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Realism 1860-1910

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Title: Realism 1860-1910


1
Realism 1860-1910
2
Where We Came FromPrevious Literary Movements
  • Literature of Puritanism Work Ethic
  • Literature of the Revolutionary Period
  • American Dream
  • The Melting Pot
  • Basic rights of man
  • Emergence of the Other (women, native people,
    African Americans)
  • Literary Nationalism 1800-1840
  • Nationalism (excessive pride)
  • Self identity
  • Self examination and criticism
  • Begins real American literature
  • Respected in Europe
  • Professional writers

3
  • ROMANTICISM
  • Extraordinary people in extraordinary situations
  • Truth in absolutes
  • predicated on stereotypes
  • Stress on past (Greek Classical period)
  • Treats subjects emotionally
  • Celebration of artists
  • Probe to exaggeration
  • Nature glorified
  • Belief in afterlife
  • Authors
  • Literary Nationalism
  • Fireside Poets
  • Romantics

4
  • TRANSCENDENTALISM
  • Truth communion with God in nature
  • Belief in individualism
  • Rejects institutions
  • Emphasis on simplicity
  • Importance of experience
  • "majority of one"
  • "self-reliance"
  • "man thinking
  • Non-conformity
  • language and style influenced by Romanticism
  • Authors
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • Henry David Thoreau

5
  • ANTI-TRANSCENDENTALISM
  • Belief in the potential destructiveness of the
    human spirit
  • Belief in individual truths, but no universal
    truths, and the truths of existence are deceitful
    and disturbing
  • Evil is an active force in the universe
  • Focus on the mans uncertainty and limitations in
    the universe
  • Nature indifferent to mankind
  • Human nature hypocritical, apathetic
  • Authors
  • Herman Melville
  • Edgar Alan Poe
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne

6
What Comes Next?
  • If we accept the pendulum theory of history (that
    every period moves to its opposite extreme), what
    type of voice can you predict reacts to the
    Romantic Period?

The Agnew Clinic Thomas Eakins 1889
Washington Crossing the Delaware Emanuel Leutze
1851
7
Sectionalism, Industrialism and Literary
Regionalism
  • In 1858, Abraham Lincoln had warned his
    countryman a house divided against itself cannot
    stand.
  • Events in the dark winter of 1860-1861 would
    prove him correct
  • After Lincolns minority election to the
    presidency
  • South Carolina would vote to secede from the
    Union in December 1860
  • Six other states of the Deep South quickly
    followed suit
  • When Confederate troops successfully attacked
    Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor , Virginia,
    Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina elected to
    join their fellows in defense of slavery and the
    sovereign principles of states rights

8
Cost of the Civil War
  • Cost of the Civil War
  • The Human Cost
  • 1,094,543 Casualties
  • The North lost one out of ten
  • 110,100 in battle
  • 224,580 to disease
  • The South lost one out of four
  • 94,000 in battle
  • 64,000 to disease
  • Two percent of US population died in the Civil
    War, with only WWII claiming more lives
  • Economic Cost
  • Estimated at 6.6 billion, which would be 165
    billion today

9
Historical Overview
  • While an older generation of historians tended to
    view the Civil War as the watershed of modern
    American nationalism (calling it the second
    American Revolution), more recent historians
    suggest that the real factors that determined the
    future of the nation were the facts that
  • The country was still badly fragmented after the
    war
  • Congress did little to address this and other
    problems

10
Historic Overview
  • And even though the language of the Constitution
    itself was amended to affirm an expanded that
    is, colorblind definition of individual rights
    and liberties, meaningful implementation of that
    vision for African Americans would have to wait
    for almost another century

11
Historical Overview
  • At the same time, however, the war did unleash a
    range of social and economic forces that,
    eventually, would radically transform American
    life
  • The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 set aside vast
    tracts of land in the West to finance the
    construction of a transcontinental railroad
  • The Homestead Act of 1862 enabled yeoman farmers
    to have cheaper access to government-held land
  • The Morril Act of 1862 established Federal
    support for agricultural colleges

12
Historical Overview
  • Mobilization for war on such an unprecedented
    scale also had unforeseen effect on American
    life
  • The need to achieve organizational efficiency in
    both military and civilian branches of government
    gave rise to an almost wholly new group of
    managers able to transfer their increasingly
    professional skills to the business world after
    the war.

13
Historical Overview
  • As an example Keeping thousands of men in
    uniform required an entirely new approach to
    apparel manufacturing.
  • At the start of the war, when almost all of the
    troops came from volunteer contingents of various
    state militias, mothers, wives and daughters
    would have sewed individual uniforms at home.
  • Before long, however, the need for additional
    soldiers made the draft inevitable. The
    unprecedented demand for huge numbers of
    identical trousers, jackets, boots, and other
    mainstays of military regimentation sparked the
    rapid modernization of the clothing industry by
    introducing standard apparel sizes.
  • The federal government was the first consumer to
    make its purchases off the rack.
  • Take that Old Navy!

14
Historical Overview
  • These new concepts of scale, efficiency, and
    organizational complexity would eventually make
    possible what one influential historian referred
    to as the incorporation of American or the
    way we live now.
  • Politically, the goal of securing equal rights
    for freed slaves largely failed.
  • Likewise, failure to integrate the high-minded
    ideals of New England into effective public
    policy also proved a crucial turning point in
    Americas intellectual history

15
Historical Context
  • Indeed the period following the Civil War was
    marked by an affronting sense of the hard
    realities of life and the more sobering aspects
    of the human experience.
  • By the End of the Civil War
  • The Emancipation Proclamation and 13th Amendment
    had abolished slavery
  • The industrial North had defeated the agrarian
    South
  • Social order grew based on mass labor and mass
    consumption
  • Steam power replaced water power
  • Machines replaced hand labor
  • Extreme contrast between the rich and poor (the
    Gilded Age)
  • The Industrial Revolution had begun

16
Historic Overview
  • Migration westward expanded the U.S. from the
    Atlantic to the Pacific
  • Native American populations displaced and
    subjugated
  • Growth of Industry
  • Steelmaking, the nations dominant industry
  • Alternating electrical current (1886)
  • American petroleum industry begins
  • Growth of population
  • Total population doubled from 1870 to 1890
  • National income quadrupled
  • Gap between rich and poor widened

17
Historic Overview
  • The Effects of the Industrial Revolution
  • Migration from rural to urban areas
  • Independent, skilled workers replaced by
    semi-skilled laborers
  • Large corporations were established, devaluing
    the personal relationship between management and
    workers or company and customers.
  • Mass Communication and Migration
  • Coast-to-coast communication
  • Pony Express (1860)10 days
  • Telegraph (1861)just seconds to communicate
    across country
  • Transatlantic telegraph cable (1866) allowed
    instant communication with Europe
  • Telephone patented (1867)
  • By 1900, 1.3 million telephones in U.S.
  • Coast-to-coast travel
  • Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
  • By 1889, coast-to-coast travel4 days
  • Citizens witnessed the entirety of there country
    and grew
  • curious for more

18
Photography and Realism
  • The invention ignited an artistic and scientific
    frenzy
  • Best portrait makers could bring out the very
    human essence of a subject
  • The advantages of photography immediacy,
    reliable representation, low cost, etc
  • Massive social changes reflected in literature
    photography.
  • 1861-65 - Mathew Brady, Alexander Gardner honest
    photographic record of the Civil War.
  • Photography, like literary Realism and
    Regionalism showed TRUTH.

19
Historic Overview
  • Intellectual Revolution Changes in Thinking
    brought about by Changes in Society
  • Changes in science
  • Charles Darwin and the Origin of Species
  • Changes in psychology
  • Sigmund Freud - unconscious system of ideas that
    governs human reactions and response
  • Changes in philosophy
  • Karl Marx - human history as the result of class
    struggles (The Communist Manifesto)
  • William James American pragmatism truth is
  • tested by its usefulness or practical
    consequences
  • a commodity accessible on the surface of things
  • perceptible to the senses and verifiable through
    experience

20
Historical Overview
  • During this period, Americas literary traditions
    also shifted. By the time Lee surrendered at
    Appomattox, his armys ranks were severely
    depleted, and the same was true of the roll call
    of American authorship. Washington Irving, Henry
    David Thoreau, and Nathaniel Hawthorne had died.
    Herman Melville was in professional exile and
    Ralph Waldo Emerson had published his last book.
  • The nation now looked to new literary voices
    whose accents were not always so comforting. The
    cultural supremacy of New England, so long taken
    for granted was now open to challenge.

21
Historical Overview
  • In essence
  • The experience of war had expanded American
    awareness of its boundaries, physical, emotional,
    and spiritual.
  • The world of the naive, innocent, optimistic, and
    contained past appeared hopelessly outdated and
    absurdly idealistic.
  • America enters adulthood Realism is born

22
Realism
  • Nothing more and nothing less than the truthful
    treatment of material.
  • William Dean Howells

23
Historical Overview Realism
  • As the novelist Henry James had occasion to
    observe in 1879, the Civil War marks an era in
    the history of the American mind. It introduced
    into the national consciousness a certain sense
    of proportion and relation, of the world being a
    more complicated place than it had hitherto
    seemed, the future more treacherous, success more
    difficult. At the rate at which things are
    going, it is obvious that good Americans will be
    more numerous than ever but the good American,
    in the days to come, will be a more critical
    person than his complacent and confident
    grandfather. He has eaten of the tree of
    knowledge.

24
A Powerful Reaction Against Romanticism
  • The Civil War and the social, political, and
    cultural events following the war created an
    environment that demanded a literary voice that
    honored that experience. Romanticism with his
    dreamy, optimistic, and highly emotional emphasis
    proved false in light of the turmoil of the
    period.
  • This voice would serve as a reaction against
    Romanticism
  • rejected heroic, adventurous, or unfamiliar
    subjects
  • Note the unmistakable mocking treatment of
    Romantic ideals - Emmeline, Tom, and the
    traditions of the South in The Adventures of
    Huckleberry Finn)
  • Authors sought to portray life as they saw it,
    insisting that the ordinary and local were just
    as suitable for art as the sublime.

Nothing more and nothing less than the truthful
treatment of material. William Dean Howells
25
From these social changes come two literary
movements
  • Realism,
  • first begun as the local color movement
  • Includes regionalism
  • The tall tale
  • Naturalism
  • Realism
  • Denotation a literary movement that developed
    towards the end of the Civil War and stressed
    the actual (reality) as opposed to the imagined
    or fanciful
  • Begins in France, as realisme, a literary
    doctrine calling for reality and truth in the
    depiction of ordinary life.
  • Grounded in the belief that there is an objective
    reality which can be portrayed with truth and
    accuracy as the goal
  • The writer does not select facts in accord with
    preconceived ideals, but rather sets down
    observations impartially and objectively.

26
Characteristics of Realism
  • Subject matterordinary people and events
  • PurposeVerisimilitude, the truthful
    representation of life
  • Point of Viewomniscient and objective
  • Charactersmiddle class, psychological realism
  • Class is important the novel has traditionally
    served the interests and aspirations of an
    insurgent middle class.
  • Diction is natural vernacular, not heightened or
    poetic tone may be comic, satiric, or
    matter-of-fact.
  • Focus away from New England and other
    intellectual centers and out to the Midwest and
    West (regionalism)
  • Plot de-emphasized
  • Focus on everyday life
  • Complex ethical choices often the subject
  • (I was a-trembling, because I'd got to decide,
    forever, betwixt two things, and I knowed it.)
  • Events are made to seem the inevitable result of
    characters choices
  • (Aunt Sally shes going to adopt me and sivilize
    me, and I cant stand it. I been there before. )

27
Characteristics of Realism, cont...
  • Subject matter drawn from our experience the
    common, the ordinary, the probable
  • Focuses on the norm of daily experience
    dialect, geography, regional manners.

28
Romance and Realism Taste and Class
  • Romance
  • Aspired to the ideal
  • Thought to be more genteel since it did not show
    the vulgar details of life
  • Harks back to the noble past
  • Emotional
  • Realism
  • Thought to be more democratic
  • Critics stressed the potential for vulgarity and
    its emphasis on the commonplace
  • Potential poison for the pure of mind
  • Exists in the unfiltered present
  • Neutral (observant)

29
Themes in Realism
  • Humans control their destinies
  • characters act on their environment rather than
    simply reacting to it.
  • Slice-of-life technique
  • often ends without traditional formal closure,
    leaving much untold to suggest mans limited
    ability to make sense of his life.
  • Pragmatism
  • Social Criticism
  • Importance of place--regionalism, "local color"
  • Sociology and psychology
  • Rejection of Romanticism

30
Defining Strain
  • VOICE the tonal qualities, attitudes, or entire
    personality of a speaker as revealed directly or
    indirectly through sound, diction, and other
    stylistic devices
  • "Voice reminds us that a human being is behind
    the words of a poem, that he is revealing his
    individuality by means of the poem, and that this
    revelation may be the most significant part of
    what we receive from the poem."

31
Huckleberry Finn and Realism
  • Published in 1885
  • Set in pre-Civil War years (40-50 years before
    publication)
  • Slavery ended, but racism still rampant (Jim Crow
    Laws)
  • Mark Twain, a Southerner, undergoes moral
    transformation. Suggestion (via Ken Burnss
    American Voices) is that this transformation
    sprung from a trip along the river years after
    Twain left the South. Here, along the shore of
    his beloved river, Twain witnessed the great
    failings of Reconstruction and the ubiquity of
    Jim Crow (a new slavery).
  • The impression stuck with him.

32
Key Facts
  • FULL TITLE   The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • AUTHOR  Mark Twain (pseudonym for Samuel
    Clemens)
  • TYPE OF WORK  Novel
  • GENRE  Picaresque novel (episodic, colorful
    story often in the form of a quest or journey)
    Satire (of multiple themes, traditions, art forms
    and time period) bildungsroman (novel of
    education or moral development)
  • LANGUAGE  English frequently makes use of
    Southern and black dialects of the time
  • TIME AND PLACE WRITTEN  18761883 Hartford,
    Connecticut, and Elmira, New York
  • DATE OF FIRST PUBLICATION  1885
  • NARRATOR  Huckleberry Finn
  • POINT OF VIEW   Hucks point of view, although
    Twain occasionally indulges in digressions in
    which he shows off his own ironic wit
  • TONE   Frequently ironic or mocking,
    particularly concerning adventure novels and
    romances also contemplative, as Huck seeks to
    decipher the world around him sometimes boyish
    and exuberant
  • TENSE  Immediate past
  • SETTING (TIME)  Before the Civil War roughly
    18351845 Twain said the novel was set forty to
    fifty years before the time of its publication
  • SETTING (PLACE)   The Mississippi River town of
    St. Petersburg, Missouri various locations along
    the river through Arkansas

33
Structure of the Novel
  • The Novel is divided into 43 chapters and three
    distinct sections
  • Section 1 Captivity and Civilization
  • The first section introduces Huck and his current
    life living with Miss Watson and Later with his
    father. 
  • Huck is kidnapped by Pap, secluded and beaten.
  • This section ends were Huck fakes his death and
    flees to Jackson Island.
  • Exposition begins with a warning Persons
    attempting to find meaning
  • Explains his transition from The Adventures of
    Tom Sawyer
  • Establishes mood, tone, character immediately.
  • We come to know a distinctly different kind of
    protagonist
  • A child, poor, uneducated, crude, unwashed,
    impressionable, rebellious, white trash  "idle,
    and lawless, and vulgar, and bad," 
  • But
  • keenly observant, profound sense of decency,
    curious and alert, logical, kind, moral, and
    innately intelligent, innocent, charming and
    delightful
  • Makes clear tension and conflict in Hucks life

34
Sturcture of the Novel, cont
  • Section 2 Escape and the River
  • Huck meets Jim at Jackson Island and starts down
    the river
  • They discover that Jim is pursued as a runaway
    slave. 
  • Huck runs from civilization and Jim runs from
    slavery. 
  • This section ends when both Jim and Huck make it
    to Uncle Silas farm.
  • Huck and Jim are established as refugees from
    society.
  • The River, its natural beauty, its solitude and
    its splendor mean freedom for both runaways.
  • Huck and Finn engage in many conversations and
    experience many adventures as they navigate the
    deep and muddy river.
  • They also learn much about the nature of humanity
    along the shore.
  • Huck comes to know life in a different way
  • Huck comes to know Jim in a different way
  • In this environment Huck struggles against what
    he is taught and what he feels and arrives at a
    hard truth.
  • This truth will be tested throughout the
    remaining chapters of the novel.

35
Structure of the Novel, cont
  • Section 3 Return and Renegotiation
  • Huck returns to civilization
  • Huck reunites with his Tom Sawyer
  • Discovers the truth of Jims situation
  • Lives with Tom in Uncle Silas farm
  • And escapes again
  • Huck and Jim are separated
  • Jim undergoes much cruelty as a captive.
  • Huck is influenced by Tom
  • An unsatisfying, some might say genuinely flawed
    ending ensues.
  • Up to you Flawed or fantastic? Resigned or
    real

36
Reception of the Novel
  • Of all of Mark Twains works up to 1885, The
    Adventures of Huckleberry Finn received the
    greatest pre- and post notification.
  • And though the novel was greatly anticipated as
    the sequel to the celebrated The Adventures of
    Tom Sawyer, the critical reviews were mixed.
  • Early criticism focused on what was perceived as
    the book's crudeness. One incident was recounted
    in the newspaper, the Boston Transcript
  • The Concord (Mass.) Public Library committee has
    decided to exclude Mark Twain's latest book from
    the library. One member of the committee says
    that, while he does not wish to call it immoral,
    he thinks it contains but little humor, and that
    of a very coarse type. He regards it as the
    veriest trash. The library and the other members
    of the committee entertain similar views,
    characterizing it as rough, coarse, and
    inelegant, dealing with a series of experiences
    not elevating, the whole book being more suited
    to the slum than to intelligent, respectable
    people. 1885
  • Twain later remarked to his editor, "Apparently,
    the Concord library has condemned Huck as 'trash
    and only suitable for the slums.' This will sell
    us another twenty-five thousand copies for sure!
  • Later criticism focused on the racial component
  • It constitutes mental cruelty, harassment, and
    outright racial intimidation to force black
    students to sit in a classroom to read this kind
    of literature . . . 1992

37
Critical Reception of the Novel, cont.
  • Much of modern scholarship of Huckleberry Finn
    has focused on its treatment of race. Many Twain
    scholars have argued that the book, is an attack
    on racism. Others have argued that the book
    falls short on this score, especially in its
    depiction of Jim. They argued that Twain was
    unable to fully rise above the stereotypes of
    black people that white readers of his era
    expected and enjoyed, and therefore resorted to
    minstrel show-style comedy to provide humor at
    Jim's expense, and ended up confirming rather
    than challenging late-19th century racist
    stereotypes.
  • In the long controversy that has been Huckleberry
    Finn's history, the novel has been criticized,
    censored, and banned for an array of perceived
    failings, including obscenity, atheism, bad
    grammar, coarse manners, low moral tone, and
    antisouthernism. Every bit as diverse as the
    reasons for attacking the novel, Huck Finn's
    detractors encompass parents, critics, authors,
    religious fundamentalists, rightwing
    politicians, and even librarians.

38
And yet
  • For whatever controversy and criticism the novel
    drew and continues to draw, it is undeniable that
    the work ranks at the top of the American canon
    of literature.
  • Words waxing poetic on the novel
  • "Huckleberry Finn took the first journey back. He
    was the first to look back at the republic from
    the perspective of the west. His eyes were the
    first eyes that ever looked at us objectively
    that were not eyes from overseas. There were
    mountains at the frontier but he wanted more than
    mountains to look at with his restive eyes--he
    wanted to find out about men and how they lived
    together. And because he turned back we have him
    forever. F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • All modern American literature comes from one
    book by Mark Twain called 'Huckleberry Finn.'
    But it's the best book we've had. All American
    writing comes from that. There was nothing
    before. There has been nothing as good since." --
    Ernest Hemingway
  • "I believe that 'Huckleberry Finn' is one of the
    great masterpieces of the world, that it is the
    full equal of 'Don Quixote' and 'Robinson
    Crusoe,' ....' I believe that it will be read by
    human beings of all ages, not as a solemn duty
    but for the honest love of it. H.L Mencken
  • All a man ever had to do to achieve immortality
    was to write a book like Huckleberry Finn, which
    in the end is sort of a hymn without
    sentimentality to the solidarity of the human
    race and it has its significance in that,
    period. William Styron

39
Huckleberry Finn as a Literary Milestone
  • Something new happened in Huck Finn that had
    never happened in American literature before. It
    was a bookthat served as a Declaration of
    Independence from the genteel English novel
  • It allowed a different kind of writing to
    happen a clean, crisp, no-nonsense, earthly
    vernacularit was a book that talked. Hucks
    voice, combined with Twains satiric genius,
    changed the shape of fiction in America, and
    African-American voices had a great deal to do
    with making it what it was.
  • - Dr. Shelley Fishkin, 1995

40
Why the Disparity in Perceptions?
  • Confusion between the literal reading of the
    novel and the interpretation of its message.
  • It is a novel that advocates its message by
    showing its opposites.
  • In other words, it is a novel of foils,
    juxtapositon, and contrasts

41
  • Indeed Twain once described The Adventures of
    Huckleberry Finn, as a story where a sound heart
    and a deformed conscience come into collision and
    conscience suffers a defeat.
  • Or
  • What do you do when youre torn between what
    people want for youor from youand what you want
    for yourself?

42
  • Hucks journey highlights these conflicts as Huck
    and Jim make their way down that deep, muddy,
    serpentine river.
  • Look for
  • Death vs. Rebirth
  • Religion vs. Superstition
  • Realism vs. Romanticism
  • The River vs. Shore
  • The individual vs. Society
  • Youth vs. Maturity
  • And other motifs/foils
  • Consider what Twain might really feel about
  • Slavery
  • Religion
  • Government
  • Parenting
  • Education
  • Civilization
  • Southern Traditions
  • Romantic Notions
  • Human Nature

43
Rhetorical Elements and Conflict
  • This conflict is conveyed through
  • Satire. The use of wit or exaggerated humor to
    ridicule a subject, usually a human weakness
    (foible), or some social institution with the
    intention to inspire reform. (Making a serious
    point about the subjects defects, with the
    intent of improving them.)
  • Twain uses it to point out common human failings.
    Dialect
  • Irony
  • The contrast between what appears to be and what
    really is.
  • Verbal irony when someone says one thing but
    really means something else.
  • Situational irony when there is a discrepancy
    between what is expected to happen, and what
    really does happen.
  • Dramatic irony when a character thinks one thing
    is true and the audience or reader knows better.

44
Language
  • Another way furthers conflicts and confusions is
    through the use of language. He employs
  • The vernacular
  • everyday spoken language
  • informal language
  • non-academic, non-standard language
  • Dialect
  • The version of a language spoken by people of a
    particular region or cultural group.
  • Dialects are cultural or regional
  • Differs from the standard language in grammar,
    vocabulary, and usage.
  • Different from an accent.

45
Language in the Novel
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is told from
    the first person point of view an
    only-partly-educated thirteen-year-old southern
    boy in the 1830s or 40s.
  • As narrator, Huck describes the story in his
    natural, everyday voice, and he addresses his
    readers directly during his storytelling with a
    friendly, trusting attitude.
  • Taking that into consideration along with
    Hucks age, education level, and social
    background Twains choice of a colloquial style
    makes perfect sense.
  • Example-I didnt want to go back no more. I had
    stopped cussing, because the widow didnt like
    it but now I took to it again because pap hadnt
    no objections.
  • The grammar isnt perfect, and clearly Twain
    writes the way Huck Finn talks (hence all the
    apostrophes subbing for unpronounced letters).
    Its also important to note that Hucks voice
    as well as the era and the location in which the
    novel is set is why the n-word pops up so
    often.

46
Language as a Rhetorical Form
  • Besides nailing Huck's education level, social
    background, and personality, Twain succeeded in
    telling the story convincingly through the eyes
    of a thirteen-year-old. (At least, we think so.)
    The novel drips with dramatic irony, when we can
    pick up on certain subtext even when Huck
    doesn't. Like all those conversations where Huck
    thinks he's fooling somebody into believing one
    of his lies? Or where he thinks he is
    instructing Jim, but the reverse is more likely
    the case.
  • But language in The Adventures of Huckleberry
    Finn, the many dialects defined by region, social
    conditions, race, and age, also serve as message
    about conditions in the South, indeed in America,
    during this period.

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The Time Period
  • Remember that the novel was published in 1885,
    some 20 years after the Civil War and that
    romantic Southern lifestyle it depicts.
  • As the Ken Burns documentary noted, Twain was
    inspired to return to the novel after a trip down
    his beloved river. Years after he left the South
    and years after living in Connecticut, Twain see
    the river and life along the shore from a very
    different perspective.
  • He sees the failure Reconstruction and of the
    noble ideals of the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • The novel, begun years earlier and intended as a
    sequel to the Romantic boyhood adventures of Tom
    Sawyer, becomes a very different work (Americas
    Homeric epic, a novel or face and space, the
    first real American American novel).

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And so we return to the dichotomy
  • Even years after the abolition of slavery,
    American society had changed little. In the
    period from 1876-1883 during which Twain wrote
    the novel, America was divided between two
    seemingly separate and contradictory belief
    systems one official and one unofficial. The
    official system preached freedom and equality
    between men the unofficial, the opposite. This
    was a dichotomy that divided Americans into two
    distinct groups the so-called civilized and the
    savages.
  • It is fair then to think of the novel as an
    allegory for the American experience at this
    time.
  • Consider how or if America has paid off on its
    promise of equality, on the opportunity for
    happiness, on the City Upon a Hill think, and
    most profoundly, on the American Dream.
  • How is Hucks story ultimately Americas story?
  • What can we as Americans learn from Huck?
  • Where does Twain leave Huck and America at the
    end of the work?

49
The Linch Pin Between the Movements
  • Linch Pin - "something or someone that holds
    the various elements of a complicated structure
    together."
  • The transition between two contrasting movements
    can be clearly identified in one man, Walt
    Whitman, who incorporating both views in his
    works

50
Walt Whitman Americas Poet
  • His poetry celebrated...
  • The individual
  • common man
  • American democracy
  • American industry
  • American ingenuity
  • mystery of existence (not to be feared, but
    embraced)  
  • The body and its functions
  • He was
  • A humanist
  • A teacher
  • An optimist
  • Supporter of the Union
  • Among the most influential poets in the American
    canon
  • Highly controversial
  • Gay
  • And your very flesh shall be a great poem
  • I celebrate myself, and sing myself,And what I
    assume you shall assume,For every atom belonging
    to me as good belongs to you.
  • Be curious, not judgmental
  • Do I contradict myself? Very well then, I
    contradict myself, I am large, I contain
    multitudes
  • Afoot and lighthearted I take to the open road,
    healthy, free, the world before me.

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Walt Whitman, cont
  • The genius of the United States is not best or
    most in its executives or legislatures, nor in
    its ambassadors or authors or colleges, or
    churches, or parlors, nor even in its newspapers
    or inventors, but always most in the common
    people."
  • Leaves of Grass (1855) collection of poems
    attempt to reach common person through an
    American epic
  • "Father of Free Verse" -- sought to capture
    America's voice through his poetry
  •  
  • Whitman created new poetic forms and subjects to
    fashion a distinctly American type of poetic
    expression.
  • He rejected conventional themes, traditional
    literary references, allusions, and rhymeall the
    accepted forms of poetry in the 19th century.

52
Whitmans Themes
  • Transcendent power of love, brotherhood, and
    comradeship
  • Imaginative projection into others lives
  • Optimistic faith in democracy and equality
  • Nature and return
  • Belief in regenerative and illustrative powers of
    nature and its value as a teacher
  • Equivalence of body and soul and the unabashed
    exaltation of the body and sexuality

53
Whitmans Poetic Techniques
  • Whitman declared his poetry would have
  • Long lines that capture the rhythms of natural
    speech.
  • Free verse lack of metrical regularity and
    conventional rhyme
  • Vocabulary drawn from everyday speech.
  • A base in reality, not morality.
  • Exception O Captain My Captain
  • Written on the passing of Abraham Lincoln
  • Traditional Forms
  • Traditional Subject
  • Invoked in the last scene of Dead Poets Society
    (boys on desk upon seeing their captain and
    his passing)
  • Use of repeated images, symbols, phrases, and
    grammatical units
  • Use of enumerations and catalogs
  • Use of anaphora (initial repetition) in lines and
    Epanaphora (each line hangs by a loop from the
    line before it)
  • Contrast and parallelism in paired lines

54
Whitmans Use of Language
  • Idiosyncratic spelling and punctuation.
  • Words used for their sounds as much as their
    sense foreign languages
  • Use of language from several disciplines
  • The sciences anatomy, astronomy, botany
    (especially the flora and fauna of America)
  • Businesses and professions, such as carpentry
  • Military and war terms nautical terms

55
Whats So Shocking about the Good Grey Poet
  • Why were so many writers shocked by Whitman?
  • His lack of regular rhyme and meter (free verse)
    and nontraditional poetic style and subject
    matter shocked more traditional writers.
  • He also wrote poetry with unabashedly sexual
    imagery and themes, some of them homoerotic.
    Examples include the Calamus poems and I Sing
    the Body Electric.

56
Whitmans Influence
  • Along with Emily Dickinson, Walt Whitman stands
    as one of two giants of American poetry in the
    nineteenth century.
  • Whitmans poetry would influence such Harlem
    Renaissance writers as Langston Hughes and James
    Weldon Johnson.
  • Whitman influenced Beat poets such as Allen
    Ginsburg.
  • Chilean writer Pablo Neruda claimed to have been
    influenced by Whitman.
  • Whitmans poetry was a model for French
    symbolists, such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul
    Verlaine, and Arthur Rimbaud.
  • Modernist poets such as Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot,
    and W.H. Auden were also influenced by Whitman.
  • Lets listen From Favorite Poem Project, Song
    of Myself as read by Bostons John Doherty

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Mark Twain and Realism
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