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The Roaring Twenties and The Great Depression


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Title: The Roaring Twenties and The Great Depression

The Roaring Twenties and The Great Depression
  • Brother can you spare a dime?

Timeline of Events
  • 1918
  • World War I ends
  • 1919
  • More than 3,000 strikes occur in the U.S.
  • Palmer Raids begin and continue until 1920
  • 1920s
  • Harlem Renaissance begins

Timeline of Events
  • 1920
  • Warren G. Harding is elected president
  • Eighteenth Amendment goes into effect beginning
    the Prohibition Era which included speakeasies
    and organized crime
  • Nineteenth Amendment passes giving women the
    right to vote
  • Andrew Rube Foster founds the Negro National

Timeline of Events
  • 1921
  • Chinese Communist Party is founded in Shanghai
  • Sacco and Vanzettti are convicted of robbery and
  • Federal Aid Road Act funds a national highway
  • Emergency Quota Act is passed restricting

Timeline of Events
  • 1922
  • Benito Mussolini is appointed Prime Minister of
  • Teapot Dome Scandal
  • Louis Armstrong plays for King Olivers Creole
    Jazz Band in Chicago
  • King Tuts tomb is discovered in Egypt

Timeline of Events
  • 1923
  • President Harding dies Calvin Coolidge becomes
  • German economic crisis
  • Time magazine begins publication
  • Mustafa Kemal becomes the first president of new
    Republic of Turkey

Timeline of Events
  • 1924
  • Calvin Coolidge is elected president
  • Vladimir Ilich Lenin, founder of the Soviet
    Union, dies
  • 1925
  • A. Phillip Randolph organizes the Brotherhood of
    Sleeping Car Porters
  • The Scopes trial takes place in Tennessee

Timeline of Events
  • 1926
  • British laborers declare a general strike
  • Hirohito becomes emperor of Japan
  • Route 66 from Chicago to Los Angeles is
  • Gertrude Ederle becomes the first woman to swim
    the English Channel

Timeline of Events
  • 1927
  • Henry Ford introduces the Model A
  • Holland Tunnel, the first underwater tunnel
    connects New York City to New Jersey
  • Charles Lindbergh makes the first nonstop solo
    transatlantic flight

Timeline of Events
  • 1927
  • Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs in one season
  • The Jazz Singer with Al Jolson is released
  • Bessie Smith, a female blues singer, becomes the
    highest paid black artist in the world

Timeline of Events
  • 1928
  • Herbert Hoover is elected president
  • Joseph Stalin launches the first of his
    Five-Year-Plans for the USSR
  • President Alvaro Obregon of Mexico is
  • Steamboat Willie, the first animated movie with
    sound, was released by Walt Disney

Timeline of Events
  • 1929
  • National Revolutionary Party is organized in
  • Woodbridge Cloverleaf, the first cloverleaf
    intersection is built in New Jersey
  • The first Academy Awards are presented
  • The stock market crashes on October 29th
  • Hoover Dam begins construction

Timeline of Events
  • 1930
  • Army officers lead by Jose Uriburu seize control
    of Argentina
  • More than 40 of the nations banks fail from
  • Congress passes the Hawley-Smoot Tariff
  • Grant Wood paints American Gothic

Timeline of Events
  • 1931
  • Jane Addams shares the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Japan invades Manchuria
  • 8.02 million Americans are unemployed

Timeline of Events
  • 1932
  • The Bonus Army arrives in Washington, D.C.
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected president
  • Roosevelt launches the New Deal
  • Ibn Saud becomes king of newly-united Saudi

Timeline of Events
  • 1932
  • From prison, Mohandas K. Gandhi leads a protest
    against British policies in India
  • Federal Home Loan Bank Act is approved by
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation is approved by

Timeline of Events
  • 1933
  • Century of Progress Exposition begins
  • The Twenty-First Amendment ends prohibition
  • Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party take power in
  • Japan withdraws from the League of Nations

Timeline of Events
  • 1933
  • Frances Perkins becomes the 1st woman cabinet
    member serving as Secretary of Labor
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
  • Public Work Administration (PWA)
  • Civil Works Administration (CWA)

Timeline of Events
  • 1933
  • Emergency Banking Relief Act (EBRA)
  • National Recovery Administration (NRA)
  • Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
  • Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

Timeline of Events
  • 1934
  • Congress creates the SEC to regulate the stock
  • Indian Reorganization Act is passed
  • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
  • Federal Housing Administration (FHA)

Timeline of Events
  • 1935
  • Congress passes the Social Security Act
  • Mussolini leads Italian invasion of Ethiopia
  • British Parliament passes the Government of India
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA)
  • National Youth Administration (NYA)

Timeline of Events
  • 1935
  • Banking Act of 1935
  • Rural Electrification Administration (REA)
  • National Labor Relations Board (Wagner Act)
  • 1936
  • President Roosevelt is reelected
  • Civil war begins in Spain

Timeline of Events
  • 1937
  • Labor unions begins using sit-down strikes
  • United States Housing Authority (USHA)
  • Japan invades northern China
  • Hindenburg disaster
  • Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is released
  • Zora Neale Hurston writes Their Eyes Were
    Watching God

Timeline of Events
  • 1938
  • Route 66 is completed, linking Chicago, Illinois
    to Los,Angeles California
  • Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDC)
  • Fair Labor Standards Act
  • Orson Welles creates widespread panic with his
    radio show, The War of the Worlds

Timeline of Events
  • 1939
  • The Wizard of Oz is released in movie theaters
  • Germany invades Poland
  • Gone with the Wind is released on film
  • John Steinbeck publishes The Grapes of Wrath
  • 1940
  • President Roosevelt is elected a third time

Economic Troubles
  • Industry
  • Basic industries
  • railroads, textiles, and steel
  • Barely made a profit
  • New forms of transportation
  • Trucks, buses, and automobiles
  • Railroads lose business
  • Mining and lumbering
  • No longer in big demand

Economic Troubles
  • New forms of energy take away from coal
  • huge profit losses due to new forms of energy
  • Hydroelectric
  • Fuel oil
  • Natural gas
  • By 1930s supply more than ½ the energy that had
    come from coal

Economic Troubles
  • Boom industries weaken
  • Automobiles, construction, and consumer goods
  • Housing industry weakens key indicator
  • Housing starts to fall so do jobs in related
  • Furniture manufacturing and lumbering

Forms of Energy
Farmers Need a Lift
  • Agriculture suffered the most
  • During WWI prices rose and international output
    for crops like wheat and corn soared
  • Planted more crops
  • Borrowed money for more land and equipment
  • Demand fell after WWI and crop prices fell by 40
  • Farmers planted more but this caused a greater
    drop in prices
  • 1919- 1921 annual income drops from 10 billion
    to 4 billion
  • Farmers are in debt and having problems paying
    back loans

Farmers Need a Lift
Farmers Need a Lift
  • Farmers in trouble
  • Many lost their farms due to foreclosure
  • Many defaulted on their loans and rural banks
    began to fall as well
  • Auctions were being held to recoup losses
  • Congress
  • McNary-Haugen (price legislation) bill
  • Called for federal price supports for key
    products like wheat, corn, cotton, and tobacco
  • Government would buy surplus crops at guaranteed
    prices and sell them on the world market
  • Coolidge vetoed the bill twice

Consumers Spend Less
  • Incomes fall people have less to spend on goods
    and services
  • Late 1920s Americans are buying less
  • Rising prices
  • Stagnant wages,
  • Unbalanced distribution of income
  • Overbuying on credit
  • Production expanding faster than wages

Living on Credit
  • Americans in the 1920s were living beyond their
  • Bought goods on credit
  • Paid on the installment plan with interest
  • Credit was easily available and encouraged
    Americans to go into debt
  • Many had trouble paying back their debts
  • Consumers begin cutting back on spending

Living on Credit
Uneven Distribution of Income
  • The rich are getting richer and the poor are
    getting poorer
  • 1920-1929
  • Wealthiest 1 of Americans income rose 75
  • Rest of Americans income rose 9
  • 70 of nations families earned less than 2,500
    per year
  • Families earning twice that much could not afford
  • Unequal distribution meant most Americans could
    not participate fully in the economic advances of
    the 1920s

Uneven Distribution of Income
Election of 1928
  • Herbert Hoover
  • Alfred E. Smith
  • Republican
  • Secretary of Commerce under Harding and Coolidge
  • Never held public office
  • Mining engineer from Iowa
  • Quiet and reserved
  • Major advantage years of prosperity under
    Republican presidents
  • Democrat
  • Career politician
  • 4 term governor of New York
  • Personable and enjoyed being in the limelight

Election of 1928
  • Hoover won by an overwhelming margin
  • America was happy with Republican leadership

Hoover wins!
Dreams of Riches
  • Economist warned of weaknesses in the stock
  • Stock market was the most visible symbol of
    American prosperity
  • DJIA Dow Jones Industrial Average most widely
    used indicator of the stock markets health
  • Dow is based on the stock prices of 30 large
    firms trading on the NYSE
  • 1920s stocks rose steadily reaching an all time
    high of 381 points
  • Many (about 4 million Americans) took advantage
    of the bull market

Dreams of Riches
  • Trouble was looming
  • Speculation (over-speculation) the buying of
    stocks and bonds on the chance of a quick profit
  • Buying on the margin paying a small down
    payment and borrowing the rest
  • Money easily available to investors
    unrestrained buying and selling fueled the upward
  • Government did not help in discouraging these
    risky undertakings

And It All Comes Crashing Down
  • September 1929
  • Stock market peaks and then falls
  • Confidence fell in the market and some investors
    sold their stocks and pulled out
  • October 24, 1929
  • Stock market takes a plunge
  • Panicked investors sell their shares
  • October 29, 1929
  • Black Tuesday
  • The bottom fell out of the market
  • 16.4 million shares were dumped that day
  • Investors sold as quickly as possible

And It All Comes Crashing Down
And It All Comes Crashing Down
And It All Comes Crashing Down
  • November 1929
  • Investors lost about 30 billion
  • The bubble burst and it all came crashing down
  • The Stock Market Crash
  • Signaled the beginning of the Great Depression
  • People panicked and withdrew their money from
  • Some could not get their money because banks had
    invested it in the stock market
  • In 1929 600 banks closed
  • By 1933 11,000 of the nations 25,000 banks
  • Millions of people lost their life savings

And It All Comes Crashing Down
The House of Cards Tumbles
  • 1929 1932
  • GNP (Gross National Product) the nations total
    output of goods and services
  • went from 104 billion to 59 billion
  • About 90,000 businesses went bankrupt
  • Including automobiles and railroad companies
  • Million of workers lost their jobs
  • Unemployment skyrocketed
  • 1929 3
  • 1933 25
  • 1 out of 4 workers lost his/her job and those who
    kept them faced pay cuts and shorter hours

The Dominoes Fall
  • Other countries besides the U.S. were hit by the
  • Great Depression limited the amount of European
    goods the U.S. imported
  • Americans were having difficulty selling their
    products abroad
  • 1930 Hawley-Smoot Tariff passed by Congress
  • Established the highest protective tariff in U.S.
  • Designed to protect Americans farmers and
    manufacturers from foreign competition
  • Had the opposite effect causing world trade to
    drop by 40

Causes of the Great Depression
  • Tariffs and war debt policies that cut down the
    foreign market for American goods
  • A crisis in the farm sector
  • The availability of easy credit
  • An unequal distribution of income
  • These led to falling demand for consumer goods
  • Federal government kept interest rates low
    allowing companies to borrow easily and build up
    large debts
  • Borrowed money was used to buy stocks which later
    led to the crash

Depression in the Cities
  • People lost jobs, were evicted, ended up in
  • sleeping in parks, sewer pipes
  • wrapping themselves in newspapers to keep warm
  • Many built makeshift shacks from scraps
  • Shantytowns built up throughout cities
  • Soup kitchens offered free or low cost food
  • Breadlines offered free food provided by
    charitable organizations

Depression in the Cities
Depression in the Cities
Depression in the Cities
  • African Americans and Latinos had difficulty
  • Unemployment rates were higher
  • Racial violence occurred when competing for jobs
    with whites
  • 1933 24 African Americans were lynched
  • Latinos
  • Whites demanded that they be deported
  • 1930s hundreds of thousands of people of
    Mexican descent relocated to Mexico
  • Some left voluntarily and other were deported

Depression in the Rural Areas
  • Farmers were also hit hard by the depression
  • One advantage for farmers
  • They could grow food for their families
  • Most farmers lost their land because of debt and
    falling prices
  • 1929-1932 400,000 farms were lost to
  • Farmers turned to tenant farming to survive

Depression in the Rural Areas
Depression in the Rural Areas
Depression in the Rural Areas
The Dust Bowl
  • Drought hit in the early 1930s on the Great
  • Farmers used tractors to break up the prairie
    grasses but eventually they exhausted the land
    through overproduction
  • Land became unsuitable for farming
  • Windstorms scattered the topsoil leaving only
    sand and gravel
  • 1934 wind storm carried dust hundreds of miles to
    east coast cities

The Dust Bowl
  • Regions hit the hardest included
  • Kansas
  • Oklahoma
  • Texas
  • New Mexico
  • Colorado

The Dust Bowl
The Dust Bowl
The Dust Bowl
  • Thousands of farmers and sharecroppers left the
  • Packed up their families and headed west
    following Route 66 to California
  • Migrants became known as Okies (originally a term
    for people from Oklahoma), but now a negative
  • Found work as farmhands
  • End of 1930s thousands of farm families had
    migrated to California and other Pacific states

Route 66
Route 66
The American Family
  • Families were the source of strength for most
  • Americans believed in traditional values and
    emphasized the importance of the family even
    during the depression
  • Many families with money so tight stayed home to
    entertain themselves playing board games like
    Monopoly invented in 1933 or listening to the
  • Sometimes families did break apart under the
    strain of trying to make ends meet

The American Family
Men in the Streets
  • Men had difficulty coping with unemployment
  • Many would walk the streets daily looking for
  • Some would become discouraged and others would
    leave their families because they could not cope
    with not being the bread winner
  • 300,000 transients or hoboes wandered the country
  • Hitching rides on railroads and riding in boxcars
  • Sleeping under bridges
  • Developed their own hidden language to help them
    cope as they wandered

Riding the Rails
Riding the Rails
  • Hobo Symbols

Women Struggle to Survive
  • Women worked hard to help their families to
  • Canned food
  • Sewed clothes
  • Managed household budgets carefully
  • Some women worked outside the home for less money
    then men
  • They were often resented by males and many others
    who believed women, especially married women
    should not take work away from men
  • Women suffered just as much as men did, they just
    did it privately

Women Struggle to Survive
Children Suffer Hardships
  • Poor diet and lack of healthcare led to serious
    health problems
  • Malnutrition and diet-related diseases like
    rickets ran rampant among young children
  • Rickets a lack of vitamin D and calcium in the
  • Schools shortened their school year or closed all
  • 2,600 schools closed by 1933 leaving 300,000
    children out of school
  • Many went to work in sweatshops under horrible

Children Suffer Hardships
  • Hundreds of thousands of teenagers (boys and
    girls) hopped freight trains looking for work,
    adventure, and any escape from poverty
  • Many of these wild boys fell victims to murder
    or beating by freight yard patrolmen
  • 1929-1939
  • 24,647 trespassers on the railroads were killed
  • 27,171 were injured on railroad property

Children Suffer Hardships
Social and Psychological Effects
  • Demoralization causes loss of will to survive
  • 1928 1932 suicide rate rose to 30
  • Compromises and Sacrifices
  • Adults stopped going to the doctor and dentist
  • Many young people gave up their dreams of going
    to college
  • Financial security became the primary focus in
  • Stigma of poverty and having to scrimp and save
    never left most people
  • People started to show kindness to strangers
    during the depression
  • Families shared their strengths and resources and
    bonded within their communities

Hoovers Reassurance
  • Hoover tried to tell Americans that the nations
    economy want on a sound footing
  • Believed that Americans should remain optimistic
  • Experts believed the best course for the country
    to take was to do nothing and let the economy fix
  • Hoover felt the government should play a limited
    role in helping to solve the problem
  • Governments role was to encourage and facilitate
    cooperation, not to control it
  • Hoover was cautious in his assistance with the

Hoovers Cautious Steps
  • Hoover called together key leaders in business,
    banking, and labor
  • Urged them to work together to find solutions to
    the nations economic problems
  • Asked employers not to cut wages
  • Asked labor leaders not to demand wage increases
    or to go on strike
  • Created a special organization to help private
    charities generate contributions for the poor
  • None of these ideas worked and the economy was
    still in dire straits

Boulder Dam (Hoover Dam)
  • Hoover proposed the a dam to be built on the
    Colorado River when he served as the secretary of
  • Hoover financed the building of the dam by using
    profits from sales of the electric power the dam
    would generate
  • Arranged an agreement between the seven states
    that had water rights on the Colorado River basin
  • Won approval in 1929 as part of a 700 million
    public works project
  • Hoover able to authorize construction of the dam
    in 1929
  • 726 ft high and 1,244 ft long worlds tallest
    and second largest

Hoover Dam
Democrats Win Congress
  • 1930 Congressional Elections
  • Democrats take advantage of anti-Hoover
  • Republicans lose control of the House of
    Representatives but keep control of the Senate by
    1 vote
  • Farmers grow more and more resentful
  • Refuse to sell the crops at a loss so they burn
    them or dump the milk on the roads
  • Some used force to keep from being foreclosed
  • Some declared a farm holiday and did not work
    their fields

Hoovers Heartlessness
  • Hoovervilles
  • Shantytowns in American cities
  • Hoover Blankets
  • Newspapers people used as blankets to keep warm
  • Hoover flags
  • Empty pockets turned inside out
  • People began to resent Hoover and believed the
    great humanitarian had become a cold and
    heartless leader
  • Hoover refused to provide direct relief or other
    forms of federal welfare

Hoover Ditty
  • Mellon pulled the whistle
  • Hoover rang the bell
  • Wall Street gave the signal
  • And the country went to hell.

Hoover Takes Action
  • Backs Cooperatives
  • Federal Farm Board
  • intended to raise crop prices
  • members to buy crops and keep them off the market
    temporarily until prices rose
  • National Credit Corporation
  • Tried to prop up the banking system
  • Persuaded nations largest banks to establish it
  • Organization loaned money to smaller banks to
    help them stave off bankruptcy

Hoover Takes Action
  • Hoover appeals to Congress to pass a series of
  • reform banking
  • provide mortgage relief
  • Funnel federal money into business investments
  • Federal Home Loan Bank Act 1932
  • Lowered mortgage rates for homeowners
  • Allowed farmers to refinance their farm loans to
    avoid foreclosure
  • Glass-Steagall Banking Act
  • Passed after Hoover left office
  • Separated investment and commercial banking

Hoover Takes Action
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
  • January 1932
  • Authorized up to 2 billion for emergency
    financing for banks, life insurance companies,
    railroads, and other large businesses
  • Hoover believed the money would trickle down to
    the average citizen through job growth and higher
  • Unprecedented example of federal involvement in a
    peacetime economy
  • Too little, too late

Bonus Army
  • Bonus Expeditionary Force AKA the Bonus Army
  • 10 to 20 thousand WWI veterans and their families
    arrived in D.C.
  • Led by Walter Waters, an unemployed cannery
    worker from Oregon
  • Came to support the Patman Bill which would
    authorize the government to pay a bonus to WWI
    vets who had not been adequately compensated for
    their wartime service

Bonus Army
  • Money was to be paid out in 1945 in cash and life
  • Congressman Wright Patman felt is should be paid
  • Hoover respected the people and even gave them
    food and supplies, allowing them to assemble in
    sight of the Capitol
  • June 17th Senate votes down the Patman Bill
  • Hoover asks the Bonus Army to leave
  • Most did, but about 2,000 refused

Bonus Army
  • Hoover felt the groups should be disbanded
  • July 28th 1,000 soldiers under the command of
    General Douglas MacArthur and his aide, Major
    Dwight D. Eisenhower came to remove the vets
  • Infantry gassed more than 1,000 people
  • 11 month old baby killed,
  • 8 year old boy partially blinded by the gas
  • 2 people were shot
  • Many were injured

Bonus Army
Bonus Army
Election of 1932
  • Americans were stunned and outraged by the
  • Hoovers popularity suffered again
  • Election of 1932
  • Hoover is facing Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Americans are ready for a change
  • FDR was the Democratic nominee
  • 2 term governor of New York
  • Distant cousin of Theodore Roosevelt
  • Effective reform minded leader
  • Possessed a can-do attitude
  • Friendly and confident

Election of 1932
FDR 23 million votes and Hoover 16 million
votes Senate Democrats - 2/3 majority House
Democrats - ¾ majority
Roosevelts Wait
  • Roosevelt won in November 1932 but did not take
    office until March 1933
  • 20th Amendment passed in February 1933 moving the
    inauguration date for the presidency to January
  • FDR was not idle
  • Carefully selected a team of advisors including
    lawyers, professors, and journalists Brain
  • Began to formulate a set of policies
  • Three goals of the New Deal
  • Relief for the needy
  • Economic recovery
  • Financial reform

The Hundred Days
  • Lasted from March 9 to June 16, 1933
  • Congress passed over 15 major pieces of New Deal
  • Laws that expanded the federal governments role
    in the nations economy
  • First step
  • Banking and finance reform
  • On March 5th he declared a bank holiday closing
    all banks to prevent further withdrawals

The Hundred Days
  • Emergency Banking Relief Act
  • Authorized the Treasury Department to inspect the
    countrys banks
  • Those that were sound could reopen at once
  • Those that were insolvent were kept closed
  • Those that needed help could receive loans
  • Measure revived public confidence in banks
  • Open banks were in good financial shape

Fireside Chat
  • March 12th
  • FDR gives his first fireside chat
  • Talks in clear, simple language about his New
    Deal measures
  • Made Americans feel the president was talking
    directly to them
  • Explained how the banking system worked and
    because of this many Americans returned their
    savings to the banks

Fireside Chat
Banking and Finance
  • Glass-Steagall Act
  • Established the Federal Deposit Insurance
    Corporation (FDIC)
  • Provided federal insurance for individual bank
    accounts of up to 5,000 (now 100,000)
  • Also required banks to act cautiously with their
    customers money
  • Federal Securities Act
  • May 1933
  • Required corporations to provide complete
    information of all stock offerings
  • Made them liable for any misrepresentation

Banking and Finance
  • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
  • June 1934
  • Regulates the stock market
  • Prevents people with inside information about
    companies from rigging the stock market for
    their own profit
  • Roosevelt persuaded Congress to approve a bill
    allowing the manufacture and sale of some alcohol
  • Purpose was to raise government revenue by taxing
  • 21st Amendment passes repealing prohibition by
    the end of 1933

Rural Assistance
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) 1933
  • Set up to raise crop prices by lowering
  • Government paid farmers to leave a certain amount
    of land fallow
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 1933
  • Focused on the badly depressed Tennessee Valley
  • Renovated 5 existing dams and constructed 20 new
  • Created thousands of jobs
  • Provided flood control, hydroelectric power and
    other benefits to a poor region

Rural Assistance
Works Projects
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) 1933
  • Put young men 18 25 to work building roads,
    parks, planting trees, and helping in soil
    erosion and flood control projects
  • 3 million young men worked for the CCC between
    1933 1942
  • Wages 30 a month, 25 was sent home to the
  • Supplied food, lodging and clothing for the
  • Public Works Administration 1933
  • Part of the National Industrial Recovery Act
    (NIRA) 1933
  • Provided money to states to create job chiefly in
    the construction of schools and other community
  • Civil Works Administration (CWA) 1933
  • Built 40,000 schools and paid salaries of more
    than 50,000 school teachers in rural areas

Works Projects
Works Projects
Fair Practices
  • National Recovery Administration (NRA) 1933
  • Established codes for fair practices
  • Set prices of many products to ensure fair
  • Established standards for working hours and a ban
    on child labor
  • Codes limited production and establish prices

Food, Clothing, and Shelter
  • Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) 1933
  • Provided government loans to homeowners who faced
    foreclosure because they couldnt meet loan
  • National Housing Act 1934
  • Created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
  • Furnishes loans for home mortgages and repairs to
    this day
  • Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA) 1933
  • Funded with 500 million to provide direct relief
    for the needy
  • ½ the money was given to states for grants-in-aid
  • Rest distributed to states to support work relief
  • Headed by Harry Hopkins

Food, Clothing, and Shelter
New Deal Under Attack
  • Roosevelt agreed to deficit spending
  • Deficit spending spending more money than the
    government receives in revenue
  • Believed it was a necessary evil to be used only
    at a time of great economic crisis
  • New Deal did not end the depression
  • Liberals believed the New Deal did not go far
  • Conservatives believed the government was trying
    to control business and spending too much on
    direct relief

New Deal Under Attack
  • Supreme Court boosts the Conservatives
  • 1935 Court stated that NIRA was
  • Declared the law gave legislative powers to the
    executive branch
  • enforcement of industry codes within states went
    beyond the federal governments powers to
    regulate interstate commerce
  • 1936 Court stated that the AAA was
  • Stated that agriculture was a local matter and
    should be regulated by the states rather than by
    the federal government

Court Packing Bill
  • 1937 Roosevelt asks Congress to enact a
    court-reform bill to reorganize the federal
  • Wanted to appoint 6 new judges to the Supreme
  • Many members of Congress and the press protested
    on the grounds that the president was violating
    principles of judicial independence and
    separation of powers
  • 1937 a justice retires and Roosevelt appoints
    Hugo Black, a liberal shifting the balance of the
  • Court
  • 7 justices will be appointed
  • by Roosevelt over the next
  • 4 years

Roosevelts Critics
  • 1934 American Liberty League formed by
  • Opposed New Deal measures that it believed
    violated respect for the rights of individuals
    and property
  • Father Charles Coughlin
  • Broadcast radio sermons on economic, political
    and religious ideas
  • Initially a supporter of the New Deal
  • Favored a guaranteed annual income and
    nationalization of banks

Roosevelts Critics
  • Dr. Francis Townsend
  • A physician and health officer in Long Beach,
  • Believed Roosevelt wasnt doing enough to help
    the poor and elderly
  • Devised a pension plan that would provide monthly
    benefits to the aged
  • Huey Long
  • A senator from Louisiana
  • Wanted to be the president
  • Created a nationwide social program called
  • At the height of his popularity, Long was
    assassinated by a lone gunman

Roosevelts Critics
Second Hundred Days
  • 1935
  • Seeking ways to build on the programs established
    during the first 100 days
  • Economy had improved in the first 2 years of
    FDRs administration
  • Unemployment still high
  • Production lagged behind 1920s levels
  • New Deal had widespread popularity
  • FDR launched 2nd New Deal
  • Prodded by his wife, Eleanor, a social reformer

Second Hundred Days
  • 1936 Presidential Election
  • 2nd New Deal was under way
  • Republicans Alfred Landon governor of Kansas
  • Democrats FDR
  • Overwhelming victory for the Democrats
  • marked the first time that most African Americans
    voted Democratic
  • was the first time labor unions gave united
    support to a presidential candidate
  • vote of confidence for FDR and the New Deal

1936 Presidential Election
Farmers Get a Hand
  • Mid 1930s
  • 2 out of 5 farms were mortgaged
  • The Grapes of Wrath
  • Written by John Steinbeck
  • Described the experience of a tenant farmer and
    his family
  • Won the Pulitzer for fiction in 1940
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (2nd) 1938
  • Paid farmers for cutting production of soil
    depleting crops
  • Rewarded farmers who practiced good soil
  • Brought back many of the features of the original

John Steinbeck
Farmers Get a Hand
  • Sharecroppers, migrant workers poor farmers
    received help under the 2nd New Deal
  • Resettlement Administration
  • Created by an executive order in 1935
  • Provided monetary loan to small farmers to buy
  • Farm Security Administration (FSA) 1937
  • Replaced the Resettlement Administration
  • Hired photographers like Dorothea Lange, Ben
    Shahn, Walker Evans, Arthur Rothstein, and Carl
  • Used the photographs to create a pictorial
    history of the difficulties faced by rural

Extending Relief
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1935
  • Created as many job as possible as quickly as
  • Spent 11 billion to give jobs to more than 8
    million workers
  • Built 850 airports
  • Constructed 651,000 miles of roads and streets
  • Put up more than 125,000 public buildings
  • Women workers in sewing groups made over 300
    million garments for the needy
  • Employed many professionals who wrote guides to
    cities, collected historical slave narratives,
    painted murals on walls of schools and public
    buildings and performed in theatre troops

Extending Relief
  • National Youth Administration (NYA) 1935
  • Created specifically to provide education, jobs,
    counseling, and recreation for young people
  • Provided student aid to high school, college, and
    graduate students
  • Students worked part time positions at their
    schools in exchange
  • For graduates unable to find work or dropouts, it
    provided part time jobs like working on highways,
    parks, and public grounds of buildings

Improving Labor
  • Fair Labor Standards Act 1938
  • Set maximum hours at 44 per week (decreased to 40
    after 2 years)
  • Set minimum wage at 25 cents an hour 40 cents
    an hour by 1945
  • Set rules for employment of workers under 16 and
    banned hazardous work for those under 18
  • Social Security Act 1935
  • Created the social security system with 3 parts
  • Old age insurance for retirees 65 or older and
    their spouses
  • Unemployment compensation administered at the
    state level
  • Aid to families with dependent children and the

  • Rural Electrification Administration (REA) 1935
  • Established by executive order
  • Financed and worked with electrical cooperatives
    to bring electricity to isolated areas
  • 1945 45 of Americas farms and rural homes had
  • 1949 90
  • Public Utility Holding Company Act 1935
  • Took aim at financial corruption in the public
    utility industry
  • Outlawed ownership of utilities by multiple
    holding companies
  • Proved difficult to enforce

Women and the New Deal
  • FDR named several women to important positions in
    the government
  • Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Was a driving force behind FDR bringing women to
    the work place
  • Frances Perkins
  • the 1st female cabinet member as the Secretary of
  • Played an important role in the creating the
    Social Security system
  • Supervised labor legislation

Improving Labor
  • Supreme Court in 1935 declared the NIRA
  • National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) 1935
  • Reestablished the NIRA provision of collective
  • Federal government protected the rights of
    workers to join unions and engage in collective
  • Prohibited unfair labor practices such as
    threatening workers, firing unions members, and
    interfering with union organizing
  • Set up the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
    to hear about unfair practices

Women and the New Deal
  • 2 other women became diplomats and another a
    federal judge
  • Women faced discrimination in the work place
  • 82 of America felt if a husband had a job a wife
    should not work

Women and the New Deal
African American Activism
  • Activism by African Americans was on the rise in
    the 1930s
  • A. Philip Randolph organized the first all-black
    trade union, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
  • FDR appointed more than 100 African Americans to
    key positions in the government
  • Mary McLeod Bethune
  • Educator
  • Head of the Division of Negro Affairs of the NYA
  • Worked to ensure that the NYA hired African
    American administrators and provided job training
    and other benefits to minorities
  • Helped to organize the Black Cabinet,
    influential African Americans who were advisors
    to FDRs administration

African American Activism
  • William H. Hastie and Robert C. Weaver
  • Appointees to the Department of the Interior
  • Marian Anderson
  • African American singer who performed at Lincoln
    Memorial on Easter Sunday in D.C. because the
    members of the DAR would not allow her to perform
    in their concert hall
  • Civil Rights
  • FDR did not promote civil rights for African
    Americans because he was afraid of upsetting the
    white Democratic vote
  • Refused to approve a federal anti-lynching law
    and an end to the poll tax
  • Many New Deal agencies discriminated against
    blacks but they supported him because they
    thought his ideas gave them their best hope for
    the future

African Americans the New Deal
African Americans the New Deal
Mexican Americans
  • Received in fewer benefits than African Americans
  • Settled mainly in the Southwest
  • Found work laboring on farms
  • Farm works who tried to unionize met with
  • CCC and WPA did help some Mexican Americans
  • Were also disqualified from some programs because
    they were migrant works and did not have a
    permanent address

Native Americans
  • Received strong government support from New Deal
  • Native Americans receive full citizenship under
    the law in 1924
  • John Collier is appointed commissioner of Indian
  • Indian Reorganization Act 1934
  • Moved away from assimilation and towards autonomy
  • Mandated 3 areas economic, cultural, and
  • Economic Native American land belong to the
  • Cultural Native American children could attend
    school on the reservations
  • Political tribes could elect tribal councils to
    govern the reservation

New Deal Coalition
  • An alignment of diverse groups dedicated to
    supporting the Democratic Party
  • Included Southern whites, various urban groups,
    African Americans, and unionized industrial
  • Kept Democrats in control throughout the 1930s
    and 1940s

Labor Unions
  • Labor Unions
  • Union members had better working conditions and
    increased bargaining power
  • FDR was a friend of labor
  • 1933 1941 union membership increased from
    less than 3 million to more than 10 million
  • Unionization of major groups began to occur
  • Coal miners, auto workers, rubber and electrical
  • Which would become dominant?

Labor Unions
  • American Federation of Labor opposed industry
    wide unions
  • Key Labor Leaders for a new union
  • John L. Lewis United Mine Workers of America
  • David Dubinsky International Ladies Garment
  • Form the Committee for Industrial Organization
  • Signed up unskilled and semi-skilled workers
    gaining success
  • Expelled from AFL in 1938
  • Changed name to Congress of Industrial
    Organizations (CIO)
  • Joined back with AFL to become the AFL-CIO in

Labor Leaders
Labor Disputes
  • Sit down strikes
  • one of the main bargaining tactics of the 1930s
  • Workers did not walk off the job, the stayed in
    the plant but did not work
  • Prevented the factory owner from hiring
  • Very effective
  • Republic Steel Plant Strike (Memorial Day
  • Memorial Day, 1937
  • Chicago, Illinois
  • Police attacked steel workers outside the plant
  • 10 people killed, 84 wounded
  • NLRB stepped in and required Tom Girdler, the
    head of Republic Steel to negotiate with the union

Election of 1936
  • FDR Democratic nominee Alfred Landon

Win 2!
Election of 1936
  • FDR wins for the 2nd time
  • New Deal coalition helps FDR to win
  • Also includes urban voters
  • Roosevelt carries the 12 largest cities in the
  • Support came from various religious and ethnic
    groups including Roman Catholics, Jews, Irish,
    Polish and Slavic groups
  • New Deal legislation aided the urban poor
  • New Deal has a tremendous influence on American
    society and culture

Culture in the 1930s
  • Motion Pictures
  • Golden Age and profitable
  • 65 of the population went to the movies once a
  • 15,000 movie theatres nationwide
  • Radios
  • 1930 13 million sold
  • 1940 28 million sold
  • 90 of American homes had a radio

Movies are the Rage
  • All genres vied for attention including comedies,
    musicals, love stories, and gangster films
  • New Stars on the rise
  • Clark Gable
  • Marlene Dietrich
  • James Cagney
  • Helped to launch a new era of glamour and
    sophistication in Hollywood
  • Gone With the Wind (1939)
  • Most popular movies of all time and the most
    famous during the era
  • Starred Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh

Movies are the Rage
Movies are the Rage
  • Flying Down to Rio (1933)
  • Starring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers
    Americas favorite dance partners
  • Light romantic comedy
  • The Wizard of Oz (1939)
  • Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)
  • Monkey Business and Duck Soup
  • Starring the Marx Brothers
  • Had an escapist quality about them
  • Little Caesar (1930) and The Public Enemy (1931)
  • Gangster films sent on gritty street in urban

Movies are the Rage
Movies are the Rage
Movies are the Rage
  • Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936) and Mr. Smith Goes
    to Washington (1939)
  • Present the social and political accomplishments
    of the New Deal in a positive light
  • Directed by Frank Capra
  • Portrayed honest, kindhearted people winning out
    over the greedy special interests

Movies are the Rage
Radio Entertains
  • Embodied the democratic spirit of the times
  • Families spend hours around the radio listening
    to their favorite programs
  • Radio is a direct means of access to the American
  • Offered a wide range of entertainment including
    dramas and variety shows
  • The War of the Worlds broadcast by Orson Welles
  • One of the most famous shows broadcast
  • People actually believed that Martians were going
    to attack the Earth

Radio Entertains
Radio Entertains
  • Many radio personalities made it to the silver
    screen including Bob Hope, Jack Benny, and George
    Burns and Gracie Allen
  • Soap operas (named because they were sponsored by
    soap companies) played in the late morning and
    early afternoon
  • The Lone Ranger, a childrens program aired in
    the afternoon
  • A description of the crash of the Hindenburg was
    one of the first radio broadcasts aired worldwide

Hope, Benny, Burns and Allen
Hi Ho Silver!
The Hindenburg
The Hindenburg
The Hindenburg
The Arts in Depression America
  • Art, music, and literature of the time very sober
    and serious
  • Artistic work portrayed the American people
  • Conveyed a message of strength of character and
    the democratic values of the American people
  • Many artists received direct support from New
    Deal legislation
  • Harry Hopkins, the head of the WPA stated it best
    Theyve got to eat just like other people.

Artists Decorate America
  • Federal Art Project
  • Branch of the WPA
  • Paid artists a living wage to produce public art
  • Aimed to increase appreciation of art and promote
    positive images of American Society
  • Created posters, taught art in schools, and
    painted murals on public buildings
  • Murals were inspired by the work of Mexican
    muralists like Diego Rivera who portrayed the
    dignity of ordinary Americans at work

Artists Decorate America
  • Outstanding Painters of the New Deal
  • Grant Wood American Gothic, 1930
  • Edward Hopper Nighthawks, 1942
  • Thomas Hart Benton The Arts of Life in America
    Arts of the City, 1932
  • Federal Theatre Project
  • Hired actors to perform plays and artists to
    provide stage sets and props for theatre
  • Clifford Odets, Waiting for Lefty, 1935
    portrayed the labor struggles of the 1930s

Grant Wood
American Gothic, 1930
Grant Wood
Edward Hopper
Nighthawks, 1942
Edward Hopper
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton
The Arts of Life in America Arts of the City,
Clifford Odets
Woody Guthrie Sings of America
  • Woody Guthrie
  • Singer and songwriter
  • Used music to capture the
  • hardships of America
  • Traveled the country in
  • search of brighter
  • opportunities and told
  • his troubles in songs

Writers Depict American Life
  • Federal Writers Project
  • Gave Saul Bellow a future Nobel and Pulitzer
    Prize winner his first writing project
  • Richard Wright Native Son, 1940
  • Zora Neale Hurston Their Eyes Were Watching
    God, 1937
  • John Steinbeck The Grapes of Wrath, 1939
  • James T. Farrell Studs Lonigan trilogy, 1932-
  • Jack Conroy The Disinherited, 1933
  • James Agee and Walker Evans Let Us Now Praise
    Famous Men, 1941
  • Thornton Wilder (playwright) Our Town, 1938

Writers Depict American Life
Writers Depict American Life
Impact of the New Deal
  • 1937
  • economy had improved enough to convince many
    Americans that the Depression was finally ending
  • Economic troubles still occurred throughout the
  • Congress wanted to scale back New Deal programs
    so FDR agreed
  • Outcome
  • Industrial production dropped
  • Unemployment increased from 7.7 million in 1937
    to 10.4 million in 1938
  • 1939
  • New Deal is essentially over
  • FDR more worried about Hitler and his rise to
    power in Germany

Supporters and Critics
  • Opinions range from harsh criticism to high
  • Conservatives Critics
  • Made federal government too large and too
  • Government stifled free enterprise and
    individual initiative
  • Liberal Critics
  • FDR did not do enough to socialize the economy
    and to eliminate social and economic inequalities
  • Supporters
  • FDR struck a reasonable balance between
    unregulated capitalism and overregulated
  • Helped the country recover from its economic

Expanding Governments Role
  • FDRs administration expanded the power of the
    government especially the power of the president
  • Gave the president a more active role in shaping
    the economy
  • Federal government put millions of dollars into
    the economy, created jobs, settled labor disputes
    and established many new agencies still used
  • FDIC and SEC regulate banking and investment
  • New Deal did not end the Great Depression but did
    alleviate the suffering of thousands of people
  • Gave people hope and allowed the to regain their

Expanding Governments Role
  • Federal government went deep into debt to help
    the American people
  • Federal deficit
  • 1934 2.9 billion
  • 1937-1938 100 million
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