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Political Parties


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Title: Political Parties

Political Parties
  • Chapter 5
  • Unit 2

Political Parties Goals Objectives
  1. Primary purpose of two party system.
  2. Nominations, support organization, watchdog
  3. Ideological consensus, history and tradition of a
    two party system.
  4. Multiparty and One-party systems
  5. 3 eras of one-party dominance and its effects.
  6. Divided government
  7. Minor parties Ideological, Single-issue,
    economic protest and splinter parties.
  8. Minor parties roles and influence on elections.

Political Parties3rd Party Research
  1. Research 3rd Party Research the Republican and
    Democratic Parties Platforms on PERSONAL
    ECONOMIC issues.
  2. Oral Presentation Must present 3rd party as if
    pitching parties platform.
  3. Visual Aid Poster of Parties Name, symbol,
    platform, 4 major reasons to support party.
  4. Power-point List platform, issues, comparison to
    Democrats or Republicans on specific issues.
  5. Conservative or Liberal Use 4 issues to define
    the party as being constitutionally conservative
    or liberal.
  6. Constitutional or Communist Use 4 issues to
    define the party as being constitutional or

Democrats, Republicans, Independents
  1. 25.00 is the cost to be either a Democrat or
  2. Do candidates take a part platform test or swear
    an oath to their party preference?
  3. What is an Independent? Are Independents
    important in the political arena?

What is a political party?
  • How are factions and political parties alike and
    how are they different?
  • Do political parties have internal factions?
    Explain by using specific examples to support
    your answer.
  • What is the ultimate goal of both factions and
    political parties?

Factions Within
  • Democrats
  • Yellow-dogs Southern Democrats (Dixicrats).
    Social Conservatives State Sovereignty
  • Blue-dog Democrats Northern, Pacific. Social
    Economic Liberals. (Socialists, Communists,
    Fascists, Authoritarians)
  • Republicans
  • Southern Republicans Social Economic
  • Northern Republicans Economic Conservatives and
    Social Liberals. (Libertarians)

Democrats Divided
Republicans Divided
Political Party Functions
  • Recruiting Candidates
  • Organize and Run Elections
  • Present alternative policies to the electorate.
  • Operate the government.
  • Watch-dog losing party.
  • GOAL seek control and influence public policy.
    George Washingtons warning about a divided
    nation (factions/parties).

2 Party System
  • 1800 establishment of a two-party system. Much
    less democratic than Europe.
  • A two-party system manages to eliminate
    competition from the far left or far right.
  • Two moderate parties that James Madison designed
    in the Constitution.

Americas Two Party System. Ballot Access laws
9 Periods of Parties
  1. 1789-1816 Creation of parties
  2. 1816-1828 One party rule (Blue Dogs)
  3. 1828-1860 Andrew Jacksons Era (Blue
  4. 1860-1896 Civil War Reconstruction
  5. 1896-1932 Progressives/Populists (Yellow
  6. 1932-1968 New Deal Period. (Yellow Dogs)
  7. 1968-1980 The Great Society (Yellow Dogs)
  8. 1980-2008 New Federalism (Republicans)
  9. 2008- Change (Yellow Dogs)

4 Major Eras of Party Power
  1. 1800-1860 Era of the Democratic-Republicans
    (Party of Thomas Jefferson todays Libertarian
  2. 1820 Split of the Democratic-Republicans
  3. Democrats vs. Whigs (to be Republicans)
  4. Who were the Democratic-Republicans?
  5. Small farmers, debtors, frontiersman,
  6. What caused the split?
  7. Second Bank of the U.S., high tariffs, slavery
  8. Republican Party formed in 1854 (Anti-slavery)

4 Major Eras of Party Power
  • 1860-1932 Era of Republicans
  • Election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860
  • Who were the Republicans?
  • Business, financial interests, farmers,
    laborers, freed slaves, gold bugs
  • 1896 Election Populist Party gains a foothold
    in the South and Mid-West.
  • 1912 Populist Party Platform adopted by the
    Democratic Party and move away from sectionalism.

4 Major Eras of Party Power
  1. 1932-1968 Era of Populist-Democrats
  2. Who were the Populist-Democrats?
  3. Southerners, labor unions, graft organizations,
    small farmers, socialists and communist
    immigrants, African Americans and other minority
  4. Populist-Democratic Platform Policy.
  5. New Deal Radical change in the role of the
    federal government

4 Major Eras of Party Power
  • 1968-? Start of a New Era (Divided government)
  • President Johnson announces not to seek
    reelection or nomination by the Democratic Party.
  • 2. Democratic Party splits Governor George
    Wallace of Alabama starts the American
    Independent Party (Dixicrats)
  • 3. Richard Nixon (Republican) wins election.
  • 4. The House of Representatives, Senate and the
    Presidency largely remain divided between party

Federalists v Anti-Federalists
  • George Washington and Thomas Jeffersons warnings
    about factions and party objectives
  • Explain in no less than 3 sentences the meaning
    of National Unity Popular Government

Federalists v Anti-Federalists
  • Federalists John Adams
  • Commercial Interests
  • Merchants.
  • Large Farmers
  • Strong National Government
  • Anti-Federalists Thomas Jefferson
  • Small Farmers.
  • Small Business.
  • Artisans.
  • States Rights

The Era of Good Feelings
  • 1800-1825 Republicans opposed the Federalists
    strong more active central government.
  • Republicans controlled government in Congress and
    Executive branches.
  • Era of Personal Politics like Baldwin County,
    Alabama today.

Democrats and Whigs
  • 1824 Return of 2 party system 1824 election of
    John Q. Adams split the Republican Party.
  • Adams National Republicans (Whigs) Bigger
    federal government
  • Jackson Democrats personal liberty and the
    common man.

Civil War CrisisWhig Split
  • Northern Democrats and Whigs form the Modern
    Republican Party
  • Southern Democrats a government strong enough to
    build roads is a government strong enough to free
    your slaves

Scalawags and Carpetbaggers
  • End of Jeffersonian Government small limited
  • Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion Northern Democrats
    feared a strong government. Republicans and
    Prohibition, Religious Schools, Moral values in
  • Southern Democrats small government and states
    rights over slavery property issue.

Carpetbaggers after the War
Triumph of Republicans
  • Populists in the South and West 1890s
  • Populists Wanted cheap money, inflation
    income tax.
  • Democrats adopt Populist Platform
  • Republicans gold standard, protect jobs in
    America, and low inflation.
  • Laissez-faire Capitalism

Progressive Interlude
  • 1900s Progressivism in both parties.
  • 1912 Republican Party split into Bull Moose
    Party under T.Roosevelt
  • 1912 Democratic Progressivism under W. Wilson
    marked radical change in Democratic policies.

The New Deal Era
  • 1932 John M. Keynes and Deficit Spending Fiscal
    Policy (New) Taxes and Spending
  • New Deal Government Jobs, NIRA, AAA, Social
    Security, Public Salary Tax
  • Private Sector Refuses to stimulate the economy
  • Why the Great Depression? Free Enterprise is
    Modified? Explain.

Concept of Limited Government changed by New Deal
Divided Government, James Madisons Warning about
  • Vietnam War
  • Civil Rights Movement
  • Race Riots
  • Assassinations MLK, JFK, RFK, Malcolm X, George
    Wallace (attempt)
  • Explain the divisions Race, Economics, Cultural

Vietnam Conflict Limited Government
Red State/Blue State
  • Explain Race, Religion, Cities, Rural areas,
    Education level
  • Why Blue?
  • Why Red?

2012 Election Results by County
2 Major U.S. Parties Today
  • Tweedledee and Twedledum ??????
  • How different are they really? Make a list.
  • Repubocrats? Explain term.
  • Why the explosion of 3rd parties and explain what
    limits 3rd parties from being elected to state
    wide and national positions.

Parties Constituents
  • Republicans
  • Upper Income
  • Businesspersons
  • Evangelicals
  • Men
  • Rural Areas
  • South
  • Rocky Mountain
  • Great Plains
  • Private Sector labor
  • Two Parent Households
  • Democrats
  • Least Educated
  • Labor Unions
  • Blacks/Hispanics
  • Cities
  • Northeast
  • West Coast
  • Jews
  • Women
  • Government Employees
  • Single-Parent Families

Economic and Cultural Differences
  • Democrats
  • Poor
  • Lower Middle
  • Less Religious
  • 4. Diverse Norms or values
  • Republicans
  • Middle Income
  • Rich or Wealthy
  • Religious
  • Traditional Cultural Norms Values

FDR and the New Deal Factor
  • Social Programs and Government Intervention
    changed the landscape of the Democratic Party
  • Social Welfare 2. Govt regulation of business 3.
    Affirmative Action 4. Social Security/Medicare

  • Self-Reliance, pull yourself up by your own
  • Limited Government Regulations and taxes
  • Individual Worth, dignity and freedom
  • Private Property and Free Market prinicples

The Big Switch!!!
  • 1960s Started The Big Switch
  • Food Stamps, Medicaid, Medicare, Civil Rights
    Laws, Affirmative Action, Income Tax, Death Tax,
    Gift Tax
  • Has the Democratic Party or Republican Party
    changed party ideology?
  • Or
  • Have party constituents switched parties?
  • Republicans and Tariffs?
  • Democrats and Free Trade?

Social Class Warfare?
  • Cultural Politics, Socioeconomic Status
  • A working person voting for the Democrats is
    like a chicken voting for Colonel Sanders?
  • --Economic Conservatism associated with higher
  • --Social Conservatism associated with
    lower-income groups

Regional Factor in Cultural Politics
  • Cultural Liberals ??
  • San Francisco Gays
  • Nevada Casinos
  • Southwestern States Immigration
  • Wash./Oregon Drug Laws
  • Cultural Conservatives ??
  • Solid South Bible Belt
  • Mid-Western States
  • Farmers lives
  • 3. Texas and Independence
  • 4. Alaska and oil access

3 Faces of a Party
  • 1. Party-in-the-electorate loyalty, emotional
    ties, attachment to party
  • 2. Party Organization structural framework of
    the party volunteers, caucuses, conventions,
    election campaigns
  • 3. Party-in-government Appointed and elected
    officials (Superdelegatesappointed,

Why has the 2 party system endured?
  • History of 2 Party System
  • Political Socialization Schools, Churches,
    Media, Educational level
  • Winner-take-all system (plurality)
  • --Electoral College System Single Member
    Districts plurality
  • --Maine and Nebraska split electorate
  • 4. Ballot Access Laws State laws which restrict
    3rd party ballot access
  • 5. What will cause the demise of the 2 party
    system and our political consensus? Social Media

Role of Minor Parties in U.S. Politics
  • 3rd Parties
  • Special-Single Interests Green, Prohibition
  • Issue Oriented Constitution, Socialist
  • Ideology Libertarian, Communist

Ideological Third Parties
  • Research each partys platforms or issues
    Compare them to the Republican or Democratic
    party platforms.
  • Libertarian
  • American Independent
  • Reform
  • Green
  • Communist
  • Socialist

Ideological Functions
  • Psychological Cohesiveness People like to
    identify themselves with a group.
  • Pull 2 party system towards their agenda
  • a. Libertarian Party and the Republican Partys
    Free Enterprise System and laissez-faire economic
  • a. Communist Party and the Democratic Partys
    progressive income tax, death, and gift tax

Splinter Parties
  • 1. Bull Moose Party (Split from Republican)
  • 2. Reform Party (Split from Republican)
  • 3. Constitution Party (Split from Republican)
  • 4. American Independent Party (Split from
  • Impact of 3rd Parties Spoiler Effect
  • 2000 Ralph Nader
  • 1992-1996 Ross Perot

Multiparty Systems
  • European democracies
  • Broader representation of the electorate
  • Instability in government
  • Americas 2 party system prevents multiple
    parties winning elections Ballot Access Laws,
    Single-Member Districts, Consensus

One Party Systems
  • One Party Systems can equal Democratic
  • How is the American system of checks and
    balances supposed to protect its people from
    democratic dictatorships or one-party rule?

National Party Machinery
  1. The National Convention Adoption of Party Rules
  2. The National Committee prepares the agenda for
    the national convention
  3. The National Chairperson Leader of the party,
    nominated by the most recent presidential
    candidate Raise money, party unity, recruit new
  4. Congressional Campaign Committees Reelect
    incumbents, campaigning,

State Local Machinery
  1. State Organization
  2. State Central Committee
  3. State Chairperson Works directly with Governor
  4. Further the parties interests
  5. Local Organization
  6. Wards City party organizations
  7. Precinct Areas of cities
  8. Blocks In large cities

New York Mayor Local Politics
Political Change
  • Realignment
  • --1968 Richard Nixons southern strategy
    reformed the Democrats and Republicans
  • --Dixicrats (Southern Democrats or Blue
    Dogs) switch to the Republican Party
  • --1896-1932 unification of Industrial
    Workers and Capitalists into the Democratic Party

  • A fundamental problem with the party will
    create a realignment. 1980 Blue-dogs switch to
    Republican Party (Christian Coalition)
  • New Deal brought together Segregationists and
    African Americans into the same party. Why?
  • Southerners and Federal Grant Money

  • A surge of Independent or 3rd party participants
    in an election period.
  • Fewer people voting straight-ticket
  • Increase of swing voters
  • Increase of tipping Age, Race, Religion,
    Entitlement eligibility, Gender, National Origin,
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