king is a rn, nr, but God is a ryn, nyr. The
    king is addressed ynIda, )ado4n but God is
    addressed yn"da, )adona4y."
  • ". . . emphasized through such phrases as rah lk
    wda, 'master of all the earth', br lm, 'great
    king' and qdc jpX, 'righteous judge'."
  • "The use of particular royal appellations offers
    general boundaries for understanding God, but
    through morphological, syntactic and contextual
    modifications, the biblical authors clarify that
    God's kingship is qualitatively different from
    human kingship."

11
M. Brettler, God is King
  • 2. Royal Qualities
  • 2.1 "God is not called 'handsome,' although this
    was a common royal attribute" . . . . possession
    gold and silver would undermine omnipotence.
  • 2.2 Although statements about kings "living
    forever" are used God is more eternal than
    luminaries. Wealth for God is ka4bod with a
    different meaning.
  • 2.3 Kings may be 'strong' but the word 'great' is
    never used of an Israelite king.

12
M. Brettler, God is King
  • 3. Royal Trappings
  • 3.1 A certain lack of textual descriptions about
    royal accouterments.
  • 3.2 "God as king has no crown, no royal scepter,
    no bracelet, no platform, no detailed royal
    garb."
  • 3.3 Isa 33 a possible exception "royal scepter"
    and in Dan 79, God's clothing is described.
  • 3.4 "The throne acts just like God's royal
    qualities - it is a quantitatively superior
    projection of human royal throne onto God."

13
M. Brettler, God is King
  • 4. The King Domestic Affairs
  • 4.1 "The terms used for the royal palace or royal
    officers had a decisive influence on the
    descriptions of the divine realm . . . . the
    structure of the heavenly council. . . ."
  • 4.2 "The institutions associated with raising
    money by the king had little influence on the
    Israelite's portrayal of God."

14
M. Brettler, God is King
  • 4. The King Domestic Affairs
  • 4.3 As a judge, God judges with equity.
  • 4.4 Royal building projects may be differentiated
    with God's Creation.
  • 4.5 The word qeser, 'domestic rebellion' is not
    used of God. "Rather these rebellions against God
    use the terms for 'rebellion against an overload'
    (Xp or drm).

15
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 2.3 "The root metaphor of the Lord as King
    utilizes two divine designation "the King," and
    "YHWH Sabaoth." The first gives us a glimpse of
    YHWH as the warring deity and the second of YHWH
    as the enthroned reigning deity." N.B. Isaiah
    6.1-5

16
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3. The LORD as KING The Victorious Warrior
  • 3.1 YHWH is King not Baal!
  • Problem of identifying YHWH with Baal
  • Hos 2.16 2.18 On that day, says the LORD, you
    will call me, My husband, and no longer will
    you call me, My Baal.

17
Baal Yahweh
  • The Baal epic deals with "Baal's struggle(s) to
    establish his kingship over the universe."
    Parker
  • 1. The First Cycle describes Baal's battles with
    Yamm or the Sea.
  • ". . . in Canaan as in Mesopotamia and Israel,
    Sea was portrayed as a seven-headed dragon, a
    dragon to be slain in order to establish the rule
    of the warrior-king of the gods." Cross

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19
Baal Yahweh
  • 2. The Second episode deals with Baal's struggle
    to establish his palace.
  • "The Ba'l cycle relates the emergence of kingship
    among the gods. The tale of the establishment of
    a dynastic temple and its cultus is a typical
    subtheme of the cosmogony and its ritual and is
    found also in Enuma Elish and . . . in the
    Bible." Cross

20
Baal Yahweh
  • 3. The Third story deals with Baal's defeat by
    the hands of Mot, "Death."
  • "If Yamm represented the unruly powers of the
    universe who threatened chaos, until restricted
    and tamed by Ba'l, then Mot, 'El's dead son,
    represents the dark chthonic powers which bring
    sterility, disease, and death. The drama,
    however, is still a cosmogony, the victory of the
    god of life." Cross

21
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.1.1 Elimination of Baal in worship ". . .
    characterized by Israel's reaction to the sexual
    athleticism and the dying and rising features of
    the Canaanite deities." Mettinger
  • 3.1.2 Integration ". . . the hypothesis that the
    use of the designation "king" in Israel was
    inherited from the Canaanites" Mettinger

22
Enthronement Psalms
  • 1. Sigmund Mowinckel proposed the idea that
    ancient Israel had a New Years festival that
    utilized the so-called Enthronement Psalms (93,
    96-99) and others texts.
  • The festival "re-enacted" Yahweh becoming King.
  • The phrase "lm hwhy" "Yahweh is/becomes king"?

23
Enthronement Psalms
  • 2. Israelite kings coronation ritual
  • Anointing (secret)?
  • Confirmation by the general populous
  • Victory in battle
  • 3. Pattern in the Baal Myth (also similar in
    Enuma Elish)
  • The god's victory over the forces of chaos
  • His acclamation as king
  • Construction of his palace/temple

24
  • 3.1.3 The Battle
  • Ps 74.12-14 Yet God my King from of old,
    working salvation in the midst of the earth. You
    divided the sea y" by your might You broke
    the heads of the dragons on the waters. You
    crushed the heads of Leviathan.
  • Isa 27.1 In that day the LORD with his hard and
    great and strong sword will punish Leviathan the
    fleeing serpent, Leviathan the twisting serpent,
    and he will slay the dragon that is in the sea.

25
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.2 The LORD as King The Creation Battle
  • Ps 74.15-17 You cut openings for springs and
    torrents and you dried up ever-flowing streams.
    Yours is the day, yours also the night you
    establish the luminaries and the sun. You have
    fixed all the bounds of the earth you made
    summer and winter. Note the connection of the
    chaos battle and the description of creation.

26
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • Ps 89.9-12 v5-18 God as King gt v1819 should be
    rendered "The Holy One of Israel, he is our
    king" You rule the raging of the sea when its
    waves rise, you still them. You crushed Rahab
    like a carcass you scattered your enemies with
    your mighty arm. The heavens are yours, the earth
    also is yours the world and all that is in it -
    you have founded them. The north and the south -
    you created them Tabor and Hermon joyously
    praise you name.
  • Rebuke gt rg"
  • Ps 104.7 "At your rebuke they fled at the sound
    of your thunder they took to flight." Isa 17.3

27
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "The concept of the Lord as King is associated
    with the idea of the chaos battle. . . . the
    chaos battle . . . serves as a motif of creation.
    In this context, the creation bears witness of
    God's victory over chaos. This establishes a
    connection between the Lord as King and his
    creation of the world, and this connection is
    attested in other biblical texts (e.g., Jer 10.7,
    12-16) and in other Jewish literature."
    Mettinger

28
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • ". . . the council of the gods assembled in the
    mountain of 'El. On the approach of emissaries of
    Ba'l's archfoe, Prince Sea, the gods are cowed
    and fearful, "dropping their heads onto their
    knees, down on their princely thrones" . . . ."
    Cross
  • "Lift up, O Gods, your heads!"
  • 3.3 The LORD as King The Temple and the Zion
    Battle
  • 3.3.1 Ps 24 How the King of Glory enters his
    Temple
  • 24.7-10 God's royal progression to his temple.
  • 24.1-2 A glimpse of the Creator's battle with
    the powers of chaos

29
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.3 The LORD as King The Temple and the Zion
    Battle
  • 3.3.2 1 Kgs 8.13 The temple as God's royal
    palace "I have built a royal house for you, an
    established place for your throne forever."
  • The temple in Jerusalem often called lk'yhe Ps
    27.4 Isa 6.1.

30
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.3.3 Zion Theology in Ps 46 48 76 Roberts
  • The Lord is the great King (Ps 48.2)
  • God has chosen Jerusalem (Pss 78.68-69) 132.13)
    the temple on Zion is his royal palace, and God
    is always present in it.

31
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • The royal presence of the God on Zion has a
    series of consequences
  • God's blessing emanates from Zion (Pss 128.5
    134.3) the temple river is a manifestation of
    this (Ps 46.4 Eze 47.1-12).
  • In a virtual repetition of the chaos battle, the
    Lord intervenes against the enemies who are
    threatening Zion. God's presence makes Zion
    inviolable God is the guarantor of Zion's
    security (Ps 46.5).
  • God's presence entails special demands on the
    inhabitants of Zion, as sinners cannot endure the
    presence of God (Pss 15 24.3-6 Isa 33.13-16).

32
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.3.4 Three Key texts for the Zion Battle
  • Isa 17.12-14 gt The chaos battle here is
    transformed into God's battle with the enemy who
    attack Zion.
  • Ps 46.5-6 gt God brings peace by being the
    battling king and intervening against every new
    manifestation of the forces of chaos.
  • Ps 76.5-6 gt God intervenes with a royal word and
    defeats the rider and horse.

33
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.3.5 ". . . the temple to the metaphor of the
    Lord as King. Its architecture and cult symbols
    imply that the structure in question is the
    palace of he great King. . . . It is logical to
    assume that this root metaphor was especially
    cultivated in the milieu of the temple, which
    would help to explain its occurrence in the
    Psalter and related literature." Mettinger

34
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.4 The LORD as King The Exodus Battle
  • 3.4.1 Passages describing the miracle of the
    exodus as a re-enactment of God's battle with the
    power of chaos
  • Ps 114.1-5
  • Ps 77.13-10
  • Exod 15.1-18
  • Isa 51.9-10

35
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.4 The LORD as King The Exodus Battle
  • 3.4.2 ". . . the motif of the chaos battle is
    used in the OT in a variety of ways to show how
    God created this world in an act of royal
    sovereignty and how God acts in new ways on the
    historical plane. In this connection we find the
    'historicization' of the motif in order to
    describe God's saving action in the exodus. Here,
    too, we find God's defense of Zion against the
    attacking enemy peoples. The original
    mythological motif was historicized' in Israel.
    Mettinger

36
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.5 The Battle on the Day of the LORD
  • 3.5.1 The Day of Yahweh in General
  • 3.5.1.1 "'The Day of the Lord' (the Day of
    Yahweh') is a central feature of the prophets'
    message to their contemporaries. This phrase and
    such closely related expressions as the day of
    the anger of Yahweh,' or Yahweh has a day,'
    occur over two dozen times in the prophetic books
    (most frequently in Isaiah, Joel, and Zephaniah),
    and once in Lamentations (2.22)." Heirs

37
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.5.1.2 "Similar terms, particularly that day,'
    the day of,' and the day when,' appear nearly
    200 times in the prophets, occasionally in
    Lamentations, and twice in Psalms (Pss 110.5
    137.7). The terms often are used interchangeably
    with the fuller expressions or in contexts that
    refer specifically to one or the other of them,
    e.g., Isa 2.12-22 (see vv 12, 17, 20) Jer 46.10
    Ezk 7.5-27 (see vv 7, 10, 12, 19) and Ezk
    30.2-3." Heirs

38
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.5.1.3 Mettinger's "More Important OT Day of
    the LORD' Texts
  • "In the NT, the expression the Day of the Lord'
    refers to the day Jesus arose from the dead -
    Sunday. Alternatively, it sometimes refers to the
    day of the return of Christ. In the OT, the
    phrase often has eschatological connotations.
    There it has to do with the day of God's final
    intervention in world history, the day when he
    will judge the peoples. The day of the Lord' and
    related expressions occur virtually only in the
    prophetic literature." Mettinger

39
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • ". . . the more important of the Day of the
    Lord' texts include Isa 2.6-22 13.1-22 22.1-14
    34.1-8 Jer 46.1-12 Ezk 7.1-27 Joel 1.1-20
    2.1-17 2.28-32 3.1-4 3.1-21 4.1-21 Amos
    5.18-20 obad 15-21 Zeph 1.2-18 3.9-20 Zech
    14.1-21. In addition to these texts, the
    following should be considered. They do not
    contain the technical terms of the Day of the
    Lord' texts, but are nevertheless related Isa
    24-27 Jer 4.23-31 50-51 Ezk 38-39." Mettinger

40
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.5.1.4 Hoffmann's Two Principles Hoffmann,
    "The Day of the Lord as a Concept and a Term in
    the Prophetic Literature," ZAW 93, pp. 37-50
  • The investigation should start with Amos 5.18-20.
  • We must not draw conclusions about an earlier
    text from a later one.

41
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 3.5.2 Major Interpretations
  • 3.5.2.1 von Rad von Rad, "The Origin of the
    Concept of the Day of the Yahweh," JSS, 4, pp.
    97-108 Old Testament Theology, Vol II, pp.
    119-125 Holy War in Ancient Israel
  • "There is in fact something peculiar about the
    expectation of of the Day of Jahweh, for wherever
    it occurs in prophecy, the statements culminate
    in an allusion to Jahweh's coming in person."
    von Rad

42
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • ". . . the prophets expect the day of Jahweh to
    bring war in its train. . . . In itself, the
    almost stereotyped connexion of the day of Jahweh
    with intervention in war reminds one of the holy
    wars and all the phenomena which traditionally
    accompanied them. . . . A particularly important
    part is played by the terror caused by God
    himself, a panic confusion and demoralization of
    the enemy, whose effect was to paralyze their
    confidence in their fighting powers and so lead
    them to compass their own destruction." von Rad

43
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "The concept connected with the Day of Jahweh are
    therefore in no way eschatological per se, but
    were familiar to the prophets in all their
    details from the old Jahwistic tradition. The
    prophets, however, also believed that Jahweh's
    final uprising against his foe would take the
    same form as it had done in the days of old. It
    is beyond question that the prophetic vision of
    the concept of Jahweh's intervention in war
    became greatly intensified for the war was now
    to affect all nations, even the fixed orders of
    creation, and even Israel herself." von Rad

44
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "The event has been expanded into a phenomenon
    of cosmic significance. Thus, under the influence
    of this traditional element the prophetic concept
    of the eschaton was also to some extent
    systematized, that is to say, predictions
    connected with the expectation of the Day of
    Jahweh which began from different traditions were
    to some extent blended." von Rad

45
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • ". . . von Rad maintains in his theology of the
    OT that the 'Day of the Lord' implied a renewal
    of that intervention which the Lord once
    undertook in connection with the holy war' which
    took place after the exodus from Egypt and in
    conjunction with the conquest of Canaan. Of
    course, we know that the prophets sometimes
    looked to the past when they spoke of that which
    was to come. Thus, for example, it is possible to
    interpret Isa 9.4 in the light of Judges 7, or
    Isa 28.21 on the basis of 2 Sam 5.20. Moreover,
    it is clear that the description of the holy
    wars' of the past contain a number of miraculous
    details (e.g., Ex 14.20 Josh 10.11 1 Sam
    7.10)." Mettinger

46
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "He is convinced that 'the Day of Yahweh
    encompasses a pure event of war, the rise of
    Yahweh against his enemies, his battle and his
    victory' (von Rad 1959 103). He pays particular
    attention to Isaiah 13 and 34, Ezekiel 7, and
    Joel 2, but criticizes those scholars who take
    Amos 5.18 as the starting point for in his view
    this text is not sufficiently unequivocal to be
    used as a suitable starting point for the
    examination (1959 98)." Cathcart

47
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 2.5.2.2 Mowinckel Mowinckel, He that Cometh
  • ". . . S. Mowinckel proposed in 1917 that the
    Israelite New Year Festival was the enthronement
    festival of Yahweh. However, he . . .
    reject(ed)ing the existence of a preprophetic
    eschatology. For him the Day of Yahweh originally
    means the day of Yahweh's manifestation in the
    cult at the New year Festival. Eschatology and
    the eschatological significance of the Day of
    Yahweh have their ultimate source in the autumn
    festival, but strictly they belong to later
    prophecy." Cathcart

48
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 2.5.2.3 John Gray Gray, "The Day of Yahweh in
    Cultic Experience and Eschatological Prospect,"
    SEA, 39, pp.5-37 The Biblical Doctrine of the
    Reign of God
  • ". . . J. Gray, has argued effectively that the
    Day of Yahweh 'signified essentially the moment
    of the epiphany as King, which was the highlight
    of the autumn festival'. . . . Utilizing evidence
    gathered from Canaanite sources, and esp. the
    Baal myth from Ugarit, Gray stresses the
    importance of mispat, i.e., the imposition of
    the effective rule of Yahweh as king, the main
    theme of the liturgy of the autumn festival with
    its ultimate origins in the Canaanite festival at
    the same seasonal crisis'." Cathcart

49
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "Furthermore, Gray argues that Yahweh's conflict
    with the enemies of Israel, the
    Volkerkampf-mythus, is the historification in
    Israel of the cosmic conflict to sustain the
    effective Kingship of Yahweh in the liturgy of
    the autumn festival." Cathcart
  • Mettinger follows a similar line when he
    emphasizes that, "It is a simple fact that
    certain of the texts that speak of the Day of
    the Lord' or of the Day' also expressly speak of
    the Lord as King. Here I content myself with
    brief reference to Ob 15-21 Micah 4.6-8 Zeph
    3.11-15 and Zech 14.9, 16." Mettinger

50
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 4. The LORD of Hosts The Regnant God
  • 4.1 The Contexts of twabc hwhy
  • 4.1.1 "There are 284 occurrence of the name of
    these, no fewer than 251 (i.e., 88) are in the
    prophetic books. The 82 occurrences in the Book
    of Jeremiah represent a problem. . . . However,
    one should note the frequency of the term in
    Isaiah 1-39 (56 times), Haggai (14 times),
    Zechariah (53 times), and Malachi (24 times).
    These prophets have one notable feature in
    common they represent a tradition closely
    associated with the Jerusalem temple." Mettinger

51
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 4.1.2 ". . . the first attestations of the name
    occur in 1 Samuel (1.3, 11 4.4), where it
    appears in the context of ancient traditions
    associated with the Shiloh of he period of the
    judges. . . . Shiloh contained a sanctuary, which
    was in fact the only sanctuary prior to the
    erection of Solomon's temple that was designated
    by the word hekal, temple (1 Sam 1.9 3.3).
    Additionally, in the early materials the ark of
    the covenant is especially connected with the
    Sabaoth name (1 Sam 4.4 2 Sam 6.2), and it soon
    took up its place in the temple of Solomon (1 Kgs
    8.6)." Mettinger

52
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 4.1.3 In the Psalter 15X 24.10 46.7, 118,
    12 48.89 59.56 69.67 80.4, 7, 14,
    195, 8, 15, 20 84.1, 3, 8, 122, 4, 9, 13
    and 89.89.

53
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 4.2 Iconographic Context
  • 4.2.1 The Sabaoth name seems to be connected with
    the Temple and especially the Cherubim Throne.
  • 1 Sam 4.4 2 Sam 6.2 Isa 37.16 Ps 80.4, 7, 14,
    19.

54
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • "The Sabaoth name was connected with Jerusalem
    and Zion. It was sometimes complemented by the
    cherubim formula,' so that the combined divine
    name YHWH Sabaoth, who is enthroned above the
    cherubim.' Therefore, we may conclude that the
    Sabaoth name was at homein the milieu of the
    temple. After all, it was in the temple that the
    two cherubim were placed which formed the throne
    of YHWH Sabaoth. It accordingly seems likely that
    the Sabaoth name was the designation used by the
    temple priests for God." Mettinger

55
3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 4.2.2 The Temple Meeting Place of Heaven and
    Earth.
  • Ps 11.4 "The Lord is in his holy temple, the
    Lord's throne is in heaven."
  • Isa 66.1 "Heaven is my throne and the earth is my
    footstool"

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3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 4.3 The Meaning of the word "Sabaoth"
  • 4.3.1 "Sabaoth's linguistically related the word
    tsaba' which itself designates the heavenly host,
    God's divine council. It is important to
    recognize that these two lines actually converge.
    The Sabaoth name designates God as the heavenly
    King, and the element seba'ot direct our
    attention to the heavenly hosts around the throne
    of God. These heavenly hosts have multiple
    functions they sing the eternal praise of God in
    the heavenly sanctuary they serve as members of
    God's heavenly government and they carry out
    God's assignments on earth." Mettinger

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3.2.1 The LORD is KING
  • 4.4 The Theology of God as YHWH Sabaoth
  • 4.4.1 The Present God
  • "The cherubim throne in the temple gave tangible
    expression to a concept that must have been
    central to Israelite faith during the entire
    history of the Solomonic temple the concept of
    God as the Deus praesens, the present God, the
    invisible one on the cherubim throne in the
    temple." Mettinger
  • Isaiah's theology in chapters 6-12.
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