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Title: The%20Roaring%20Twenties

The Roaring Twenties
  • 1919-1929

I. The Shaky Postwar Economy
  • people have money to spend
  • too many dollars and too few goods leads to
    inflation (prices go up)
  • In two years, prices doubled
  • Workers wanted to be paid more
  • 3,600 strikes in 1919
  • Boston police went on strike, as well as steel
    and coal workers

II. The Red Scare 1919-1920
  • Russia had become a communist country in 1917, so
    people feared that workers would revolt in the
    United States
  • Government decides to crack down on suspected
  • 5,000 people were arrested without warrants and
    often denied lawyers in the Palmer raids
  • Only 3 pistols were seized

III. Sacco and Vanzetti
  • immigrants were suspected of bringing radical
    ideas like communism with them
  • Two anarchists were found guilty of murder and
    put to death even though the evidence was flimsy
  • The government and people were overcome by fear

IV. Prosperous Times
  • What were people buying?
  • Why did education become more important?

V. Advertising and CreditVI. Popular
EntertainmentVII. Music and DancingVIII. Fads
and FanciesIX. Lucky LindyX. Literary LifeXI.
The Scopes Monkey TrialXII. Black
MigrationXIII. The Return of the KKK
V. Advertising and Credit
  • Ads made people believe the products were a
    necessity and would make life better.
  • People were more willing to go into debt and buy
    on credit in good economic times.

VI. Popular Entertainment
  • People had more spare time and more money to
  • Radio, movies, and sports were popular.
  • nickelodeons
  • The Jazz Singer (1927)
  • Jack Dempsey
  • Babe Ruth

VII. Music and Dancing
  • Broadway musicals
  • Jazz- Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Bessie
  • Big-band music played people danced the
    fox-trot, camel-walk, tango, and Charleston.
  • Flappers wore short skirts and short hair

VIII. Fads and Fancies
  • Mah Jong
  • Crossword puzzles
  • Magazines like Time, Readers Digest and New
    Yorker started in the 20s

Lucky Lindy
  • Charles Lindbergh was the first to fly solo
    across the Atlantic Ocean (NYC to Paris)
  • He became a hero and symbolized individual effort
    and the adventuresome spirit of the 1920s

Literary Life
  • Lost Generation- American writers who wrote of
    hypocrisy and greed
  • Ernest Hemingway
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Harlem Renaissance-
  • Black life was celebrated in literature, music,
    and art
  • Langston Hughes
  • Zora Neale Hurston

The Scopes Monkey Trial
  • The theory of evolution divided Americans
  • John Scopes, a biology teacher, broke the law by
    teaching Darwins theory in school
  • Scopes was found guilty and fined 100
  • The trial symbolized the conflict between country
    and city values

  • Volstead Act- provided the enforcements of
    prohibition enacted by the 18th Amendment
  • speakeasies and bootlegging became popular
  • Organized crime spread distributing illegal
  • Gangs fought over territory
  • Al Capone was the most famous gangster of the

One-Way Ticket
  • I am fed up
  • With Jim Crow laws
  • People who are cruel
  • And afraid,
  • Who lynch and run,
  • Who are scared of me
  • And me of them
  • I pick up my life
  • And take it away
  • On a one-way ticket-
  • Gone up North
  • Gone up West
  • Gone!
  • -Langston Hughes

Presidents of the 1920s
  • Warren G. Harding (1921-1923) Republican
  • - promised to let the U.S. run itself without
    too much government interference
  • - brought his loyal (but unqualified) friends
    from Ohio to be his political advisers
  • - died in office of a possible heart attack
  • Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929) Republican
  • - a hands-off president, laissez-faire
  • - believed the business of America is business
  • Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) Republican

Black Migration
  • Blacks looked to the North as a place with less
    racial prejudice.
  • Millions moved to the northern cities of New
    York, Chicago, and Philadelphia.
  • Prejudice was found in the North, too.
  • Marcus Garvey led a movement to lead blacks back
    to Africa.

The Return of the KKKpage 704
  • Membership increased greatly in the 1920s.
  • The KKK became successful in politics.
  • KKK members felt threatened by the changes of the

Stock Market Crash of 1929page 732
  • People thought they could get rich quick by
    playing the stock market.
  • Dangerous practices
  • speculation-
  • buying on margin-

Stock Market Crash of 1929page 732
  • People thought they could get rich quick by
    playing the stock market.
  • Dangerous practices
  • speculation- the practice of making high-risk
    investments in hopes of getting a huge return.
  • buying on margin-

Stock Market Crash of 1929page 732
  • People thought they could get rich quick by
    playing the stock market.
  • Dangerous practices
  • speculation- the practice of making high-risk
    investments in hopes of getting a huge return.
  • buying on margin- the practice that allows
    investors to purchase stock for only a fraction
    of its price (10 to 50 percent) and borrow the
  • On October 29, 1929, a record 16.4 million shares
    were sold. The collapse of the stock market is
    known as the Great Crash.

Stock Market Crash of 1929pages 741-742
  • How did the effects of the Crash spread to all
  • Risky loans hurt the banks
  • Consumers borrowed heavily
  • People rushed to withdraw their money from the
  • Banks failed and closed
  • Savings were wiped out
  • Production went down
  • Unemployment went up
  • Cycle continued leading to the Great Depression

The Great Depressionpage 744
  • A time of economic hardship in the U.S. from 1929
    to 1941
  • What caused the Great Depression?
  • 1. Stock market crash
  • 2. An unstable economy
  • Unequal distribution of wealth
  • Overproduction
  • 3. Overspeculation
  • 4. Mistakes in monetary policy

(No Transcript)
Social Effects of the Depressionpages 745-750
  • What were Hoovervilles?
  • What happened on the farms?
  • What was the Dust Bowl?

Election of 1932page 756
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt defeats Herbert Hoover
    to be president in the greatest landslide the
    U.S. had ever seen.
  • So first of all let me assert my firm belief
    that the only thing we have to fear is fear
  • -FDR, First Inaugural Address, 1933

The New Dealpage 769
  • relief recovery reform
  • New Deal- Programs of FDRs administration that
    were aimed at combating the Great Depression.
  • FDRs first act as president was the bank
    holiday. Banks were closed for the next four
    days and could not re-open unless they were
    healthy and insured.

The New Dealpage 774-5
  • relief recovery reform
  • Choose three New Deal agencies
  • Write the name and purpose of it.
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.

Critics of the New Dealpage 782
  • Some felt that the New Deal did too much
    (bringing state socialism), while others felt the
    New Deal did not do enough (poverty still
  • Some felt the programs created a bloated and
    dangerously powerful federal bureaucracy and
    encouraged inefficient use of resources.
  • Some opposed deficit spending-
  • Paying out more money from the annual federal
    budget than the government receives in revenues.

FDRs Problems with the Supreme Courtpage 783
  • The Supreme Court had declared some acts of the
    president unconstitutional.
  • FDR asked Congress to allow him to
  • His real intention was to _______________.
  • The number of justices on the Supreme Court
    remained at _____.