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COURSE CODE: FWM 201 COURSE TITLE: INTRODUCTION TO FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

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Title: COURSE CODE: FWM 201 COURSE TITLE: INTRODUCTION TO FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


1
COURSE CODE FWM 201 COURSE TITLE
INTRODUCTION TO FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT
  • NUMBER OF UNIT 2 UNITS
  • COURSE DURATION TWO HOURS PER WEEK
  • DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE
    MANAGEMENT
  • COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES
    MANAGEMENT
  • UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE,
    ABEOKUTA

2
  • COURSE COODINATOR DR I. O. O. OSUNSINA
  • E-mail osunsinaisrael_at_yahoo.com
  • Office Location E 211, COLERM
  • OTHER LECTURERS PROF. S.A. ONADEKO
  • DR M. F.
    ADEKUNLE
  • DR M. O.
    O. OYATOGUN
  • DR J.A.
    SOAGA

3
COURSE CONTENT
  • Renewable natural resources, availability,
    distribution and potential. The important forest
    trees and wildlife (with emphasis on Nigerian
    species). Classification, Morphology,
    distribution and ecology of important forest
    trees, forest and game reserves in Nigeria.
    Silviculture afforestation characteristics of
    major timber and their uses. Felling and log
    transportation. Importance of forest in the
    national economy. Organisation of forest
    resources, non-timber resources. Forest
    protection and conservation, regulation of
    harvest and sustained yield.

4
COURSE REQUIREMENT
  • This is a compulsory course for all students
    in College of Animal Science and Livestock
    Management, College of Plant Science and Crop
    Production, College of Agricultural Management
    and Rural Development and College of
    Environmental Resources Management. In view of
    this, students are expected to participate in all
    the course activities and have minimum of 75
    attendance to be able to write the final
    examination.

5
FOREST AND WILDLIFE AS RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES
  • What is a resource?- A resource is any form of
    energy and /or matter necessary to satisfy the
    physiological needs of humanity or to sustain all
    various activities leading to production.
  • Resources may be classified into two broad
    groups
  • Products and
  • Amenities

6
  • Products- include tangible, consumable or
    directly utilizable materials such as minerals,
    timber, wild game, water and soil.
  • Amenities- involve the transformation of natural
    features into consumable forms such as when a
    waterfall or solar radiation is used to generate
    electricity or when a sand beach is turned into a
    recreation centre.

7
What are Natural Resources?
  • Natural resources can broadly be defined as
    those things in the natural environment that can
    be used by man. Natural resources which lend
    themselves to exploitation by man are mainly
    beneficial. Generally, natural resources indicate
    the potential wealth of a country. This potential
    wealth, when properly harnessed by the people of
    a country, can become a key factor in economic
    reconstructions and national development.
    Effective utilization of natural resources is of
    great aid in industrial development.

8
Characteristics of Natural Resources
  • They are Natural endowment- i.e. they are not
    man-made. They are gifts of God for free use by
    man. As naturally occurring objects, they could
    be viewed as land not the soil only, but the
    sum total of both the edaphic, climatic factors
    and the vegetation. Natural resources can be
    viewed as the combination of the productive
    values of the land which include matters both on
    and below the surface of the land and which have
    values for man.
  • Location specific Most natural resources are
    in-situ. They are where they exist and not
    mobile. To explore them, man must go to where
    resources are located. e.g. oil and mineral
    explorations. This is a very important
    characteristic in view of transportation cost.
    Most of the timbers in Ikeji-Ipetu Forest Reserve
    in Osun State are not exploited due to
    accessibility problems. The terrain is undulating
    , hence a sophisticated method of extraction will
    be needed in such situation.

9
Characteristics of Natural Resources
  • Uneven Distribution- Natural resources are
    natural endowment and their distribution is
    uneven both within and between countries.. Some
    countries have monopoly of some.e. g. Bauxite in
    Jamaica (80 of the production) while the rest is
    in South Africa. However, this is not true of
    forests. Most countries are capable of growing
    forest it is not as uneven as other resources.
  • Versatility This means that natural resources
    can be stored for long period of time without
    deterioration. This is particularly true of
    resources derived from geological processes.e.g.
    Coal, oil (petroleum). Versatility of timber will
    not only leave the timber resources intact, but
    could lead to increase in timber value as the
    timber increases in both height and diameter
    (volume). The bigger the timber the more the
    value. However, if timber is left unharvested
    after an advanced age of maturity, deterioration
    may set in due to pathological hazards heart
    rot, etc.
  • Finiteness This refers to the quantity
    available at a given time. The quantity of
    natural resources available is absolutely fixed.
    This is what the engineers and technologists
    refer to as Proven-supply. i.e. the quantity of
    the resource known to exist.e.g. resources
    obtained through geological processes. Their
    development requires a time scale and quantity
    cannot be increased on the short run.

10
Characteristics of Natural Resources
  • Destructability Most natural resources are
    destroyed in the process of use. Resource
    destruction could ensue / arise from the process
    of consumption coal and firewood for cooking,
    fuel for vehicles etc. Most of the problems of
    desertification and aridization were said to have
    resulted from the activities of man on the
    natural vegetation shifting cultivation,
    burning of forest for games and grazing and
    browsing of the natural vegetation leading to
    desertification of the original vegetation.
  • Common Property Ownership of natural resources
    is not clearly defined since they are gifts of
    nature, no man can claim ownership marble
    Industry in Oyo State and the attendant rows
    deep sea fishery, forestry are also common
    properties. Hence, people go into the bush to
    fetch firewoods, pick snails etc. Most forest
    reserves belong to the State and communities,
    hence cases of illegal fellers.
  • Importance of time factor For most renewable
    resources, there is always a waiting period for
    the production to be increased. For timber, there
    is a minimum period for maturity. The growth rate
    of most biological organisms are beyond mans
    influence.
  • Natural Resources as part of the Environment
    They form integral part of the environment. i.e.
    the living and non-living surrounding. The users
    quite often are not aware of the effects of their
    actions in forests on the adjoining forest
    areas.e.g. clearing of the premier plantation for
    the building of the cultural Centre in Ibadan and
    the 1980 flood in the city.

11
FOREST AND FORESTRY DEFINED
  • F-O-R-E-S-T. This six-letter word means
    different things to different people. To some it
    is an impediment to development and must be
    destroyed. Some believe it to be the abode of the
    dead, evil spirits and anything diabolic. Others
    take its presence as an index of primitivity,
    underdevelopment and backwardness. Still others
    link forests with poisonous snakes, lethal
    scorpions and deadly spiders. To others, the mere
    mention of forest or the sight it conjures
    resentment and hate while also invoking fear, awe
    and mystery. Only very few ordinary
    persons-in-the street know of the positive
    aspects, the indispensability and the intrinsic
    linkages of the forest to human existence
    world-wide.
  • From the above classification of natural
    resources, it could be seen that forest is
    grouped under exhaustible, but renewable natural
    resources. This means that forest resources are
    biologically renewable, they can grow and regrow
    after harvesting on the same site.
  • Therefore, forest is a renewable natural resource
    which provides timber and other products for home
    and industry food and cover for wild and
    domestic animals, protection of soil and water
    values and facilities for recreation.

12
FOREST RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
  • The earths total land area is about 144.8
    million square km, or about 29 of the surface of
    the globe. Forest makes up one of the major
    landscape features of the world.
  • These natural forests form one of the great
    natural resources of the world which through the
    ages have contributed much to mans comfort and
    enjoyment as well as to his economic progress.
    Before large-scale human disturbances of the
    world began many thousands of years ago, forests
    and woodlands covered nearly 6 billion hectares.
    Since then, about 16 of that area has been
    converted to cropland, pasture, settlements or
    unproductive wastelands.

13
FOREST RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
  • As earlier mentioned, forest belongs to renewable
    natural resources. All the same, it should be
    noted that renewability is a socio-economic
    concept. What is renewable may be non-renewable
    if there is no proper management. Hence, there is
    the need to manage the forest scientifically
    because it is a scarce resource. To work
    effectively, forest resources management must be
    biologically as well as economically sound.
    Management of forest resources refers to the
    application of business methods and technical
    forestry principles and techniques to the
    management of forest properties. This is
    concerned with efficient planning so that a
    forest is made to provide the greatest benefits
    that are possible to obtain. Like the management
    of any enterprise it clearly includes the
    organization and conducts of all operations that
    are needed to fulfill the purposes for which it
    was established. Management must ensure that the
    forest is maintained so that overcutting and
    undercutting do not occur. Management also
    ensures that correct records of operations are
    kept.

14
MAJOR FOREST PRODUCTS
  • Timber is used for house building, furniture
    manufacturing, bridge construction, manufacturing
    of simple tools, general construction, boat
    building. e.g. wood of Ceiba pentandra.
  • Poles used as electric and telegraphic poles.
    The long vertical branches of Terminalia velutina
    can be used as construction poles.
  • Plywood Plywood is preferred for general
    furniture because of its durability.
  • Pulpwood Wood is converted to cellulose for
    paper making or writing materials.
  • Fuel and firewood An estimated 3 billion people
    in the developing countries depend mainly on wood
    for fuel. Firewood accounts for 95 of the of the
    total wood consumed in Nigeria. Firewood is
    converted to charcoal for easy transportation and
    general convenience. Firewood and charcoal
    account for more than 90 of wood consumption in
    Africa (Kio, 1882). Indeed, half the worlds
    population depends on wood to cook food and to
    keep warm when the weather is cold.

15
NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS (NWFP)
  • FRUITS Fruits of high nutritive values are
    obtainable from the forest trees.e.g.
    Chrysophyllum albidum, Terminalia catappa,
    Irvingia gabonensis, Psidium guajava, Artocarpus
    attilis, Spondias mombin, Moringa oleifera(seeds
    of this species is very good for water
    purification), Mangifera indica,Treculia
    Africana, Anacardium occidentale,Parkia biglobosa
    (produces local maggi), Adansonia digitata,
    Cola nitida.
  • FIBRES Fibres are converted to ropes, handbags,
    sponge and twines. They are also used for making
    nets and fishing lines, mats, baskets and hats.
  • GUM ARABIC This could be obtained from Acacia
    nilotica and it is used for tanning, dying etc.
    It is an important base for the manufacture of
    office gum, foods and beverages, many
    confectioneries and pharmaceuticals.

16
NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS (NWFP)
  • RESINS AND OILS Resins are extracted from pines
    and are useful in turpentine manufacturing. Oils
    are also extracted from some species of Eucalypts
    e.g. Eucalyptus citriodora.
  • DRUGS many forest tree species have medicinal
    values .e. g. Neem (Azadirachta indica), known as
    Dogonyaro has been variously referred to as
    The wonder tree, A tree for solving global
    problems. It is used for curing malaria fever,
    high fever and jaundice. Indians have found it
    useful in the manufacture of medicated soaps,
    cosmetics and spermicides (substances that kill
    sperms for birth control). Fagara species (Orin
    ata) for treating sickle cell anaemia and
    veneral diseases. Acacia spp could be used as
    anti-snake bite. Adansonia digitata used as
    palliative (pain killer), Rauvolfia vomitoria
    (asofeyeje) used as anti-convulsant, Lophira
    alata for treating jaundice. Parkia bicolor
    pulverished bark used in dressing wounds. Prunus
    Africana- used for treating prostrate cancer.
    Irvingia gabonensis The fresh bark of this
    species is considered to be powerful antibiotic
    for scabby skin, a cure for diarrhea when mixed
    with palm oil, and a toothache remedy. Alstoonia
    boonei- suppresses fever. Annona senegalensis
    root used as remedy for chest colds, fruits for
    curing diarrhea, dysentery and vomiting.
  • GRASSES are used for grazing. Domesticated
    animals may be grazed in forests provided that
    the numbers are kept to a level which does not
    inhibit regeneration and that areas planted with
    young trees are fenced. Some grasses could be
    pulped for paper production. UNEP has confirmed
    that one of Nigerias commonest grasses, the
    spear grass (Imperata cylindrica) is a viable
    non-wood fibre source for pulp and paper
    production.

17
NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS (NWFP)
  • LATEX This is rubber from Hevea brasiliensis.
  • HONEY This is a valuable non-wood forest
    product (NWFP) which yields a lot of foreign
    exchange for many countries of the world. e.g.
    The value of exports of honey produced from bees
    in the forests of Tanzania is several times
    greater than the value of the wood in these
    forests (SPORE 59, October 1995). Israelis make
    over 10 million annually from honey alone
    (Guardian March 28, 1999).
  • PALM WINE AND PALM OIL- These are valuable forest
    products too.

18
NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS (NWFP)
  • WILDLIFE- Forest provides home for animals. Bush
    meat is a valuable source of protein. Wildlife is
    a valuable renewable resource in the Nigerian
    economy and accounts for 20 of the total meat
    protein consumed in Nigeria (Ajayi, 1979). In
    some West African areas today, the local people
    still depend on forest game for up to 75 of
    their animal protein. Some of the animals are
    medicinal as are trees.
  • YAM STICKS, CHEWING STICKS LEAVES AND BAMBOOS
    These are all important NWFPs. Chewing
    sticks.e.g.Pako Ijebu (Massularia acuminata), and
    Neem (Azadirachta indica) prevent tooth decay.
    They contain anti-decay substances known as
    anticariogenics. Leaves such as wrapping leaves.
    Leaves of Indigofera indica can be processed into
    dye and used to colour fabrics. In many parts of
    Africa. e.g. Mali leaves of baobab (Adansonia
    digitata) are used in daily sauce that
    accompanies cereal or tuber porridge. The leaves
    are pounded in a mortar with other condiments and
    stewed in a pot. Bamboo forest is not only a
    habitat for many wild animals, the bamboo
    provides the materials for building houses, for
    weaving baskets, and that bamboo when used
    outside the forest can serve as fences and
    boundaries.
  •  

19
FOREST PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES
  • In forest production activities an area could
    either be afforested or reforested
    (regeneration).
  • AFFORESTATION This is the establishment of new
    forest on lands that historically have not
    contained forests. All afforestation of grassland
    falls into this categories and planting to
    stabilize sand dunes all fall in this categories.
  • REFORESTATION This is the establishment of a
    new forest / plantation on land which had carried
    forest within the last 50 years, but where the
    previous forest is replaced by an essentially
    different one. A common example is where
    rainforest is logged, cleared and then replanted
    within a single tree species (monoculture).
  • FOREST REGENERATION Forest regeneration is the
    process by which a forest is renewed. The method
    considered suitable in various part of the tropic
    for ensuring the regeneration of mainly desirable
    species can be grouped into three, viz

20
FOREST PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES
  • Natural regeneration This is obtained from
    seedlings originating either from natural seeding
    or from sprouts and other vegetative means.
  • Artificial regeneration This is obtained by
    total replacement of the old stand by planting
    young trees or by direct sowing.
  • Enrichment planting This is accomplished by
    planting trees in partially open forest where the
    seedlings present are of unsatisfactory species
    or if desirable species are either insufficient
    in number or ill-distributed over the
    regeneration area.

21
What is a forest plantation?
  • A forest plantation is a forest crop or stand
    raised artificially either by sowing of seeds or
    planting of young trees (seedlings). Forest
    plantations are usually referred to as man-made
    forests or artificial forests. These forests are
    mainly established with exotic species. i.e.
    introduced species and they are felled at the
    end of their laid down rotation.

22
Exotic species
  • Exotic species These are tree species that are
    growing in an area in which they do not naturally
    occur. i. e. they are trees or plants that are
    not native (not indigenous) to the area in which
    they are growing. Examples of exotic trees in
    Nigeria are Tectona grandis L. f. (Teak), Gmelina
    arborea Roxb. Eucalyptus spp, Pinus spp (Pines)
    such as Pinus caribaea and Pinus oocarpa.

23
ACTIVITIES INVOLVED IN ARTIFICIAL FOREST
PRODUCTION
  • The main activities involved in artificial forest
    production are
  • Seed procurement
  • Raising of young trees (seedlings) in the nursery
  • Planting site preparation. This includes site
    clearing and ground or land preparation.
  • Site clearing- is the removal of the existing
    vegetation in the site This could be done
    manually, or by the use of chemicals or
    mechanical method. Fire could also be used.
  • Ground / land preparation is land tilling,
    ploughing etc.

24
ACTIVITIES INVOLVED IN ARTIFICIAL FOREST
PRODUCTION
  • Collection of pegs
  • Lining out or pegging
  • Preparation of planting holes
  • Planting of seedlings
  • Tending of the planted trees
  • Harvesting at the end of the laid down rotation.

25
WILDLIFE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
  • Definition of Terms
  • Conservation is the management of human use of
    the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest
    sustainable benefit to present generations, while
    maintaining its potential to meet the needs and
    aspiration of future generations. Conservation as
    rendered involves preservation, maintenance,
    sustainable utilization, restoration and
    enhancement of the natural environment.
  • Wildlife or Wild animal species refers to all
    living things, plants, invertebrates and
    vertebrates outside the direct control of man
    (that is, all non-cultivated plants and
    non-domesticated animals). It embraces all
    animals in their natural habitat. They are
    undomesticated animals which may be small
    organisms only visible to humans if seen through
    a microscope or as big as the elephant or whale.
    Wildlife includes but it is not limited to
    insects, spiders and birds, reptiles, fish,
    amphibians, and mammals if not domesticated (NCF,
    1994).
  • Biodiversity or Biological diversity refers to
    the total variability of living organisms on the
    planet (UNEP, 1995). It is defined in terms of
    genes, species and ecosystem which are the
    outcome of over 3,000 million years of evolution.
    As biological concept, biodiversity is an
    essential or a necessary tool for human survival.

26
Definition of Terms (CONTD)
  • Wildlife management has been defined as the
    combination and application of business methods
    and ecological knowledge to manipulate
    undomesticated fauna and flora (wild animal and
    plant) resources in a way that ensures their
    products and services will be sustained. The
    application of ecological principles and
    knowledge to the management of wildlife entails
    certain basic approaches viz
  • Preservation of wild species and allowing nature
    to follow a balance, devoid of any human
    intervention.
  • Direct or indirect manipulations of wild fauna
    population such as through cropping, culling,
    habitat alteration and other habitat management
    tool so as not to exceed carrying capacity.
  • Maintenance of useful and desirable species.
  • Sustained-yield management through limiting
    consumptive utilization to annual production
    capacity.

27
Definition of Terms (CONTD)
  • Consumptive utilization is the extraction of
    resources for the production of consumer goods
    and services. Apart from providing food other
    types of consumptive uses of wildlife include
    products such as skins and hides, materials for
    hand crafts, or ceremonial uses , oils and
    medicines, live animal trades, sport, hunting,
    stock resources for domestication or improvement
    of domesticated breeds, farming activities and
    mineral resources exploitation. All activities
    directed towards production of goods and services
    which often lead to the degradation of the
    environment.
  • Non-consumptive utilization is defined as the
    provision of natural amenities and services for
    recreational use such as game viewing, nature
    trail, swimming, boating and other water related
    recreational activities in lake and waterfall. It
    includes spiritual and religious values, values
    due to the willingness of local and international
    user-public (tourist) to pay to see living and
    non-living resources in the natural setting.
  • Sustainable use is the rate of harvest within the
    capacity of species and their habitats to
    maintain themselves. Sustainable use can be
    non-consumptive or consumptive in nature.
  • Commercial use is defined as the management of
    native wildlife for profit. The terms utilization
    and commercial use are interchangeable.

28
Status Categories of Species
  • Extinct (Ex) species has not been seen in the
    wild or in captivity during the past 50 years.
  • Extinct In the Wild (BW) As above, but the
    species is still held in zoological gardens on
    other live collection.
  • Ecological Extinction is defined as the reduction
    of a species to such low abundance that though it
    is still present in the community, it no longer
    interacts significantly with other species.

29
Status Categories of Species
  • Extirpation species is not extinct, but no
    longer occurring in a wild state or no longer
    exhibiting patterns of use.
  • Critically Endangered (CR) The species is very
    threatened and at risk of becoming extinct.
  • Endangered (EN) Any native species in immense
    danger of extirpation or extinction. Species is
    unlikely to survive if the factor thus is posing
    threat persists.
  • Vulnerable (VU) Likely to become endangered in
    the future if factor that is posing threat
    persists.

30
Status Categories of Species
  • Near Threatened (NT) Species is approaching the
    threshold of vulnerability.
  • Data Deficient (DD) Strongly suspected or
    thought to belong to one of the above categories
    but data is insufficient to substantiate.
  • Rare (R) Species has small global population
    that is not threatened but is at risk.

31
Status Categories of Species
  • Low Risk-Conservation Dependent (LR/CD) Species
    is in no immediate danger, but survival will
    depend on implementation of effective
    conservation measures in its range.
  • Low Risk-Not threatened (LR/NT) Species is in no
    immediate danger, but needs to be consistently
    monitored.
  • (Adapted from IUCN threatened species categories
    1996)

32
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA
  • CATEGORY 1 STRICT NATURE RESERVES / WILDERNESS
    AREAS
  • Protected areas managed mainly for science or
    wilderness protection. These two types of
  • protected area are treated as sub-categories
  •  
  • Category 1a Strict Nature Reserves
  • Areas of land and / or sea possessing some
    outstanding or representative ecosystems,
  • geological or physiological features and / or
    species, available primarily for scientific
    research and / or environmental monitoring.

33
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd)
  •  
  • Category 1b Wilderness areas
  • These are protected areas managed mainly for
    wilderness protection. They should include a
    large area of unmodified or slightly modified
    land, and / or sea, retaining their natural
    character and influence, without permanent or
    significant habitation and should be protected
    and managed so as to preserve their natural
    condition.

34
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd)
  • CATEGORY II NATIONAL PARKS
  • Protected areas managed mainly for ecosystem
    protection and recreation. These are natural
    areas of land and / or sea, designated to
  • a) protect the ecological integrity of one or
    more ecosystems for present and future
  • generations
  • b) exclude exploitation or occupation likely to
    degrade the area and
  • c) provide a foundation for spiritual,
    scientific, education, recreational and visitor
    uses,
  • all of which must be environmentally and
    culturally compatible.

35
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd)
  • CATEGORY III NATURAL MONUMENTS
  • Protected areas managed mainly for conservation
    of specific natural features. These are
  • areas containing one, or more, specific natural
    or natural / cultural features which are of
  • outstanding or unique value because of their
    inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic
    qualities,or cultural significance.
  • CATEGORY IV HABITAT / SPECIES MANAGEMENT AREAS
  • Areas of land and / or sea where active
    management interventions are undertaken so as to
  • ensure the maintenance of habitats and / or to
    meet the requirements of specific species.

36
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd)
  • CATEGORY V PROTECTED LANDSCAPES / SEASCAPES
  • Protected areas managed mainly for landscape /
    seascape conservation and recreation. They
    consist of areas of land, sometimes with coast
    and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of
    people and nature over time has produced a
    landscape of distinct character with significant
    aesthetic, ecological and / or cultural value,
    and often with high biological diversity.
    Safeguarding the integrity of this traditional
    interaction is vital to the protection,
    maintenance and evolution of such an area.
  • CATEGORY VI MANAGED RESOURCE PROTECTED AREAS
  • Protected areas managed mainly for the
    sustainable use of natural ecosystems. They are
  • areas containing predominantly unmodified natural
    systems, managed to ensure long term protection
    and maintenance of biological diversity, while
    providing at the same time a sustainable flow of
    natural products and services to meet community
    needs.

37
FUNCTIONS AND BENEFITS OF A PROTECTED AREA SYSTEM
  • A system of protected areas is the core of any
    programme that seeks to maintain the
  • diversity of ecosystems, species and wild genetic
    resources and to protect the worlds
  • great natural areas for their intrinsic,
    inspirational and recreational values.
  • A protected area system provides safeguards for
  • Natural and modified ecosystems that are
    essential to maintain life-support services,
    conserve wild species and areas of particularly
    high species diversity, protect intrinsic and
    inspirational values, and support scientific
    research
  • Culturally important landscapes (including places
    that demonstrate harmonious relationships between
    people and nature), biotic movements and other
    heritage sites in built-up areas.
  • Sustainable use of wild resources in modified
    ecosystems
  • Traditional, sustainable uses of ecosystems in
    sacred palces or traditional sites of harvesting
    by ingenious peoples.
  • Recreational and educational uses of natural,
    modified and cultivated ecosystems.

38
VALUES OF PROTECTED LANDSCAPES
  • Conserving nature and biological diversity
  • Buffering more strictly protected areas
  • Conserving human history in structures and
    land-use practices
  • Maintaining traditional ways of life.
  • Offering recreation and inspiration
  • Providing education and understanding
  • Demonstrating durable systems of use in human
    with nature

39
PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
  • The problems facing wildlife and wildlife
  • management in Nigeria are as a result of inter
  • related factors. These factors are social,
    cultural
  • or ecological in nature. A few of these are as
  • follows
  • The greatest and probably the most serious
    problem of wildlife management in Nigeria is the
    high rate of illegal hunting in degenerated
    resources coupled with the misuse of fire in open
    range land by hunters and farmers.

40
PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
  • As a result of land hunger in most of the moist
    rain forest areas and the rangelands. Illegal
    settlements inside game reserve, and the parks
    had robbed the nation of her wildlife resources
  • In both the rain forest and the savannah zones of
    Nigeria, the pressure due to logging operations,
    charcoal and fuel wood production had led to the
    destruction of our natural vegetation.
  • Nomadic herdsman had over the years constituted
    menace the herds graze within and outside the
    parks causing havoc.

41
PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
  • Inadequacy of trained and skilled manpower to
    execute wildlife programmes at both Federal and
    state levels.
  • Inadequate funding of wildlife conservation
    projects coupled with poor co-coordination is
    another big constraints. The absence of a fully
    pledged and well-funded Federal Department of
    Wildlife to handle wildlife programme
  • Lack of effective legislation to regulate
    exploitation and sales of wildlife and wildlife
    products in Nigeria.
  • The level of poverty of the masses of the people
    which had over the years slumped into low income,
    had aggravated the rate of their dependence on
    forest and forest products including the wildlife
    resources

42
SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE
MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
  • The numerous constraints facing wildlife
  • management in Nigeria call for a national
  • strategy that address the various courses
  • involved. It is very essential that some
  • fundamental institutional reforms are
  • established to sharpen the focus of effort in
  • wildlife management and conservation in the
  • developing countries. Some suggested solutions
  • Include
  • - Education perhaps the first step towards
    effective wildlife management and conservation is
    a carefully organized public education programme
    that is targeted on both decisions makers and the
    public.

43
SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE
MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
  • - Effective legislation Legislation as a
    conservation tools is a means. But experience has
    shown that its by no means and end. It is
    therefore suggested that effective legislation
    that will involve state and Federal staff in
    cooperation with the local masses in and around
    reserves/parks should be carefully formulated.
  • Funding It is suggested that adequate funding
    should be available to train personnels, purchase
    wildlife equipments, such as patrol vehicles,
    communication gadgets etc. monitoring of our
    conservation areas should be adequately and
    timely funded while parks should be elevated from
    their current rate of neglect to enviable tourist
    , delight like their counterparts in East Africa.
  • Research there is still need for more research
    efforts towards the provision of necessary data
    for the formulation of up-to-date management plan
    for our parks, reserves and sanctuaries.

44
SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS OF WILDLIFE
MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
  • Currently, most of our zoos and museums are in a
    state of neglect, the development of the zoos
    should receive government attention.
  • In an attempt to carry everyday along in crusade
    of wildlife management, local participation by
    wilderness and non-governmental organization
    should be evolved and well funded

45
BENEFITS OF WILDLIFE
  • Bush meat which is the flesh of wild animals has
    being contributing immensely to the eradication
    of protein deficiency in West Africa and in
    Nigeria.
  • Environmental education Zoological garden game
    reserves and national parts provide opportunity
    for people to learn about animals that live
    around them.
  • Wildlife is our national heritage, we meet it on
    earth and are abound to live it for the future
    generation (conservation of genetic resources)

46
BENEFITS OF WILDLIFE
  • Environmental protection By conserving wildlife
    the environment is equally conserve, the plant
    soil and water around them are conserve, this
    helps to check environment problems like erosion
    or flood.
  • Promotion of tourism Wildlife is the main source
    of attraction of tourists to East and South
    Africa country Like Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda,
    Zimbabwe and South Africa have large number of
    various species of game animals which attracts
    large number of tourist to these country. Nigeria
    has 7 national park and over 40games reserves.
  • Use of wildlife in traditional medicine, skins of
    some wildlife animals and snails are used to
    prepare Talisman, feaces, bones, hairs, teeth,
    blood and bones of some wild animals are use to
    cure different ailment.

47
BENEFITS OF WILDLIFE
  • Medicinal research primate and other species of
    animals from African are use for medical research
    both locally and overseas
  • Wildlife byproduct This include skins, tusks,
    feathers, horns, bone of wild animals are used to
    make shoes, bags, belts, hats etc which are
    highly priced
  • Revenue generation Government derives revenue
    from wildlife through hunting and entrance fees
    to game reserves, national park and zoological
    gardens.
  • - Employment opportunity Wildlife create jobs
    for people thus reducing the problem of
    unemployment in the country. Job include
  • Wildlife officer
  • Wildlife guards
  • Game guard

48
SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES
  • African Elephant
  • Loxodonta africana (savanna)
  • Loxodonta cyclotis (forest)
  • Gestation period 22 months
  • Number of young/Birth one
  • Average life span 60 years, weight 4070-6100km
  •  
  • African Buffalo
  • Sycerus caffer (savannah)
  • Sycerus nanus (forest)
  • Gestation period 11 months
  • 1 young per birth.
  • Weight 318-818kg

49
SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES
  • Hippopotamus
  • Hippopotamus amphibious
  • Gestation period 230days
  • One young/birth
  • Average Weight 3,050kg
  •  
  • Pigmy hippopotamus
  • Choeropsis liberiensis
  • Gestation period 200 days
  • One young/birth
  • Average/weight 272kg
  •  
  • Black Rhinceros
  • Diceros bicornis
  • Gestation period 450 days
  • One young/birth
  • Average weight 1180kg

50
SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES
  • Spotted Hyena
  • Crocuta crocuta
  • Gestation period 3½ month
  • Number of young/birth 1 2
  • Average weight 45 55kg
  •  
  • Stripped Hyena
  • Hyena hyena
  • Number of young/birth 2-4
  • Average weight 36 54kg
  •  
  • Lion
  • Panthera leo
  • Gestation period 3 months
  • Number of young/birth 2 6 youngs
  • Average weight 136 204kg

51
SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES
  • Leopard
  • Panthera pardus
  • Gestation period 3 months
  • Number of young/birth 2 3
  • Average weight 68 77kg
  •  
  • Cheetah
  • Acinonyx jubatus
  • Gestation period 95 days
  • Number of young/birth 2 4
  • Average weight 45 64kg
  • Bush pig

52
SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES
  • Potamochoerus porcus
  • Life span 12 15 years
  • Gestation period 150days
  • Litters 2 8
  •  
  • Wart hog
  • Phacocherus aethiopicus
  • Life span 15 years
  • Gestation period 171 195
  • Litter size 2 4
  • Forest Hog
  • Hylochoerus meinertzhageni
  • Life span 15 years
  • Gestation period 120
  • Litter size 2 6

53
SOME IMPORTANT WILDLIFE SPECIES
  •  
  • Gorilla
  • Gorilla gorilla
  • Life span 33 years
  • Gestation 251 days
  • Liters size 1
  • Chimpanzee
  • Pan troglodytes
  • Life span 40 years
  • Gestation period 216days
  • Litter size 1
  •  
  • Anubis Baboon
  • Papio anubis
  • Life span 20 years
  • Gestation period 200days
  • Litter size 1- 2
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