Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 30
About This Presentation

Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology


Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Learning Targets By the end of this lesson, you should be able to: Explain the difference between anatomy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:3243
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: ITP83


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 1
  • Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

Learning Targets
  • By the end of this lesson, you should be able to
  • Explain the difference between anatomy
  • List characteristics that all animals share.
  • List the requirements of animals.
  • Name the 11 systems of the body.
  • Explain the functions of each of the 11 systems
    of the body.

  • Anatomy and Physiolog
  • Anatomy -- deals with the structure of the body
    and its parts
  • Physiology -- studies the functions (jobs)of
    these parts
  • A P are closely related because structure is
    related to function.

  • More common to discover new information about
    physiology, but anatomical discoveries are being
    made as well
  • Example (from July, 2008)

A hundred years ago, the spleen (located in the
upper quadrant of the abdomen) was thought to be
only reservoir for blood. It has only been in
recent years that scientists discovered that the
spleen is a manufacturing plant for immune cells,
and a site where immune cells and nerves
interact. The spleen defends the body against
infection, particularly encapsulated bacteria
that circulate through the blood.
In a major step in understanding how the nervous
system and the immune system interact, scientists
at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
have identified a new anatomical path through
which the brain and the spleen communicate.
  • Characteristics of animal life include (click
    for video)
  • (all animals have all of these in common)
  • 1. Movement self-initiated change in position,
    motion of internal parts
  • 2. Response to stimuli
  • 3. Growth
  • 4. Respiration oxygen in, carbon dioxide out
  • 5. Digestion
  • 6. Absorption nutrients taken into bloodstream
  • 7. Circulation movement of substances in bodily
  • 8. Assimilation changing absorbed substances
    into chemically
  • different forms

  • 9. Excretion removal of wastes
  • 10. Reproduction
  • To remember this list, image yourself doing
    these things.

Mental Mapping
  • I ride my bike Subway (movement).
  • I stop at the traffic light (response)
  • My body is growing (growth)
  • I am breathing air (respiration)
  • I get a footlong BMT and 3 cookies and eat it
  • The protein from my sandwich is absorbed into my
    body (absorption)
  • The nutrients from the sandwich circulate in my
    body (circulation)
  • The proteins and other nutrients are changed to
    things my body needs (assimilation)
  • Eventually, I go to the bathroom (excretion)
  • Someday I may reproduce ? (reproduction)

  • The total of all the chemical reactions that are
    continuously at work to maintain these
    characteristics is referred to as metabolism.
  • Fast metabolismthese people use the energy in
    food (measured in calories) more quickly than
  • Slow metabolismthese people use the energy in
    food more slowly

  • Requirements of Organisms
  • Life depends on the availability of the
  • a. Water
  • b. Food
  • c. Oxygen
  • d. Heat (a by-product of metabolism its
    presence governs the rate at which reactions
  • e. Pressure (force required to facilitate
    movement of air or fluids)

  • Levels of Organization

  • Organization of the Human Body
  • Major features of the human body include its
    cavities, membranes, and organ systems.

  • Body Cavities
  • The body can be divided into an appendicular
    portion (upper and lower limbs) and an axial
    portion (head, neck, and trunk), which includes a
    dorsal and a ventral cavity. Organs within these
    cavities are called viscera.

Label Body Cavities
(No Transcript)
  • Organ Systems of the Body

  • 1. Integumentary system--skin, hair, nails, and
    various glands
  • covers the body, senses changes outside the body,
    and helps regulate body temperature.

  • 2. Skeletal system -- bones ligaments.
  • It supports, protects, provides frameworks,
    stores inorganic salts, and houses blood-forming

  • Muscular system consists of muscles
  • provides body movement, posture, and is the main
    source of body heat.

  • Nervous system -- brain, spinal cord, nerves, and
    sense organs.
  • It integrates incoming information from receptors
    and sends impulses to muscles and glands.

  • 5. Endocrine system includes all of the glands
    that secrete hormones
  • helps to integrate metabolic functions

  • 6. Cardiovascular system -- heart and blood
  • distributes oxygen and nutrients throughout the
    body while removing wastes from the cells.

  • 7. Lymphatic system --lymphatic vessels, lymph
    nodes, thymus, and spleen
  • drains excess tissue fluid and includes cells of

  • Digestive system --mouth, esophagus, stomach,
    intestines, and accessory organs.
  • Receives, breaks down, and absorbs nutrients.

  • Respiratory system lungs passageways
  • exchanges gases between the blood and air

  • 10. Urinary system -- kidneys, ureters, bladder,
    and urethra,
  • removes wastes from the blood and helps to
    maintain water and electrolyte balance.

  • 11. Reproductive system male repro. system
    consists of testes, accessory organs, and vessels
    that conduct sperm to penis
  • --female repro. system consists of ovaries,
    uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and external
  • Function in creation of new life

Anatomical Position
  • Standing erect
  • Facing forward with legs slightly apart
  • Palms up

You do not need to write the info from this slide
down in your have flashcards of these
  • Anatomical Terminology
  • Relative Positions
  • 1. Terms of relative position are used to
    describe the location of a part relative to
    another part.
  • 2. Terms of relative position include
    superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial,
    lateral, proximal, distal, superficial
    (peripheral), and deep.

You do not need to write the info on this slide
down in your have flashcards of these
  • Body Sections
  • 1. A sagittal section divides the body into
    right and left portions.
  • 2. A transverse section divides the body into
    superior and inferior portions. It is often
    called a cross section.
  • 3. A coronal section divides the body into
    anterior and posterior sections.

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)