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Unit III

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Unit III A Modern Nation Chapter 11 The Great Depression Begins Section 2 Americans Face Hard Times The Great Depression Hits the United States [03:24 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit III


1
Unit III A Modern Nation
  • Chapter 11 The Great Depression Begins
  • Section 2 Americans Face Hard Times

2
The Roaring Twenties Come to an End 0253
3
The Great Depression Hits the United States
0324
4
Homeless People on the Road
5
Eating in a Breadline
6
Life in the Depression
7
Life in the Depression
8
The Great Depression in America 0430
9
Americans Face Hard Times
  • The Main Idea
  • The Great Depression and the natural disaster
    known as the Dust Bowl produced economic
    suffering on a scale the nation had never seen
    before.
  • Reading Focus
  • How did the Great Depression develop?
  • What was the human impact of the Great
    Depression?
  • Why was the Dust Bowl so devastating?

10
Causes of the Great Depression
  • 1) The Stock Market Crash of 1929- a trigger.
  • 2) Unequal distribution of Wealth. False
    prosperity (A maldistribution of purchasing
    power).
  • 3) Overproduction and over dependence on mass
    production.
  • 4) Unemployment
  • 5) Speculation in Stock Market- buying on margin
    and cheap money
  • 6) Banking crisis.
  • 7) Trade collapse
  • 8) Republican Party
  • 9) Federal Reserve and Money system
  • 10) Lack of diversification.
  • 11) Post war deflationary procedures.
  • 12) The Credit structure.

11
Great Depression by the Numbers
  • After the stock market crash, economic flaws
    helped the nation sink into the Great Depression,
    the worst economic downturn in history.
  • The stock market collapse strained the resources
    of banks and many failed, thus creating greater
    anxiety.
  • In 1929 banks had little cash on hand and were
    vulnerable to runs, or a string of nervous
    depositors withdrawing money. Not all Americans
    invested but most all had money in savings.
  • A run could quickly drain a bank of all its cash
    and force its closure.
  • In the months after October 1929, bank runs
    struck nationwide and hundreds of banks failed,
    including the enormous Bank of the United States.
  • Bank closures wiped out billions in savings by
    1933.

Today, insurance from the federal government
protects most peoples deposits, and laws today
require banks to keep a large percentage of their
assets in cash to be paid to depositors upon
request.
12
Farm Failures
  • The hard times farmers faced got worse during the
    Great Depression, when widespread joblessness and
    poverty cut down on the demand for food as many
    Americans simply went hungry.
  • By 1933, with farmers unable to sell food they
    produced, farm prices had sunk to 50 percent of
    their already low 1929 levels. Farmers
    overproduced, surpluses went up and prices went
    down.
  • Lower prices meant lower income for farmers, and
    many borrowed money from banks to pay for land
    and equipment.
  • As incomes dropped, farmers couldnt pay back
    their loans, and in the first five years of the
    1930s, hundreds of thousands of farms went
    bankrupt or suffered foreclosure. 1933- over
    364,000 foreclosures

Foreclosure occurs when a lender takes over
ownership of a property from an owner who has
failed to make loan payments.
13
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14
Unemployment
  • The year following the crash of October 1929 saw
    a sharp drop in economic activity and a steep
    rise in unemployment.
  • Such negative trends are not uncommon in times of
    economic downturn, but the extent and duration of
    these trends made the Great Depression different.
  • By 1933 the gross national product dropped over
    40 percent from its pre-crash levels.
  • Unemployment reached a staggering 25 percent, and
    among some groups the numbers were even higher
  • In the African American neighborhood of Harlem,
    for example, unemployment reached 50 percent in
    1932.

15
Development of the Great Depression
  • Unemployment
  • 1929-1930 steep rise in unemployment which would
    last a long time.
  • 1933- GNP dropped more than 40
  • 1933- unemployment was at 25.
  • Black areas were higher- Harlem up to 50

16
The Development of the Great Depression
  • How did the Great Depression develop?
  • Explain- How did people with money in banks end
    up losing their savings?
  • Design What could banks have done to prevent
    failure as a result of runs?

17
The Human Impact of the Great Depression
18
Welcome to Hooverville (0622)
19
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20
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21
The Human Impact of the Great Depression
  • Thousands applying for every job.
  • People begged from door to door.
  • Soup kitchens and Bread lines.
  • 1930s- no federal programs to provide food or
    money to the poor.
  • Local Charities, municipal and state govt
    provided relief.
  • 1932 on 1 in 4 families needing unemployment
    relief got any.
  • People lost their homes- eviction and
    foreclosure.
  • Hoovervilles- Shantytowns for the homeless.-
    Ramshackle, leaky and drafty
  • No running water or electricity
  • Unemployed males were idle and desperate.
  • Emotional Toll- personal failure, pride, anger

22
The Human Impact of the Great Depression
  • Hoboes
  • Mostly men- unskilled migratory laborer, an
    itinerant and seasonal worker.
  • Mostly white, American born, and able bodied.
  • Hopped trains to travel from town to town-
    Illegal, dangerous and hired Bulls.
  • Beg or stole food.
  • System of sign language.
  • Families sometimes broke under the strain of
    poverty and homelessness. Many left their
    families behind.

23
The Emotional Impact of the Depression
  • The Great Depressions worst blow might have been
    to the minds and spirits of the American people.
  • Though many shared the same fate, the unemployed
    often felt that they failed as people.
  • Accepting handouts deeply troubled many proud
    Americans. Their shame and despair was reflected
    in the high suicide rates of the time.
  • Anger was another common emotion, because many
    felt the nation had failed the hardworking
    citizens who had helped build it.

24
The Human Impact of the Great Depression
  • What was the human impact of the Great
    Depression?
  • Identify- Who provided relief to the poor during
    the Great Depression?
  • Describe How did the Great Depression affect
    the minds and spirits of Americans?
  • Make Judgments- Considering the dangers, why do
    you think some young men became hoboes rather
    than try to find a place to settle?

25
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26
Devastation in the Dust Bowl
  • Nature delivered another cruel blow. In 1931 rain
    stopped falling across much of the Great Plains
    region.
  • This drought, or period of below average
    rainfall, lasted for several years, and millions
    of people had fled the area by the time it
    lifted.
  • Agricultural practices in the 1930s left the area
    vulnerable to droughts.
  • Land once covered with protective grasses was now
    bare, with no vegetation to hold the soil in
    place.
  • When wind storms came, they stripped the rich
    topsoil and blew it hundreds of miles. The dust
    sometimes flew as far as the Atlantic Coast.
  • Dust mounds choked crops and buried farm
    equipment, and dust blew into windows and under
    doors.
  • The storms came year after year, and the hardest
    hit areas of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New
    Mexico, and Texas eventually became known as the
    Dust Bowl.

27
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28
Devastation of the Dust Bowl
  • Great Plains Drought- 1931
  • Dust storms
  • brought on by years of careless agriculture
    practices.
  • Wind storms stripped away topsoil and blew it for
    hundreds of miles.
  • Drifts choked crops, buried farms and blew into
    homes.
  • Dust Bowl

29
America in the 1930s The Dust Bowl 0102
30
Fleeing the Plains
31
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32
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34
Devastation of the Dust Bowl
  • Migration
  • Fleeing the Plains- Okies
  • People quit, packed up and moved.
  • End of 1930s- 2.5 million left.
  • Headed west on Route 66 to California and migrant
    farm camps.
  • Met by resistance and discrimination.
  • Grapes of Wrath- book

35
Migration the Dust Bowl
417 min.
36
Devastation in the Dust Bowl
  • Why was the Dust Bowl so devastating?
  • Define- What was the Dust Bowl?
  • Recall What caused the Dust Bowl?
  • Evaluate Why do you think people in California
    were hostile to migrants from the Great Plains?
  • Recall Who were John Steinbeck and Woody
    Guthrie?

37
Dust Bowl Farmers Migrate to California
250 min.
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