Chapter 16: Political Parties - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 16: Political Parties


Chapter 16: Political Parties Political Party: a group of people who organize to win elections, control government, and thereby influence government policies – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 16: Political Parties

Chapter 16 Political Parties
  • Political Party a group of people who organize
    to win elections, control government, and thereby
    influence government policies
  • There are numerous types of political parties
  • 1. One Party System the party is effectively
    the government. All government agencies are
    controlled by one party and all govt. power is
    consolidated into the hands of that party. Exp.
    China, N. Korea.
  • Some one party systems are religious based.
    This is called a theocracy. Exp. Iran.
  • 2. Multi-Party System Nations that allow more
    than one political party have a multi-party
    system. In a multi-party system the different
    parties are usually based on ideologies.
  • 3. Two Party SystemsOnly about 12-15 nations
    have this sort of system. Two parties dominate
    the political process. Exp. The United States
    and United Kingdom.

  • Growth of American Parties
  • Americas two party system grew from our
    British colonial origins of the Whig party and
    the Tory party.
  • The founding fathers initially factions
    because they felt there were harmful to national
    unity. President Washington warned against the
    rise of political partied in 1797.
  • There were initially two major American
    Political Parties
  • 1. Federalist
  • 2. Democratic-Republican
  • The Federalist party splintered around 1814,
    and the Democratic-Republican Party became the
    Democratic Party.
  • 1828, the Democratic Party split in half over
    regional issues and Andrew Jackson. One half
    split into the Whig party.
  • By the time of the Civil War the current two
    party system that we have today came into being.
  • 1. Democratic Party
  • 2. Republican Party

  • The Republican Party began as a third party in
    1856, but Abraham Lincoln was elected President
    due to a split in the Democratic Party over
  • 1860 Election
  • Candidate Party Electoral
  • Abraham Lincoln, Republican 180
  • J. C. Breckinridge, Democrat 72
  • John Bell, Constitutional Union 39
  • Stephen A. Douglas, Democrat 12
  • Parties since the Great Depression and WWII
  • 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt won the Presidency,
    and he and his Vice President Harry Truman
    controlled the White House for 24 years. The
    Democratic Party controlled one or both Houses of
    Congress until 1994.

  • The Role of Minor Parties
  • The two major parties dominate American
    politics but minor parties will sometimes make a
    difference in an election or on an issue
  • Third Party any party other than the major two
  • There are different types of third parties
  • 1. Single Issue Parties focuses exclusively
    on one major social, economic, or moral issue.
    Single Issue parties generally fade away after
    the issue is resolved or fades from public
    interest. Exp. 1840s Liberty Party (abolition of
  • 2. Ideological Party Focuses on overall
    changes in society rather than a single issue.
    Exp. The Socialist Labor Party or Communist Party
  • 3. Splinter Party splits away from one of the
    major parties because of some disagreement. Exp.
    1912 Theodore Roosevelt broke away from the GOP
    to form the Progressive, or Bull Moose Party.
    Splinter parties typically fade away if they can
    not gain voters attention.

  • The Impact of Third Parties
  • Although third parties rarely win elections
    they can influence the outcome of elections.
    Exp. Teddy Roosevelts Bull Moose Party took
    enough votes from the GOP that Democrat Woodrow
    Wilson was elected President. (chart pg. 456)
  • Obstacles to Third Parties
  • Not automatically on ballot
  • U.S. elections are based on single-member
    districts which hurt third party candidates.
  • Single-member Districts electoral district
    where regardless of how many candidates there
    are, only one will win. winner take all.
  • Proportional Representation several officials
    are elected to represent voters in an area.
    Offices are filled in proportion to how many
    votes a party receives.

  • Local Party Organization
  • Precinct basic local party unit. A voting
    district ranging from a few voters to more than
  • Precinct Captain volunteer who organizes party
    workers to distribute information about the
    partys candidates.
  • Ward several adjoining precincts.
  • Each county party will select a county
    chairperson. The chairperson is the head of the
    party in the county and holds rank in the state
    party organization.
  • County and local political parties rely on
    volunteers to make them work.

Section 3 Nominating Candidates
  • How Candidates are Selected
  • caucus
  • nominating convention
  • Primary Conventions
  • Direct Primary
  • Closed Primary
  • Open Primary
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