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Chapter 1 Introduction

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Human Anatomy and Physiology I Mr. Dawson 1. Anatomy and Physiology 2. The Standard Anatomical Position 1. Ventral vs Dorsal 2. Ventral viscera Thoracic Pleural ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1 Introduction


1
Chapter 1 Introduction
  • Human Anatomy and Physiology I
  • Mr. Dawson

2
Introduction
  • 1. Anatomy and Physiology
  • 2. The Standard Anatomical Position

3
Directional Terms
4
Regional Terms
5
Body Planes
6
Body Cavities
  • 1. Ventral vs Dorsal
  • 2. Ventral
  • viscera
  • Thoracic
  • Pleural and pericardial cavities
  • Abdominopelvic

7
Body Cavities
8
Body Cavities
9
Membrane Coverings
  • 1. Serous membrane or Serosa
  • Double membrane - fluid
  • 2. Covers organs and cavity walls
  • Parietal vs visceral
  • Parietal pericardium
  • Visceral pleura
  • Visceral peritoneum (covers abdominal organs)

10
Serous Membrane (Serosa)
11
Heart and Serous Membranes
12
Cavities in the Head
13
Characteristics of the Human Body
  • I. Levels of Organization
  • II. Life Functions
  • III. Systems of the Body
  • IV. Survival Needs
  • V. Homeostasis

14
Organization of the Human Body
15
Life Functions
  • 1. Response to stimuli
  • 2. Metabolism
  • Anabolic
  • To build up energy requiring
  • Catabolic
  • To break down energy releasing
  • 3. Reproduction
  • Gametes Sexual
  • sperm and egg haploid
  • 1-celled zygote

16
What do organisms need to survive?
  • 1. Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins,
    minerals
  • 2. Oxygen
  • 20 of air
  • Cellular respiration (glucose oxygen)
  • 3. Water
  • 60-80 water
  • Cells mostly made of water
  • Hydrolysis reactions
  • 4. Maintain normal body temperature
  • 37 C

17
Body Systems
  • Organs work together to accomplish a common
    purpose
  • What should you know about each system?
  • 1. Overall or general function
  • 2. Examples of organs

18
Body Systems
19
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20
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21
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22
Homeostasis
  • 1. Maintain stable internal condition within the
    body
  • 2. Dynamic
  • Conditions are maintained within narrow limits
  • 3. All organs are involved work together or in
    opposition
  • 4. Examples
  • Glucose levels
  • Blood Clotting
  • Gas levels (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
  • pH

23
Control Systems- Homeostasis
24
Feedback Systems
  • (1). Negative
  • (a). Inverse variable change- to the initial
    response
  • (b). Blood Glucose Control- Endocrine System
  • (c). Most common
  • (2). Positive
  • (a). Direct variable change- in the same
    direction as the original change
  • (b). Self-perpetuating events
  • (c). Blood Clotting Labor and Contractions!
    (Oxytocin)

25
Negative Feedback System Pancreas (blood glucose
regulation)
26
Antidiurectic Hormone and Water Balance
  • 1. Kidneys help to maintain proper water balance
    in the body.
  • 2. Blood low levels of water (hypertension)
  • ADH released from posterior pituitary gland
  • Causes reabsorption of water into the blood (from
    the kidney tubules)
  • 3. If water volume is too high
  • ADH not released ---------? increased urination

27
Kidney Tubules
28
Positive Feedback System
29
Homeostatic Failure
  • Homeostatic mechanisms must cope or adapt to
    stress
  • Changes in the environment, introduction of
    pathogens, etc.
  • The failure of one system may affect another
    system adversely.
  • Effect of Disease (failure to maintain
    homeostasis)
  • 1. pathogens 2. genetics 3. abnormal cell
    growth due to cancer
  • 4. degenerative 5. trauma environmental
    hazards
  • 5. nutrition (Scurvy and vitamin C)
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