Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

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Title: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology


1
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
  • Historical perspective of AP
  • Pre-scientific period
  • Cavemen intimate knowledge about animal
    anatomy

2
Scientific period
  • Mesopotamia examined the body
  • Records found on cuneiform tablets
  • Egypt did dissection for embalming (but not
    systematic examination)

3
Eastern (Japan/China) 3000BC
  • Herbalists and acupuncture (anatomy)

4
Grecian period
  • Hippocrates 460-377 BC
  • Humoral theory
  • health determined by balance of 4 fluids
  • Blood (red) liver
  • Choler (yellow) yellow bile gall bladder
  • Phlegm (white) - lungs
  • Melancholy (black) - black bile - spleen
  • Key contribution disease was natural,
  • not by the gods

5
Aristotle 384-322 BC
  • Dissection (with embryology and zoology)
  • However, there were errors
  • Ex. Brain was for cooling the blood

6
5) Alexandrian period (322-30BC)
  • Anatomy rose as a detailed science
  • However, done via human vivisection of prisoners
    or with cadavers
  • Herophilus described brain structures spinal
    cord (vivisection of prisoners)
  • Erisistratus father of physiology

7
Renaissance
  • Leonardo da Vinci anatomy ? cadaver dissection

8
17th/18th centuries
  • Harvey demonstrated blood circulation
  • Leeuwenhoek father of histology designed
    microscope

9
19th/20th centuries
  • Explosion of anatomical, histological,
    physiological and pharmacological discoveries

10
DEFINITIONS
  • Anatomy study of the structure and shape of the
    body and body parts
  • From the Greek words tomy to cut
  • and ana apart
  • Physiology study of how the body and its parts
    work or function (systems)
  • Growth, reproduction, respiration, digestion,
    metabolism, circulation, absorption, excretion,
    movement

11
Other disciplines arise from AP
  • Histology study of tissue structure
  • Pathology disease processes
  • Pathophysiology how the body responds to
    disease
  • Pharmacology medicine to repair the imbalance

12
How is any living thing organized?
  • Definitions-
  • 1. Atoms?
  • Macromolecules?
  • Cells?
  • Tissue?
  • Organ?
  • Organ System?
  • Organism-

13
MACROMOLECULES
14
Macromolecules
15
What Elements make up the Human Body?
  • 4 Elements make up 96.1 of the human body (by
    mass)
  • OXYGEN- 65 in water- used as a gas by every
    cell to oxidated glucose (cellular respiration)
  • CARBON- 18.5 primary component of carbohydrates,
    lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
  • HYDROGEN- 9.5 found in most organic molecules-
    also influences the pH levels of body fluids
  • NITROGEN- 3.2 component of proteins and nucleic
    acids

16
TRACE ELEMENTS (3.9)
  • CALCIUM- (1.5)-salt form found in bones and
    teeth
  • PHOSPHORUS- 1 - salt form found in bones and
    teeth- also used in ATP
  • POTASSIUM- (0.4)ionic form used to transmit
    nerve impulses
  • SULFUR- (0.3)- component of proteins
  • SODIUM- ( 0.2) ion used in water balance and
    conduction of nerve impulses

17
TRACE ELEMENTS (3.9)
  • CHLORINE- (0.2) negative ion in the body-
    electrolytes and nerve impulses
  • MAGNESIUM-(0.1) makes up enzymes used in many
    metabolic reactions
  • IODINE- (0.1)- needed to make functional thyroid
    hormones
  • IRON- (0.1)- in hemoglobin- carries oxygen in
    the blood

18
Compounds in the Human Body
  • WATER- makes up about two-thirds of the total
    body weight
  • 4 functions
  • 1. High heat capacity- can absorb and release
    large amounts of heat without changing
    temperature -homeostasis of the body temp.

19
WATER
  1. UNIVERSAL SOLVENT- its polarity properties allow
    it to dissolve solids, liquids and gases.
  2. CHEMICALLY REACTIVE- water is the essential part
    in hydrolysis reactions which breakdown complex
    sugars and proteins
  3. CUSHIONING- examples are cerebrospinal fluid that
    cushion the brain and amniotic fluid that cushion
    a developing fetus

20
SALTS
  • Mostly calcium and phosphorus are easily ionized
    by water and can conduct electrical currents in
    solution- (electrolytes)

21
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
  • CARBOHYDRATES- sugars, and starches contain C, H,
    and O in a certain ratio
  • GLUCOSE- monosaccharide that is refered to as
    blood sugar
  • GLYCOGEN- polysaccharide in animals that stores
    energy- found in the muscles and liver

22
LIPIDS
  • LIPIDS-(fats) contain long chains of C and H
  • PHOSPHOLIPID- 2 fatty acid chains connected to a
    phosphate head (cell membrane)
  • NEUTRAL FATS- (TRIGLYCERIDES) 3 fatty acid
    chains connected to a glycerol molecule- (storage
    of energy) usually found just beneath the skin
    and around body organs

23
LIPIDS
  • STEROIDS- 4 interlocking rings of C and H
  • CHOLESTEROL- found in cell membrane (keeps its
    fluid) used to make vitamin D, used to make sex
    hormones. (estrogen, testosterone)

24
PROTEINS
  • AMINO ACIDS- (26) building blocks of proteins-
    contains an amine group (Nitrogen atom connected
    with 2 hydrogen atoms) connected to a long
    chain of carbons
  • FIBROUS PROTEINS- bind structures together-
    (tough) examples are Keratin and Collagen

25
PROTEINS
  • GLOBULAR PROTEINS- functional proteins that are
    mobile and perform biological processes
  • Examples are antibodies, hormones (growth
    hormone and insulin), and enzymes

26
ENZYMES
  • CATALYSTS- speed up a chemical reaction (by
    lowering the activation energy)without become
    part of the chemical reaction-
  • Enzymes bind to molecule at specific active sites
    then release after the reaction.
  • Enzymes are designated with the suffix -ASE

27
NUCLEIC ACIDS
  • NUCLEOTIDES are the building blocks
  • 1. adenine
  • 2. guanine
  • 3. cytosine
  • 4. thymine
  • 5. uracil
  • Form long chains DNA or RNA

28
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE
  • ATP- provides the chemical energy used in all
    cells
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